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Dr. N.G.P.

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
((Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai
Recognized by UGC & Accredited by NAAC)
Dr.N.G.P. - Kalapatti Road, Coimbatore-641048

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Academic year 201 – 2020 ODD Semester

Subject: EC6702/ Optical Communication Networks

UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL FIBERS

1. Numerical Aperture :

𝑁𝐴 = √(𝑛12 − 𝑛22 )
𝑛1 = Core refractive index
𝑛2 = Cladding refractive index

2. Mode parameter / Normalized frequency / V-number:


2𝜋
𝑉= . 𝑎. 𝑁𝐴
𝜆
Or
2𝜋
𝑉= . 𝑎. 𝑛1 (2Δ)1/2
𝜆

𝑎 = Core radius
𝑁𝐴 = Numerical Aperture
𝜆 = Light Wavelength
Δ = Refractive index diffference

3. Critical Angle:
𝑛2
𝜃𝑐 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛−1 ( )
𝑛1

4. Number of Guided Modes:


𝑉2
𝑀𝑔 =
2
5. Core Radius:
𝑉𝜆
𝑎=
2𝜋𝑛1 (2Δ)1/2
Or

𝑉𝜆
𝑎=
2𝜋𝑛1 𝑁𝐴

6. Cut-off Wavelength:
2𝜋𝑛1 (2Δ)1/2
𝜆𝑐 =
2.403
7. Maximum Entrance Angle

𝜃𝑒 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛−1 (√(𝑛12 − 𝑛22 )

UNIT II SIGNAL DEGRADATION OPTICAL FIBERS

1. Attenuation / total reduction in power level: (in dB)


𝑃𝑖
𝛼(𝑑𝐵) = 10 𝑙𝑜𝑔10 ( )
𝑃0
𝑃𝑖 = Input power (watts)
𝑃0 = Output power (watts)

2. Optical Power at a distance of Z km:


𝑃(𝑍) = 𝑃(0)𝑒 −𝛼𝑝𝑍
𝛼𝑝 = Attenuation Constant (per km)
𝑃(0) = Optical power in a fiber at the origin (dB)

3. Attenuation Constant:
1 𝑃(0)
𝛼𝑝 = 𝑙𝑛 [ ] (per km)
𝑍 𝑃(𝑍)

4. Absorption loss:
UV loss at any wavelength:

154.2𝑥 4.63
𝛼𝑈𝑉 = × 10−2 𝑒 𝜆
46.6𝑥 + 60
𝑥 = Mole fraction of the fiber material
𝜆 = Operating wavelength
𝛼𝑈𝑉 is in dB / km

IR loss or loss in IR region:


−48.48
𝛼𝐼𝑅 = 7.81 × 𝑒 ( 𝜆
)

5. Scattering Loss:
8𝜋 3
𝛼𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑡 = 4 (𝑛2 − 1)2 𝐾𝐵 𝑇𝑓 𝛽𝑇
3𝜆
𝑛 = Refractive index of silica
𝐾𝐵 =Boltz Man’s constant
𝛽𝑇 = Isothermal compressibility of the material at fictive temperature
𝑇𝑓 = Fictive Temperature
𝛼𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑡 = Rayleigh scattering coefficient
6. Effective no. of modes supported by a curved multimode fiber:
2/3
𝛼 + 2 2𝑎 3
𝑁𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 𝑁∞ {1 − [ +( ) ]}
2𝛼Δ 𝑅 2𝑛2 𝑘𝑅
𝛼 = Graded-index fiber profile
Δ = Core-cladding index difference
𝑛2 = Cladding refractive index
𝑘 = Wave propagation constant
2𝜋
𝑘=
𝜆
𝑁∞ = Total no. of modes in a straight fiber.
𝛼
𝑁∞ = (𝑛1 𝐾𝑎)2 Δ
𝛼+2
7. Delay Difference:
𝑛1 Δ𝐿
𝛿𝑇𝑚𝑜𝑑 =
𝐶
8. Group Delay:
𝐿
𝜏𝑔 =
𝑉𝑔
𝐿 = Distance traveled by the pulse
𝑉𝑔 = Group Velocity
9. Group Velocity:
𝑑𝛽 −1
𝑉𝑔 = ( )
𝑑𝜔
𝛽 = Propagation constant along the fiber axis.
10. Modal Birefringence:
(𝛽𝑥 − 𝛽𝑦 )
𝐵𝐹 =
2𝜋
𝜆

𝛽𝑥 , 𝛽𝑦 = Propagation constants
𝜆 = Optical Wavelength

11. Fiber Beat Length:


𝜆
𝐿𝐵 =
𝐵𝐹

12. Dispersion
𝑝𝑢𝑙𝑠𝑒 𝑏𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔(𝜏)
𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒(𝐿)
13. Material dispersion
𝜆 𝑑 2 𝑛1
𝑀= | |
𝐶 𝑑𝜆2
14. Waveguide dispersion

Δ𝑛2 𝑑2 𝑉𝑏
D wg= |𝑉 |
𝐶𝜆 𝑑𝑣 2

UNIT III FIBER OPTICAL SOURCES AND COUPLING

1. External Efficiency:
𝐸𝑔
𝜂𝑒 = 𝜂𝑑 × × 100 %
𝑉
𝜂𝑑 =internal or total efficiency
𝐸𝑔 = Band gap energy in eV
𝑉 = Applied voltage.

2. Total power radiated from light source:


𝑃 = 𝜀𝜎𝐴𝑇 4
𝜀 = Emissivity
𝜎 = Stephen’s Constant
𝐴 = Surface Area
𝑇 = Temperature in K

3. Rayleigh Scattering
8𝜋 3 𝑛8 𝑃2 𝐾𝐵 𝑇𝑓 𝛽𝑇
𝜶𝒔𝒄𝒂𝒕 =
3𝜆4
𝐾𝐵 − 𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑛𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑇𝑓 − 𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒
𝛽𝑇 − 𝐼𝑠𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦

4. LED power
𝜂𝑖𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑐 𝐼
𝑷=
𝑞𝜆𝑛(𝑛 + 1)2

5. Energy gap values of two material composition


𝐸𝑔 = 1.424 + 1.266𝑥 + 0.266𝑥 2

6. Energy gap values of In1-x Gax Asy P1-y


𝐸𝑔 = 1.35 − 0.72𝑦 + 0.12𝑦 2
7. Bragg wavelength
2𝑛𝑒 Λ
𝜆𝐵 =
𝐾
𝑛𝑒 − effective refractive index
Λ − period of corrugation
K − order of grating
UNIT IV FIBER OPTIC RECEIVER AND MEASUREMENTS

1. Operating Wavelength:
ℎ𝑐
𝜆=
𝐸
ℎ = Plank’s Constant (6.62x10-34)
𝑐 = Speed of light in air
𝐸 = Energy in J

2. Responsivity:
𝜂𝑒𝜆
𝑅= ( )
ℎ𝑐

3. Incident Power:
𝐼𝑝
𝑃0 = ( )
𝑅
𝐼𝑝 = Photocurrent
𝑅 = Responsivity.

4. Quantum Efficiency:
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑝𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑠 𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑
𝜂=
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑝ℎ𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠

5. Multiplication factor after avalanche gain:


𝐼
𝑀=
𝐼𝑝
𝐼 = Output current after avalanche

6. Cut-off wavelength:
ℎ𝑐
𝜆𝑐 =
𝐸𝑔