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# LABARATORY MANUAL

SEMESTER FOURTH
B.TECH
FLUID MECHANICS LAB

## School Of Aeronautics (Neemrana)

I-04, RIICO Industrial Area, Neemrana, Dist. Alwar, Rajasthan
(Approved by Director General of Civil Aviation, Govt. of India, All India Council for Technical
Education, Ministry of HRD, Govt of India & Affiliated to Rajasthan Technical University, Kota,
Rajasthan)

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School of Aeronautics (Neemrana)

CERTIFICATE

## This is to certify that Mr./ Ms.

Registration Number
of B.tech ( ) has satisfactorily
Completed the term of the subject, Fluid Mechanics Lab, prescribed by
Rajasthan Technical University, Kota.

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INDEX

ORIFICE

## 3 COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE FOR A

16-20
RECTANGULAR NOTCH

4 21-25
TRIANGULAR NOTCH

## 8 ORIFICE METER 39-45

46-51
LOSSES IN PIPE FITTINGS APPARATUS
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## 10 REYNOLDS NUMBER FOR LAMINAR, 52-56

TURBULENT AND TRANSIENT FLOW IN PIPE

## BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW OVER A FLAT PLATE

13 66-69

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Nomenclature of standard terms

## Specific weight of water, ω = 9810 N/m3

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.81 m/s2
Specific gravity of mercury, SHg = 13.6
Specific gravity of water, Sw = 1
Density of water, ρw = 1000 kg/m3
Density of air, ρa= 1.2 kg/m3
Density of mercury, ρHg= 13600 kg/m3

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EXPERIMENT NUMBER -1
METACENTRIC HEIGHT OF SHIP MODEL
AIM: -
Determination of meta-centric height of a given body.
APPARATUS: -
Model of ship, tank of water, weight etc.
THEORY: -
When a body is immersed in fluid, it is subjected to an upwards force which tends to lift up the
body. This is called buoyancy and the upward force is called buoyant force. Archimedes principle
states that when a body is immersed in a fluid, wholly or partially, it is buoyed or lifted up by a
force which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. When a body is floating in
liquid, it is acted upon by two forces, viz. Weight of body acting downwards through center of
gravity and upward buoyant force acting through center of buoyancy. Both these forces are equal
and opposite in direction and the body is equilibrium. Center of buoyancy of a body is centroid of
the volume of liquid displaced.

## Fig. 1. Metacentric Height apparatus

If the body is tilted slightly, then position of center of gravity remains the same but center of
buoyancy occupies the new position, as geometry volume changes. If a vertical line is drawn
through the new center of buoyancy, it intersects the line joining initial center of buoyancy and
center of gravity at a point, known as metacenter. The distance between metacenter and center of
gravity is called metacentric height. Stability of a floating body depends upon the metacentric
height. If metacenter lies above the center of gravity, the slight angular displacement of body

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causes to form a restoring couple, which tends to bring the body to its original position. This is
called stable equilibrium. When multicenter lies below the center of gravity, then slight angular
displacement of body causes to form a couple which tends to increase the angular displacement
further. This is called unstable equilibrium. When metacenter lies exactly on center of gravity then
slight angular displacement does not create any couple, hence body remains in its new position.
This is called neutral equilibrium. Hence, in design of ship, care has to be taken to keep the
metacenter well above the center of gravity, so that ship is in stable equilibrium.
The apparatus consists of a ship model, which is made of rectangular shape for the purpose of
simplicity. A movable weight slides in a guide bar at the deck. An upright is provided at the center
of the ship from which is hung a plumb. When the weight is shifted from the center position, the
ship tilts slightly. The angle of tilt (or angle of heel) is determined with the help of plumb. The
position of metacenter is then determined by displacement of weight and angle of heel. The
Metacentric height (GM) is found (equating tilting and restoring moments) from the following
relation.

Where,
w- Known weight
x- Distance of applied weight from center of ship model
W- Applied weight
θ -Tilt angle of ship

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: -
1] Fill up water in the floating tank.
2] Keep the ship floating over the water.
3] See that plumb indicates zero reading.
4] Displace the weight on the deck.
5] Measure the displacement of weight and distance indicated by plumb.
6] Repeat the procedure for different displacement of weight.

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SPECIFICATIONS: -

## 1] Weight of ship (W) =11.040 Kg

2] Distance of applied weight from ship center on both side (x) =0.110m

OBSERVATION TABLE: -
S.No Distance of applied weight Tilt angle Applied Weight Metacentric
(θ)
'x' m (w) Kg height (GM)
m
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

CALCULATIONS: -
Metacentric Height,

CONCLUSIONS: -
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Questions
1. The principle of floatation of bodies is based on the premise of
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## 2.. Define Buoyancy?

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3. Define Meta-centre?
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4. Define Meta- centric height?
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5. With respect to the position of metacentre, state the condition of equilibrium for a floating
body?
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6. What are the aims of this experiment?
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EXPERIMENT NUMBER – 2
DETERMINATION OF Cd, Cv & Cc FOR GIVEN ORIFICE

AIM: -
To verify modified Bernoulli’s equation.
APPARATUS: -
A taper (converging-diverging) rectangular pipe (piezometer tubes fitted at different sections),
supply tank of water, measuring tank, stop watch, scale etc.
THEORY: -
When an incompressible fluid is flowing through a closed conduit, is may be subjected to various
forces, which cause change of velocity, acceleration or energies involved. The major forces
involved are pressure and body forces. Due to elevation of conduits, pressure may change or due
to change of cross section, velocity of fluid may change. But, though there is change of velocity,
pressure also changes accordingly. In other words, if velocity energy of fluid is raised, its pressure
will drop, i.e. total energy of fluid is constant at any two points in the path of flow. The theorem
is known as Bernoulli’s theorem. Hence, when applied to steady irrotational flow of
incompressible fluids, (Density is Constant).

Where,
P = Pressure
V = Velocity at the point
Z = Potential head from datum
w = Specific Weight
Bernoulli’s equation for section 1& section 2 are,

But all the real fluids are viscous and hence offer resistance to flow. Thus, there are always some
losses in fluid flows and hence in the application of Bernoulli’s equation, these losses have to be
taken into consideration. Therefore, Modified Bernoulli’s equation is

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Where,
hL=Loss of head between section 1 and section 2
Section velocity,

Where,
Qx = Discharge through section

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the water pipe to the inlet valve.
2. Reduce flow by inlet gate valve, so that there is only a small rise of water in the last pressure
tapping.
3. Allow the levels to stabilize and note down the heads.
4. Close outlet valve of the measuring tank and measure the time to rise water level by10cms.
5. Now, repeat the procedure by changing the discharge, and note the drop of head towards outlet
for each observation.

SPECIFICATIONS: -
1. Area of tank=0.3×0.3 m²
2. Rise of water =0.1 m
3. Volume of tank=0.3×0.3×0.1 m³
4. Cross section areas of converging-diverging pipe

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OBSERVATION TABLE: -
S.No Piezo. Rise of Pressure C/S Section Velocity Total Head
piezo. H=(h+h₁) in (m²) in (m/s) V²/2g in (m)
Tube in in
h₁ (m) (m)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

CALCULATIONS: -
1. Discharge:

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2. Section Velocity

CONCLUSION: -
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Questions
1. Briefly explain the various terms involved in Bernoulli’s equation?
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2. Assumption made to get Bernoulli’s equation from Euler’s equation by made?
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3. What is piezometer tube?
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4. What is the density of water?
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5. What is density of Mercury?
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6. What do you understand by Incompressible Fluid?
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8. What is the effect on the Pressure while increasing the horizontal flow axis height of the pipe?
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EXPERIMENT NUMBER -3
COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE FOR A RECTANGULAR NOTCH

AIM: -
To determine coefficient of discharge for a Rectangular Notch.
APPARATUS:
Channel with rectangular notch, point gauge, collecting tank, Stop watch, Scale etc.
Theory:
A Notch is a device used for measuring the rate of flow of a liquid through a small channel or a
tank. It may be defined as an opening in the side of a tank or a small channel in such a way treat
the liquid surface edge of the opening. Consider a rectangular notch provided in channel or tank
carrying water.
Let, H = Head of water of still or crest. b = width of notch. For finding the discharge of water
flowing over notch, consider an elementary horizontal strip of water of thickness ‘dh’ and length
surface of water.
Formula:

## Where: V = Volume of water collected in tank.

b = Width of Notch.
H = Head of water over still.

## The area of strip = b * dh

Theoretical velocity =𝑉𝑡ℎ = √2𝑔ℎ
Discharge through strip
aQ = Cd * Area of strip * Vth

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dQ = Cd * L * dh * √2𝑔ℎ
Where Cd = Coefficient of discharge
Therefore, the total discharge Q:
𝐻
Q = ∫0 𝑐𝑑 𝑏√2𝑔 ⋅ √ℎ𝑑ℎ

Q = 𝑐𝑑 𝑏√2 ⋅ 𝑔∫ √ℎ𝑑ℎ
3
𝑐𝑑 𝑏 (𝐻) ⁄2
Q= √2𝑔 3∕2

2 3⁄
Qth = 𝑏√2 ⋅ 𝑔(𝐻 ) 2
3

Procedure:
1. The tank dimensions were measured.
2. The flow in the channel having rectangular notch was started.
3. The flow was kept constant.
4. The head of water in piezometer of constant time interval for collecting tank was
noted.
5. Open slightly the valve without increase the rotation suddenly after fixed time
interval.
6. Also note the head over the still after each interval.

Observation:
Area of tank = A = ______ x _______ = cm2
Width of rectangular Notch = b = _______ cm
Time required to collect water to a depth ∆H = ∆t = constant = _________ sec.

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Observation Table:

Sample Calculation:
1. Volume of water collected in tank. = V = A.∆H = _____ x _____ = _____ cm3
𝑉 𝐴.𝑑𝐻
2. Actual Discharge = Qth = 𝑑𝑡 = = _______________ = _______________ cm3
𝑑𝑡

2 3⁄ 2
3. Theoretical Discharge = Qth = = 𝑏√2 ⋅ 𝑔(𝐻 ) 2 = ( )√2 × 981 ( )3/2
3 3
𝑄𝑎𝑐
4. Coefficient of Discharge = Cd = = __________=____________
𝑄𝑡ℎ
+ + + +
5. Mean Coefficient of Discharge = Cd mean = = ____
5

Result: Coefficient of discharge (Cd) for rectangular notch was found to be _________.

CONCLUSION:
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QUESTIONS:
1. The MoM (Material of Manufacture) of notch is,
a) Thermoplastic
b) Metals
c) Fibre
d) Wood

## 2. Which of the following is not a way of classifying notches or weirs?

a) Based on the shape of opening
b) Based on the effect of the sides on the nappe
c) Based on the shape of the crest
d) Based on the effect of the sides on the crest

3. Which of the following is not a way of classifying based on the shape of opening?
a) Rectangular notch
b) Circular notch
c) Trapezoidal notch
d) Stepped notch

4. Differentiate between :-
•Uniform and non uniform flow
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5. Define Notch?
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## 6. What id Coefficient of discharge?

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EXPERIMENT NUMBER 4
COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE (CD) FOR A TRIANGULAR NOTCH
AIM:
To determine coefficient of discharge (Cd) for a triangular Notch.
Apparatus: Channel with triangular Notch, point gauge and Collecting tank, Stop watch, Scale
etc.
Theory: In hydraulics engineering, notches are commonly used to regulate flow in rivers and
other open channels. The relation between water level up stream of the notch and the discharge
over it is generally known as θ that the discharge at any time may be found by observing the
upstream water liquid. Notches usually have sharp edges so that the water springs clear of the
plate as it passes through the notch. It is provided in the side walls of a tank, near top edge. These
have small dimensions. Notches are used for emptying tank or for discharge measurement. The
discharge equation depends upon the shape and thickness of wall. A triangular weir is on ordinary
weir is having a triangular or ‘V’ shaped opening or notch provided in its body so that water is
discharged through this opening only.
Let ‘H’ be the head above the crest of the weir. Consider a horizontally elementary strip of
thickness ‘∆h’ at a depth ‘h’ below the water surface. It ‘X’ is width of strip then,
X = 2 (H +h) tan (θ /2)
The area of strip is (X. ∆h) or {2 (H +h) tan (θ /2)} and the technical velocity of the water flowing
through the strip will be √2𝑔𝐻.
Thus, if dθ is the discharge through the strip then,
dθ = Cd x 2 (H +h) tan (θ /2) dh √2𝑔𝐻
The total discharge ‘q’ for the entire triangular notch may be integration above expression within
limit O to H. Then,
𝐻
Q = ∫ Cd x 2 (H + h) tan (θ /2) dh √2𝑔𝐻
0

## Assuming coefficient Cd to be constant for entire notch.

𝐻
Q = Cd x 2 (H +h) tan (θ /2) ∫ √ℎ(𝑑ℎ)
0
2 2
Q = Cd x 2 (H +h) tan (θ /2) [ 𝐻.h3/2 - ℎ5/2 ]0H
3 5

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If the vector angle θ equal to 900 then for (θ/2) = 450 and tan (θ/2) = 1

## For Cd assumed to be 0.6 then, Q = 1.418 (H) 5/2

For discharge it is simplified as Q = K(H) 5/2
Where K is constant for Notch

Procedure:
1. Length and breadth of measuring tank is measured, also angle of triangular
Notch is measured.
2. Waste valve of the opening is open, then the inlet valve is slightly open, were
the flow over the still just starts, the inflow is stop. When this overflow stops
fully, the initial gauge reading is measured.
3. The inlet valve is slightly open with the jerk. When the constant level is a
acquired final gauge reading is recorded.
4. The discharge is then measured in the collecting tank.
5. The same procedure was repeated for at least 5 times.

Observation:
Area of tank = A = ______ x _______ = cm2
Angle of notch = θ = _______
Time required to collect water to a depth ∆H = ∆t = constant = _________ sec.

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Observation Table:

Sample Calculation:
1. Volume of water collected in tank. = V = A.∆H = _____ x _____ = _____ cm3
𝑉 𝐴.𝑑𝐻
2. Actual Discharge = Qth = 𝑑𝑡 = = _______________ = _______________ cm3
𝑑𝑡
8 𝜃 ̅̅̅̅̅̅5 ∕ 2
3. Theoretical Discharge= Qth= 15 {tan ( 2) √2𝑔(𝐻)
8
Qth= 15 {tan ( ) √2𝑔(̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
)5 ∕ 2
2

𝑄𝑎𝑐
4. Coefficient of Discharge = Cd = = __________=____________
𝑄𝑡ℎ
+ + + +
5. Mean Coefficient of Discharge = Cd mean = = ____
5

Result: Coefficient of discharge (Cd) for triangular notch was found to be _________.

CONCLUSION
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QUESTIONS

## 1. What do you understand by Triangular Notch?

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2. The results of which are more accurate; rectangular notch or triangular weir.
a) Rectangular notch
b) Triangular weir
c) Both are equally accurate
d) Rectangular weir
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3. What are the various kind of losses occurring during flow of fluid in Triangular Notch?
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4. What is the meaning of Calibration?
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5. What is the use of measuring tank?
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6. What id Discharge?
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EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5
PITOT TUBE
AIM:
To find the value of velocity head with a Pitot Tube
APPARATUS:
A pitot tube, A piezometer tube, Small channel or pipe with arrangements of flow.
THEORY:
It is an instrument or device for measuring the velocity of flow at any point in a pipe or a channel.
It is based on the principle that if the velocity of flow at any point becomes zero, the pressure
energy increases due to the conversion of the kinetic energy into pressure energy (as per
Bernoulli’s theorem).

𝑣2
𝐻+ =𝐻+ℎ
2𝑔
𝑣2
or, h =
2𝑔

or, V = √2𝑔ℎ
In actual practice, V = Cv√2𝑔ℎ where, Cv is known as Pitot tube co-efficient, which takes into
account the various losses. Its value varies from 0.95-0.98. However, for our experiment we shall
take it to be 0.98. Height (h) of the manometric column has also to be corrected with regard to
the liquid used. In that case, it becomes h (Sm/ Sf -1).
Where, Sm is the specific gravity of the liquid in amnemeter
Sf is the specific gravity of the fluid flowing through the pipe.

EXPERIMENT SET-UP
It consists of glass tube. Bent at right angles. The lower end, which is bent at 90ᵒ is directed in
the up-stream direction. The liquid rises up in the tube due to the conversion of kinetic energy
into pressure energy. The arrangement of placement of manometer in the pipe for measuring the

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PROCEDURE
Check that Pitot tube is fitted in the channel so that its shorter limb points against the flow
direction. Take four set of readings.

OBSERVATIONS

## Fig. 1. Pitot Tube Fig. 2. Pitot tube with manometer

CONCLUSIONS
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QUESTIONS
1. What do you understand by Pitot Tube?
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2. What is mass flow rate? Mention its units?
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3. How will you find out theoretical discharge?
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4. Describe the principle of manometers and its uses?
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5. What is the density of water?
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6. What is the application of Pitot tube?
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EXPERIMENT NUMBER 6
VERIFICATION OF BERNOULLI’S THEOREM

AIM:
Verification of Bernoulli’s theorem
APPARATUS
A taper (converging-diverging) rectangular pipe (piezometer tubes fitted at different sections),
supply tank of water, measuring tank, stop watch, scale etc.
THEORY: -
When an incompressible fluid is flowing through a closed conduit, is may be subjected to various
forces, which cause change of velocity, acceleration or energies involved. The major forces
involved are pressure and body forces. Due to elevation of conduits, pressure may change or due
to change of cross section, velocity of fluid may change. But, though there is change of velocity,
pressure also changes accordingly. In other words, if velocity energy of fluid is raised, its pressure
will drop, i.e. total energy of fluid is constant at any two points in the path of flow. The theorem
is known as Bernoulli’s theorem. Hence, when applied to steady irrotational flow of
incompressible fluids, (Density is Constant).

𝑣2
𝐻+ + 𝑍 = 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
2𝑔
Where, P= Pressure
V = Velocity at the point
Z = Potential head from datum
w = Specific Weight
Bernoulli’s equation for section 1& section 2 are

𝑃1 𝑣12 𝑃2 𝑣22
+ + 𝑧1 = + + 𝑧2
𝑊 2𝑔 𝑊 2𝑔
But all the real fluids are viscous and hence offer resistance to flow. Thus, there are always some
losses in fluid flows and hence in the application of Bernoulli’s equation, these losses have to be
taken into consideration. Therefore, Modified Bernoulli’s equation is

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𝑃1 𝑣12 𝑃2 𝑣22
+ + 𝑧1 = + + 𝑧2 + hL
𝑊 2𝑔 𝑊 2𝑔

## Where, hL = Loss of head between section 1 and section 2

Where,
Qx = Discharge through section
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘 𝑓𝑜𝑟 0.1𝑚 𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑒

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the water pipe to the inlet valve.
2. Reduce flow by inlet gate valve, so that there is only a small rise of water in the last pressure
tapping.
3. Allow the levels to stabilize and note down the heads.
4. Close outlet valve of the measuring tank and measure the time to rise water level by10cms.
5. Now, repeat the procedure by changing the discharge, and note the drop of head towards
outlet for each observation.

SPECIFICATIONS: -
1. Area of tank=0.3×0.3 m²
2. Rise of water =0.1 m
3. Volume of tank=0.3×0.3×0.1 m³
4. Cross section areas of converging-diverging pipe

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OBSERVATION TABLE: -
Sr. Piezo. Rise of Pressure C/S area Section Velocity Total
piezo. Tube +h2) in (m) in (m/s) (V2/2g) (P/ρg +
in h1 (m) V2/2g) in
(m)
1. 1.
2. 2.
3. 3 ρ
4. 4.
5. 5.
6. 6.
7. 7.

CALCULATIONS: -
1. Discharge:
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
Qact = 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘 𝑓𝑜𝑟0.1𝑚 𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑒
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘 ∗𝑅𝑖𝑠𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙
= 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒
0.3∗0.3∗0.1
= m2/s
𝑡

2. Section Velocity:
Qact = Area of tube * Velocity
𝑄𝑎𝑐𝑡
Velocity =
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒
𝑉2
=
2𝑔
𝑝 𝑉2
(𝜌𝑔) + (2𝑔)

31
CONCLUSION:
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QUESTIONS:
1. Briefly explain the various terms involved in Bernoulli’s equation?
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## 2. Assumption made to get Bernoulli’s equation from Euler’s equation by made?

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32
3. What is piezometer tube?
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## 4. What do you understand by Discharge?

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## 5. What do you understand by section velocity?

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## 6. What is incompressible fluids?

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33
EXPERIMENT NUMBER 7
VENTURI METER

AIM: -
To determine coefficient of discharge for venturi meter.
APPARATUS: -
Venturi meter (with known diameter at mouth and throat), Measuring tank, U-tube Manometer,
scale, stop watch, etc.
THEORY: -
A venturi meter is an instrument to measure the rate of discharge on a pipeline and is often fixed
permanently at different sections of pipeline to know the discharge there. The discharge (Q)
through is given by the relation:
𝑎1 𝑥𝑎2 𝑥
Qth = √2𝑔ℎ
√𝑎12 −𝑎22

## Where, a1 = Cross sectional area of pipe

a2 = Cross sectional area of throat
𝑆ℎ
h=x( − 1)
𝑆𝑜
Where, x = Difference in Mercury level in manometer
Sh= Specific gravity of mercury=13.6
So= Specific gravity of water=1
Venturi meter consist of three main parts viz.converging, throat, and diverging part. Angle of
converging part is greater than diverging part. Actual discharge is obtained by the following
relation
Qact = Discharge through Venturimeter
Coefficient of discharge (Cd):

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘 𝑓𝑜𝑟 0.1𝑚 𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑒

34
It is defined as the ratio of actual discharge to the theoretical discharge. For venturimeter its value
lies between 0.92 to 0.99.
𝑄𝑎𝑐𝑡
Cd =
𝑄𝑡ℎ

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: -
Before starting the experiment please see that;
1. Clean water in the sump tank is filled to approx. 3/4 of its height.
2. The pressure relief valves above the manometer tubes are fully open.
3. The pressure valves of both the meters are fully closed.
4. The bypass gate valve, drain valve of the measuring tank and the gate valve of the meter (say
Venturimeter) which is to be calibrated is kept open while that of the gate valve of the other meter
is kept fully closed. Now, start the flow.
5. Open the manometer pressure cocks of the Venturimeter. Let the water flow through the pressure
relief valves above the manometer. Remove all the air bubbles and then close both the pressure
relief cocks slowly and simultaneously so that mercury does not get lifted out from the manometer.
Observe the mercury head difference in the manometer.
6. Close the gate valve of measuring tank and measure the time required for
10 cm rise of the water in the measuring tank. Repeat the procedure by changing the discharge.
7. Also the same procedure may be followed for Orifice meter.

SPECIFICATIONS: -
1. Diameter of pipe d₁ = 28mm
2. Diameter of Throat d₂ = 14mm
3. Area of Tank = 0.3×0.3 m²
4. Rise of water level = 0.1m
5. Volume of tank = 0.3×0.3×0.1 m³

35
OBSERVATION TABLE:
Sr. No. Difference Difference Time taken Actual Theoretical Coefficient
in Hg level in pressure for 10cm Discharge Discharge of
“x” (m) head “h” rise of () () Discharge
(m) water level ()
(sec)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

CALCULATIONS: -
1. Discharge:
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
Qact = 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘 𝑓𝑜𝑟 0.1𝑚 𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑒
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘∗𝑅𝑖𝑠𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙
= 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒
0.3∗0.3∗0.1
= m2/s
𝑡

( /
2. Pressure Head (h) = x Sh So -1 )
𝛱
3. a₁ = cross sectional area of pipe = ( ) 𝑥𝑑12
4
𝛱
4. a₂ = cross sectional area of throat = ( ) 𝑥𝑑22
4
𝑎1 𝑥𝑎2 𝑥
5. Qth = √2𝑔ℎ
√𝑎12 −𝑎22

𝑄𝑎𝑐𝑡
6. Cd =
𝑄𝑡ℎ

36
CONCLUSIONS
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QUESTIONS
1. What do you understand by Venturi meter?
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______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. What are the various applications of Venturi meter?
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______________________________________________________________________________

37
3. Define coefficient of Discharge?
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4. Define converging area part?
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5. Define throat?
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6. Define diverging part?
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38
EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8
ORIFICE METER

## AIM: To determine the coefficient of discharge ( Cd ) for an Orificemeter.

Apparatus: An Orificemeter fitted across a pipeline leading to a collecting tank, Stop Watch, U-
Tube manometer etc.
Formula: Actual discharge through Orificemeter
Qac = C. a1. a0(2g.h)1/2 / [a1 2 – a0 2 ] ½
Where:
C: Constant i.e. Coefficient of Orificemeter.
C = Cd .{1 – (a0 2 / a1 2 )}1/2 / {1 – Cd 2 (a0 2 / a1 2 )}1/2

## Cd : Coefficient of discharge for Orificemeter.

a1 : Cross section area of pipe at inlet i.e. entry section.
a0 : Cross section area of Orifice.
h : Pressure head difference in terms of fluid flowing through pipeline system
Again,
Actual discharge through Orificemeter
Q ac = V / t = (A.∆H) / t
V: (A.∆H) i.e. Volume of water collected in collecting tank
A: Cross section area of collecting tank.
∆H: (H2 – H1) i.e. Depth of water collected in collecting tank.
t: Time required to collect the water up to a height ∆H in the collecting tank.

THEORY:
It works on Bernoulli’s principle and device use for measuring the rate of fluid flowing through a
pipe. It is a cheaper device as compared to venturimeter. It consists of flat circular plate which has
a circular sharp edge hole called as orifice called as which is concentric with pipe. The orifice
diameter is generally kept ½ lines the diameter of pipe. An Orificemeter is used to measure the
discharge in a pipe. An Orificemeter in its simplest form consists of a plate having a sharp-edged

39
circular hole known as an orifice. The plate is fixed inside the pipe. A mercury U-tube manometer
is inserted to know the difference of pressure head between the two tapping. Orificemeter works
on the same principle as that of Venturimeter i.e. by reducing the area of flow passage a pressure
difference is developed between the two section and the measurement of pressure difference is
used to find the discharge. By applying Bernoulli’s equation between inlet of pipe & throat i.e.
orifice section.
(p1 / w) + (v1 2 / 2g) + z1 = (p2 / w) + (v2 2 / 2g) + z2
When Orifice meter is connected in horizontal pipe, then z1 = z2

## Therefore (p1 - p2) / w = (v2 2 / 2g) - (v1 2 / 2g)

h = (v2 2 / 2g) - (v1 2 / 2g) --------------------------------------------- 1
Further if a1 & a2 be the cross-section area of Pipe at inlet & that of jet respectively, then by
continuity equation
Q = a1v1 = a2v2
a2 = a1v1 / v2 ------------------------------------------------------- a
If Cc = Coefficient of contraction = a2 / a0
Cc = Area of jet at vena contracta / Area of orifice
a2 = Cc a0 ------------------------------------------------------- b
v1 = Cc v2 (a0 / a1)
From equation 1; v2 = ( 2gh + v1 2 ) 1/2 in this equation losses has not been
considered and gives theoretical velocity.
v2 = ( 2gh + v1 2 ) ½
If Cv= Coefficient of velocity = Actual velocity / Theorotical velocity
∴Actual velocity of jet at vena contracta i.e. at section 2
v2 = Cv ( 2gh + [Cc v2 (a0 / a1)] 2 ) 1/2
v2 = Cv {(2gh )1/2 /(1- [Cc Cv (a0 / a1)] 2 ) 1/2 }
But Coefficient of discharge Cd = Cc Cv

40
By continuity equation Q = a2v2
Q = Cc a0 v2
Q = Cc Cv a0 {(2gh )1/2 /(1- [Cc Cv (a0 / a1)] 2 ) 1/2 }
Q = Cd a0 {(2gh )1/2 /(1- [Cd (a0 / a1)] 2 ) 1/2 }
If C= Constant of orificemeter, then
C = Cd {1 – (a0 2 / a1 2 )}1/2 / {1 – Cd 2 (a0 2 / a1 2 )}1/2
Q ac = C.a0(2g.h)1/2 / {1 – (a0 2 / a1 2 )}1/2
Q ac = C.a1.a0(2g.h)1/2 / (a1 2 – a0 2 ) 1/2

PROCEDURE:
1. Note the diameter at the inlet of pipe (d1) and the diameter of an orifice (do).
2. Note the density of manometric liquid i.e. mercury (ρm) and that of fluid flowing through
pipeline i.e. water (ρw).
3. Connect the U-tube manometer to the pressure toppings of orificemeter, one end at the inlet
section and the other end at the section where jet of water leaves from orifice forming a vena
contracta.
4. Start the flow and adjust the control valve in pipeline to get the required discharge.
5. Measure the pressure difference (Hm) between two sections of orifice meter by using U- tube
mercury manometer.
6. Convert the pressure head difference in meters of fluid flowing through pipeline (i.e. water) by
using the equation h = Hm [(ρm / ρw) -1]
7. Measure flow rate i.e. actual discharge (Qac) through Venturi meter by means collecting the
water in collecting tank for a specified period of time.
Q ac = V / t = (A.∆H) / t
8. Change the flow rate by adjusting the control valve and repeat the process or at least five times.
9. Determine the constant (C) of orificemeter and then calculate coefficient of discharge (Cd) for
each flow rate and find the mean value of coefficient of discharge (Cd) mean.

41
OBSERVATION:
Diameter of pipe, d1 = ______ m
Diameter of orifice, do = ______ m
Area of collecting tank, A = ______x______ = ________ m2
Area of pipe at entry, a1 = [(л/4) d1 2 ] = [(л/4) ( )2 ] = ________ m2 .
Area of orifice, ao = [(л/4) do 2 ] = [(л/4) ( )2 ] = ________ m2 .
Density of mercury, ρm =13600 kg / m3 .
Density of water, ρw =1000 kg / m3

OBSERVATION TABLE:

42
SAMPLE CALCULATION: For Observation No. ___.
h = Hm [(ρm /ρw) – 1]
= ______ [(13600 /1000) – 1]
= ______ [12.6]
= ______ m.
2. Actual discharge,

Qac = (A.∆H) / t
= (______ x ______) / ______
= _______ m3 / sec.
3. Constant of Orificemeter,

## C = Qac [a1 2 – a0 2 ] 1/2 / [a1.a0( 2g.h )1/2]

= ______ [ _____2 – _____ 2 ] 1/2 / [ _____ x _____( 2 x 9.81 x ______ )1/2]
= ___________ / __________
= __________
4. To Find Coefficient of Discharge (Cd),
By Using Relation
C = Cd .{1 – (a0 2 / a1 2 )}1/2 / {1 – Cd 2 (a0 2 / a1 2 )}1/2
_______ = Cd .{1 – ( _____2 / _____2 )}1/2 / {1 – Cd 2 (______2 / _______2 )}1/2

Cd = _________
5. Mean Constant of Orificemeter,
(C) mean = (____ +_____+_____+_____+______) / 5.
= _______.
6. Mean Coefficient of Discharge for Orificemeter,
(Cd) mean = (____ +_____+_____+_____+______) / 5.
= _______.

43
RESULT:
Constant of orificemeter (C) is found to be ________
Coefficient of discharge for orificemeter (Cd) is found to be ________

CONCLUSION
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______________________________________________________________________________

QUESTIONS
1. What do you understand by Orifice meter?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. What are the various application of orifice meter?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

44
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Difference between orifice meter and Venturi meter?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. What is volume flow rate? Write its units?
______________________________________________________________________________
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5. What is density of mercury?
______________________________________________________________________________
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6. What is the effect of center of gravity on the stability of the floating body?
______________________________________________________________________________
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45
EXPERIMENT NUMBER 9
LOSSES IN PIPE FITTINGS APPARATUS

AIM:
Determination of coefficient for minor losses in pipes
APPARATUS: -
A Pipe Elbow, a Sudden Contraction, a Sudden Expansion, a Pipe Bend, A collecting tank, a stop
watch, Scale, etc.
THEORY: -
While installing a pipeline for conveying a fluid, it is generally not possible to install a long
pipeline of same size all over for various reasons, like space restrictions, aesthetics, location of
outlet, etc hence, the pipe size varies and it changes its direction. Also, various fittings are required
to be used. All these variations of sizes and the fittings cause the loss of fluid head. The apparatus
is designed to demonstrate the loss of head due to the following fittings-
1) Pipe Elbow. 2) Sudden Contraction. 3) Sudden Expansion. & 4) Pipe Bend.
The set up consists of basic piping in which the above fittings are installed. A pressure tapping is
provided at inlet and outlet of each fitting. This pressure tapping is connected to water head
trappings. A gate valve at outlet and a bypass valve at pump discharge is used to control the
pressure and flow of water through the test section.
1) ELBOW:
In elbow, there is no change in the magnitude of velocity of water, but there is change in the
direction of water hence head loss exists.
2) SUDDEN CONTRACTION:
At sudden contraction, velocity of water increases which causes pressure head to drop (according
to Bernoulli’s theorem), in addition to this there is loss of head due to sudden contraction
3) SUDDEN EXPANSION
At sudden expansion of flow, pressure increases due to reduction in velocity, but there is pressure
drop due to sudden expansion also, hence, at sudden Expansion one gets rise of pressure lesser
than that predicted theoretically.

46
4) PIPE BEND:
Similar to elbow, loss of head at bend is due to change in the direction of water but unlike the
elbow, change of direction is not abrupt; hence loss of head is less as compared to elbow.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Fill up sufficient clean water in the sump tank.
2. Before starting the experiment, see that,
3. The bypass valve, flow control valve & manometer base cocks are fully opened.
4. Start the pump and close the bypass valve, so that water starts flowing through the entire
manometer overflow tubes. This ensures that there is no air gap in the manometer piping.
5. Close all the manometer base cocks and wait till all the water is drained out from all the backside
tubes.
6. Now again open the bypass by 2 to 3 turns such that the pressure in the piping is decreased.
7. Open all the manometer base cocks and take the water heights of the corresponding tapping.
8. Repeat the procedure for different flow rates.
SPECIFICATIONS: -
1. Basic piping of 28 mm size.
2. Pipe Elbow of 16 mm – 1 no.
3. Sudden contraction from 28 mm to 16 mm piping.
4. Sudden expansion from 16 mm to 28 mm piping.
5. Pipe Bend of 16 mm.
6. ½ H.P. pump to circulate water through the piping.
7. Sump tank of size 300 mm x 1050 mm x 400 mm.
8. Measuring tank of 300 x 300 x 550 mm height.

CALCULATIONS: -
1. Discharge (Q) =
0.3∗0.3∗0.05
t

47
2. Elbow
𝑄
Mean velocity (V) =
𝐴

A = ( ) * d2
4
Loss of head at elbow hact = ______________________ m of water
Actual loss of head of elbow
𝑣2
hact = K = 2𝑔 m of water

K= __________________.

OBSERVATION TABLE: -

3. Sudden Contraction
Water head difference = (Head drop due to increment of velocity) + (Head loss due to sudden
contraction)
h = hv +hc
Inlet size diameter ‘di’ = -----------m , Ai = -----------------m2
Outlet size diameter ‘do’ = ---------m, Ao =------------------m2

48
Where, Ai and Ao are Inlet and outlet areas respectively
Also,
𝑄 𝑄
Vi = m/s & Vo = m/s
𝐴𝑖 𝐴𝑜
Drop of head due to velocity increment,
𝑣02 𝑣12
ℎ𝑣 = ( − )
2𝑔 2𝑔
Actual drop due to sudden contraction
hc = h - hv
Theoretically,
𝑣02
ℎ𝐶 = 𝑘 ( )
2𝑔
Then, K = ______________.
4. Sudden Enlargement
Water head difference = (Head drop due to decrement of velocity) + (Head loss due to sudden
expansion)
h= hv + he
Inlet size diameter ‘di’ = -----------m , Ai = -----------------m2
Outlet size diameter ‘do’ = ---------m , Ao =------------------m2
Where, Ai and Ao are Inlet and outlet areas respectively
Also,
𝑄 𝑄
Vi = m/s & Vo = m/s
𝐴𝑖 𝐴𝑜
Drop of head due to velocity decrement,
𝑣𝑖2 𝑣𝑜2
ℎ𝑣 = ( − )
2𝑔 2𝑔
Actual drop due to sudden expansion,
h e = hv – h
Theoretically,
𝑣02
ℎ𝐶 = 𝑘 ( )
2𝑔
Then, K = ______________.

49
5. Bend
𝑄
Mean velocity (V) =
𝐴

A = ( ) * d2
4
Diameter of bend = 0.016 m
Loss of head at bend hexpt = __________________________m of water
Actual Loss of head at bend,
𝑉2
hact = K =
2𝑔
K = __________________________.

CONCLUSION
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50
QUESTION
1. Define major loss in pipe?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Define equilent pipe?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Define friction factor in the pipe?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. What do you understand by sudden contraction and sudden expansion?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. What is by-pass valve?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. What do you understand by Manometer?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

51
EXPERIMENT NUMBER 10

## REYNOLDS NUMBER FOR LAMINAR, TURBULENT AND TRANSIENT FLOW IN

PIPE

AIM:
Determination of the Reynolds number for laminar, turbulent and transient flow in pipe.
APPARATUS:
Reynold’s experimental arrangement, collecting tank, Stop watch, Scale, colour dye (Potassium
Per magnet) etc.
Formula:
𝜌𝑉.𝐷
Re =
µ
Where, Re = Reynold’s number (Dimensionless Parameter).
V = Average velocity in cm / sec
D = Diameter of pipe in cm.
ρ = Mass density of fluid (Kg / m3 )
µ = Dynamic viscosity (N - s / m2 or Kg / m. sec)
THEORY: The classification of flow is based mainly on viscosity of a fluid or liquid. The
viscosity that is seen earlier depends upon velocity gradient (dx, dg) is considered through
Reynolds Number defined as below.
𝜌𝑉.𝐷
Re =
µ
Reynolds carried out experiments to decide limiting values of Reynolds number to quantifiably
decide wheeler the flow is laminar, turbulent or transition. The flows con visualize by passing a
streak of dye and observing its motion.
Laminar Flow: A flow is said to be laminar when the various fluid particles moves in layer with
one layer of fluid living smoothly over on adjacent layer.A laminar flow is one in which the fluid
particles move in layers or laminar with one layer sliding over the other. Therefore, there is no
exchange of fluid particles from one layer to the other and hence no transfer of later of momentum
to be adjacent layers. The particles, in the layer having lower velocity, obstruct the fluid particles
in the layer with higher velocity. This obstruction force is called viscous resistance or viscosity.

52
The laminar flow is one in which fluid layers glide over each another. It has low velocity and high
viscous resistance.
Turbulent Flow: There is a continuous transfer of momentum to adjacent layers. Fluid particles
occupy different relative position at different places. It is one in which, the particles get thoroughly
mixed on (called turbulence). The turbulent flow has higher velocity. The flow in canals, pipes
and rivers is usually turbulent flow.
Transition Flow: The transition flow has intermediate properties between the laminar and
turbulent flow. In laminar the forces should be considered to calculate the friction loss and in the
turbulent flow only the internal forces are considered because the effect of viscous force is
negligible as compared to internal forces. Reynolds carried out experiments to decide limiting
values of Reynolds number to quantifiably decide whether the flow is laminar, turbulent or
transition. These limits are as below.
Sr. No. Type of Flow Reynolds Number
01. Laminar Flow < 2100
02. Transition Flow 2100 – 3000
03. Turbulent > 3000
The flow can be visualized by passing a streak of dye and observing its motion. In the laminar,
low velocity flow the streak line is only slightly zig – zag. In the turbulent flow, the dye thoroughly
mixes up in the flow. Thus, passing through a glass pipe and observing the velocity at different
mixing stages of the dye is the principle on which Reynolds apparatus is based.
PROCEDURE:
1. Diameter of a pipe, size of measuring tank at room temperature was noted down.
2. The tank was filled to some height by opening inlet valve and closing control valve.
3. Colour dye was filled in dye tank.
4. Control valve was open slightly and also the inlet valve such a way that the water level in the
tank remains constant. This happens when in coming discharge is equal to the outgoing discharge.
5. The discharge was measured.
6. The whole procedure is repeated for 3 times.

53
OBSERVATION:
Diameter of pipe = D = _________ cm
ᴨ ᴨ
Area of pipe = a = ( ) * D2 = A = ( ) * ( )2 = __________________cm2
4 4
Area of collecting Tank = A = ______ x ______ = ______ cm2
Dynamic viscosity µ = 10 – 6 N - s / m2 or Kg / m. sec

OBSERVATION TABLE:

SAMPLE CALCULATION:
Depth of water collected in cillecteing tank = ∆H = H2 - H1
∆H = _______ - _______
∆H = _______ cm
𝐴𝑑𝐻
Discharge = Q = = __________________=_________________cm/sec
𝑑𝑇
𝑄
Velocity of flow in pipe = V = = ______________________________=_____________ cm/sec
𝑎
𝜌𝑉.𝐷
Reynolds number = Re = = _____________=____________________
µ
RESULT:
For the first discharge the Reynold’s number is found to be ______ therefore the flow will be
____________________.
For second discharge the Reynold’s number found to be _______ therefore the flow will be
___________________.

54
For third discharge the Reynold’s number found to be _______ therefore the flow will be
___________________.
CONCLUSION
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QUESTIONS
1. What is Reynolds Number?
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2. What is the importance of Reynolds number?
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55
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3. Describe the Reynolds number experiments to demonstrate the two type of flow?
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4. Define laminar flow, transition flow and turbulent flow?
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5. What is the use of colour die in this experiment?
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6. What is the unit of Reynolds number?
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56
EXPERIMENT NUMBER 11
HEAD LOSS IN GIVEN LENGTH OF PIPE

AIM:
Determination of head loss in given length of pipe
THEORY:
When a fluid is flowing through a pipe, the fluid experiences some resistance due to which some
of the energy of fluid is lost. The loss of energy is classified into
1. Major energy loss: this is due to friction and it is calculated by the following formulae:
4𝑓𝐿𝑉2
2𝑔𝑑
a) Darcy-Weishbach formula hf =_____________________.
Where, hf = loss of head due to friction
f = co-efficient of friction which is a function of Reynolds number.
L = Length of pipe
V= mean velocity of flow
D = diameter of pipe.
b) Chezy’s formula
V = 𝐶 √𝑚𝑡
Where, C = Chezy’s constant

PROCEDURE:
1. Switch on the pump and open the delivery valve.
2. Open the corresponding ball valve of pipe under consideration.
3. Keep the ball valve of other pipeline closed.
4. Note down the differential head readings in the manometer. (Expel if any air is present by
opening the drain cocks provided to the manometer).
5. Close the butterfly valve and note down the time taken for known water level rise. where h f is
6. Change the flow rate and take the corresponding reading
7. Repeat the experiment for different diameter of pipeline.

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OBSERVATION
Difference in
Mercury level water Time Q V
taken
H= 3 in m
in sec (m /s) (m/s)
h1 h2 h1-h 2
in m

OBSERVATIONS
Area of Tank, A = 0.125 m2

58
Formulae:

Discharge Q = AR/t m3

## Fig. 2 Pipelines of different crossectional pipe

Where, R = Rise in water level in collecting tank. (In m)
t = time in seconds.
𝑉1 − 𝑉2
hL =
2𝑔

CONCLUSION
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QUESTIONS
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2. What is Chezy’s formula?
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3. What do you understand by Discharge?
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4. What is the density of water?
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4. What is ball/control valve?
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5. How the height of pipe is effects on the velocity and pressure?
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6. What do you understand by Head loss and how it is calculated?
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61
EXPERIMENT NUMBER 12
HELE-SHAW APPARATUS

AIM:
Study of flow pattern using Hele-Shaw apparatus.
THEORY:
Our experiment employs the Hele-Shaw setup which produces a Flow pattern similar to that of
potential flow. The flow is actually a highly viscous flow between two parallel plates with a very
small gap between them. The flow through this apparatus is 2-D, low-speed. Although the flow is
at low Reynolds number, this has a wide application in the Flow visualization apparatus as it
produces the streamlines of potential flow.
EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP:
The equipment consists of two parallel plates made of thick transparent glass clamped together
along the edges with a narrow space of 1 to 2 mm between them. The uniform narrow space
between the plates is attached to two small tanks of rectangular cross-section at the top end. The
tanks are connected to the rectangular slit formed by the transparent sheets by a set of small holes
arranged in a row. The other end of a rectangular slit is made to terminate in a circular hole by
gradually narrowing it. One of the tanks is filled with water and other with the potassium
permanganate. The passage is kept closed and the apparatus is kept vertical. Once the circular
passage at the bottom end is opened, the flow of water and dye take place through the rectangular
passage thereby maintaining the uniform flow field is established in the rectangular slit of the Hele-
Shaw apparatus.
PROCEDURE:
1. Mount the Hele-Shaw apparatus in a vertical position.
2. Place the model at the middle of the test section
3. Start the flow around the model
4. Time taken to fill the height of the measuring beaker shall be noted to calculate the volumetric
flow rate
5. Photograph the flow
6. Change the angle of attack and visualize the change in flow features
7. Visualize the flow patterns for different models.

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PRECAUTION
1. The gap between the plates will be low as possible.
2. Apparatus shouldn’t be disturbed while flow is on.

## DESCRIPTION OF DATA TAKEN

Area of the flow passage between the parallel plates from the tank is computed. Volumetric flow
rate is computed from the measuring beaker.
Velocity (m/s) = Volumetric flow rate (m3/s) / Area (m2)

RESULT
Airfoil
Sr. no. Height Time (s) Q (m3/s) Area (m2) Velocity Chord Re
(m/s) (m)
1. 5ml
2. 5mi
3. 5ml

Cylinder
1. 5ml

DISCUSSION
Airfoil
1. Flow appears to be ideal with no drag and viscous effects.
2. The flow is symmetric irrespective of change in angle of attack as the streamline pattern above
and below is same.
3. Change in the angle of attack there is a change in the location of stagnation point
4. Viscous forces are absent and no separation zone.
Cylinder
1. Flow appears to be ideal with no drag and viscous effects
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2. The flow seems is symmetric as the streamline pattern above and below is same.
3. Viscous forces are absent and no separation zone.
CONCLUSIONS:
1. At low Reynolds number potential flow can be considered.
2. No viscous forces results in slip condition, thereby no wake is generated.

CONCLUSION
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QUESTION
1. What do you understand by Hele-Shaw apparatus?
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2. What is the use of Hele-Shaw apparatus?
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3. What do you understand by Reynolds number?
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4. What is Volumetric flow rate?
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65
EXPERIMENT NUMBER 13
BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW OVER A FLAT PLATE

AIM:
To study the boundary layer velocity profile over a flat plate and to determine the boundary layer
thickness
THEORY:
In high Reynolds number flow (Re >> 1), a thin boundary-layer is formed over a solid surface.
Viscous effects are confined within this layer (of thickness δ) and potential flow prevails outside
it. At any position x, the boundary-layer is thin in the sense that

𝛿
<<< 1
𝑋

The origin of flow separation in adverse pressure gradient and the phenomenon of turbulence can
be traced to the existence of the boundary-layer. Hence it is of importance to measure velocity
distribution in the neighborhood of the solid wall.
In the present experiment, a flat plate boundary-layer (Figure) is studied

## Fig. Regimes of boundary-layer flow over a flat plate

Though a flat plate boundary-layer does not separate, it undergoes transition to become turbulent.
The following limits are usually observed in practice.
Rex < 60000 Laminar; Rex > 5  105
Turbulent The theoretical solutions for velocity profiles in a flat plate boundary-layer are as
follows:
𝑢 𝑦 𝑦
Laminar: = (2 − )………………………………………………..(1)
𝑈 𝛿 𝛿

66
𝛿 5 𝑈𝑥
Where, = , Rex =
𝑥 √𝑅𝑒 𝑥 𝑣
1⁄
𝑢 𝑦 7
Turbulent: = (𝛿 ) ………………………………………….(2)
𝑈
Where,
𝛿 0.371
=
𝑥 𝑅𝑒𝑥0.2

In the experiment, a hypodermic needle–type pitot tube and a digital manometer are used to
measure velocity.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
(i) Traverse the pitot tube above the plate to estimate the boundary-layer thickness. This is easily
done since u → U as y → δ, the outer edge of the layer.
(ii) Divide the estimated thickness in 10 parts. The probe can be moved back towards the plate, in
these increments, with the help of a micrometer arrangement.
(iii) Repeat steps (i) and (ii) at for the laminar and turbulent portions of the boundary layer. The
state of flow as laminar or turbulent can be judged either based on the criterion of the local
Reynolds number or by examining the shape of the velocity profile. Typical profiles in laminar
and turbulent flow are shown in Figure.

Fig. Laminar (L) and Turbulent (T) Velocity profiles in Flat plate Boundary -layer

67
The experimentally determined profiles must be compared to the theoretical results given by
Equations 1 and 2.
The digital manometer is calibrated for velocity measurement at 18oC. At all other
temperatures a correction factor must be applied. The required correction graph is available in
the laboratory.
The above experiment can be repeated with a rough flat surface to observe the following:
(a) drastic increase in boundary-layer thickness δ and
(b) near constancy of δ(x) with the streamwise coordinate.

CONCLUSION
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QUESTIONS
1. What is Boundary layer?
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2. What is the difference between laminar, transition and turbulence flow?
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