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What is turbine?

Turbine:

A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The work produced by a turbine can be used for generating electrical power when combined with a generator.

generating electrical power when combined with a generator. Types Steam turbines Gas turbines Transonic Contra-rotating

Types

Steam turbines Gas turbines Transonic Contra-rotating Statorless Shroudless turbine. Bladeless turbine Water turbines Wind turbine

Explanation

Steam turbine

A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its

modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884.

manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884. Principle of operation and design An ideal

Principle of operation and design

An ideal steam turbine is considered to be an isentropic process, or constant entropy process, in which the entropy of the steam entering the turbine is equal to the entropy of the steam leaving the turbine. No steam turbine is truly isentropic, however, with typical isentropic efficiencies ranging from 20–90% based on the application of the turbine. The interior of a turbine comprises several sets of blades or buckets. One set of stationary blades is connected to the casing and one set of rotating blades is connected to the shaft. The sets intermesh with certain minimum clearances, with the size and configuration of sets varying to efficiently exploit the expansion of steam at each stage.

Practical thermal efficiency of a steam turbine varies with turbine size, load condition, gap losses and friction losses. They reach top values up to about 50% in a 1,200 mw (1,600,000 hp) turbine; smaller ones have a lower efficiency. To maximize turbine efficiency the steam is expanded, doing work, in a number of stages. These stages are characterized by how the energy is extracted from them and are known as either impulse or reaction turbines. Most steam turbines use a mixture of the reaction and impulse designs: Each stage behaves as either one or the other, but the overall turbine uses both. Typically, lower pressure sections are reaction type and higher pressure stages are impulse type.

Gas turbine

A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine. The main elements common to all gas turbine engines are:

1. An upstream rotating gas compressor;

2. A combustor;

3. A downstream turbine on the same shaft as the compressor.

A downstream turbine on the same shaft as the compressor. Explanation: In an ideal gas turbine,

Explanation:

In an ideal gas turbine, gases undergo four thermodynamic processes:

an isentropic compression, an isobaric (constant pressure) combustion, an isentropic expansion and heat rejection. Together, these make up the Brayton cycle.

In a real gas turbine, mechanical energy is changed irreversibly (due to internal friction and turbulence) into pressure and thermal energy when the gas is compressed (in either a centrifugal or axial compressor). Heat is added in the combustion chamber and the specific volume of the gas increases, accompanied by a slight loss in pressure. During expansion through the stator and rotor passages in the turbine, irreversible energy transformation once again occurs. Fresh air is taken in, in place of the heat rejection.

If the engine has a power turbine added to drive an industrial generator or a helicopter rotor, the exit pressure will be as close to the entry pressure as possible with only enough energy left to overcome the pressure losses in the exhaust ducting and expel the exhaust. For a turboprop engine there will be a particular balance between propeller power and jet thrust which gives the most economical operation. In a turbojet engine only enough pressure and energy is extracted from the flow to drive the compressor and other components. The remaining high-pressure gases are accelerated through a nozzle to provide a jet to propel an aircraft.

The smaller the engine, the higher the rotation rate of the shaft(s) must be to attain the required blade tip speed. Blade-tip speed determines the maximum pressure ratios that can be obtained by the turbine and the compressor. This, in turn, limits the maximum power and efficiency that can be obtained by the engine. In order for tip speed to remain constant, if the diameter of a rotor is reduced by half, the rotational speed must double. For example, large jet engines operate around 10,000-25,000 rpm, while micro turbines spin as fast as 500,000 rpm.[23]

Applications:

Racing cars

Buses

Motorcycles

Trains

Tanks

Naval

Water turbine

A water turbine is a rotary machine that converts kinetic energy and potential

energy of water into mechanical work.

Water turbines were developed in the 19th century and were widely used for industrial power prior to electrical grids. Now they are mostly used for electric power generation. Water turbines are mostly found in dams to generate electric power from water kinetic energy.

The runner of the small water turbine Types of water turbines Various types of water

The runner of the small water turbine

The runner of the small water turbine Types of water turbines Various types of water turbine

Types of water turbines

The runner of the small water turbine Types of water turbines Various types of water turbine
The runner of the small water turbine Types of water turbines Various types of water turbine

Various types of water turbine runners. From left to right: Pelton wheel, two types of Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine.

Reaction turbines:

VLH turbine

Francis turbine

Kaplan turbine

Tyson turbine

Deriaz turbine

Gorlov helical turbine

Impulse turbine

Water wheel

Pelton wheel

Turgo turbine

Cross-flow turbine (also known as the Bánki-Michell turbine, or Ossberger turbine)

Jonval turbine

Reverse overshot water-wheel

Screw turbine

Barkh Turbine

Wind turbine

A wind turbine, or alternatively referred to as a wind energy converter, is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy intoelectrical energy

referred to as a wind energy converter, is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy

Thorntonbank Wind Farm, using 5 MW turbines REpower 5M in the North Sea off the coast of Belgium.

Thorntonbank Wind Farm , using 5 MW turbines REpower 5M in the North Sea off the
REpower 5M in the North Sea off the coast of Belgium . Wind turbines are manufactured

Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of vertical and horizontal axis. The smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging for auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs. Larger turbines can be used for making contributions to a domestic power supply while selling unused power back to the utility supplier via the electrical grid. Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, are becoming an increasingly important source of intermittent renewable energyand are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. One assessment claimed that, as of 2009, wind had the "lowest relative greenhouse gas emissions, the least water consumption demands and the most favourable social impacts" compared to photovoltaic, hydro, geothermal, coal and gas.

Maintenance

Wind turbines need regular maintenance to stay reliable and available. In the best case turbines are available to generate energy 98% of the time.[71][72]

Modern turbines usually have a small onboard crane for hoisting maintenance tools and minor components. However, large heavy components like generator, gearbox, blades and so on are rarely replaced and a heavy lift external crane is needed in those cases. If the turbine has a difficult access road, a containerized crane can be lifted up by the internal crane to provide heavier lifting

Largest capacity direct drive

The Enercon E-126 with 7.58 MW and 127 m rotor diameter is the largest direct drive turbine. However, the turbine is the world's most powerful onshore-only wind turbine. The turbine has parted rotor blades with 2 sections for transport.

Screw turbine

The screw turbine is a water turbine which uses the principle of the Archimedean screw to convert the potential energy of water on an upstream level into work. It may be compared to the water wheel.

The turbine consists of a rotor in the shape of an Archimedean screw which rotates in a semicircular trough. Water flows into the turbine and its weight presses down onto the blades of the turbine, which in turn forces the turbine to turn. Water flows

freely off the end of the turbine into the river. The upper end of the screw is

connected to a generator through a gearbox.

of the screw is connected to a generator through a gearbox. Application 12 kW screw turbine

Application

12 kW screw turbine at the Cragside estateThe Archimedean screw turbine is applied on rivers with a relatively low head (from 1 m to 10 m) and on low flows (0.01 m³/s up to around 10 m³/s on one turbine). Due to the construction and slow movement of the blades of the turbine, the turbine is considered to be friendly to aquatic wildlife. It is often labelled as "fishfriendly". The Archimedean turbine may be used in situations where there is a stipulation for the preservation and care of the environment and wildlife.

Uses of turbine

Almost all electrical power on Earth is generated with a turbine of some type.

Very high efficiency steam turbines harness around 40% of the thermal energy,

with the rest exhausted as waste heat.

Most jet engines rely on turbines to supply mechanical work from their

working fluid and fuel as do all nuclear ships and power plants.

Turbines are often part of a larger machine. A gas turbine, for example, may refer to an internal combustion machine that contains a turbine, ducts, compressor, combustor, heat-exchanger, fan and (in the case of one designed to produce electricity) an alternator. Combustion turbines and steam turbines may be connected to machinery such as pumps and compressors, or may be used for propulsion of ships, usually through an intermediate gearbox to reduce rotary speed.

Reciprocating piston engines such as aircraft engines can use a turbine powered by their exhaust to drive an intake-air compressor, a configuration known as aturbocharger (turbine supercharger) or, colloquially, a "turbo".

Turbines can have very high power density (i.e. the ratio of power to weight, or power to volume). This is because of their ability to operate at very high speeds. TheSpace Shuttle main engines used turbopumps (machines consisting of a pump driven by a turbine engine) to feed the propellants (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) into the engine's combustion chamber. The liquid hydrogen turbopump is slightly larger than an automobile engine (weighing approximately 700 lb) and produces nearly 70,000 hp (52.2 MW).

Turboexpanders are widely used as sources of refrigeration in industrial processes.

Military jet engines, as a branch of gas turbines, have recently been used as primary flight controller in post-stall flight using jet deflections that are also called thrust vectoring.The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration has also conducted a study about civilizing such thrust vectoring systems to recover jetliners from catastrophes.