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Group Members

1. Sachittra Ranasinghe
2. Mohamed Siyath
3. Sahl Buhary
4. Mohamed Juhry
5. Mohamed Hiyas
1. Introduction
2. Literature Review
3. Methodology
4. Data Collection & Analysis
5. Conclusion & Recommendations
Aims and Objectives of Research
1. To determine various type of piles in used
and identify most suitable type for Qatar
construction industry.
2. To analyse construction method used for
cast in situ friction piles.
3. To compare the design results which
computer aided design and manual design.
 Foundations provide support for structures,
transferring their load to layers of soil or rock
that have sufficient bearing capacity and
suitable settlement capacity

 Here Pile foundations are deep foundations

They are formed by long & circular elements
typically made from steel or reinforced
concrete, or sometimes timber.
 Pile foundation is required when the soil
bearing capacity is not sufficient (soft soil) for
the structure to withstand. This is due to the
soil condition. pile foundation transferring
structure load to rocky or hard layer of soil
History of case
 The first recorded use of drilled deep
foundations was in the 1920s, where piles
were originally termed Chicago caissons.
Weaker top soils in areas such as Chicago,
Cleveland, London called for an alternative
foundation to traditional methods
Purpose of Literature Review
 To define current state of the arts in pile
design and construction from previous
research and To assess classification of pile,
construction methodology & design
Why bored piles are used
 Commonly used as foundation to support heavily
loaded structures such as high rise buildings,
Hydraulic Structure and bridges in view of it low
noise, low vibration and flexibility of sizes to suit
different loading conditions and subsoil

 Required to be carried on tall buildings or

massive industrial complexes, which require
foundations and can bear the load of thousands
of tons, most probably in unstable or difficult soil
Classification of Piles
1. Classification based on materials
 Timber piles
 Concrete piles
 Steel Piles
 Composite piles
2. Classification based on the function
 End bearing piles :-Piles which transfer structural load to
a hard and relatively incompressible stratum such as rock
or dense sand are known as end bearing piles. These
piles derive the required bearing capacity from end
bearing at tip of the pile.
Classification of Piles
 Friction piles:- These are piles which derive carrying
capacity from skin friction or adhesion between the
pile surface and surrounding soil.

 Tension pile: These piles are also called as uplift piles.

Generally it can be used to anchor down the structures
which are subjected to uplift pressure due to
hydrostatic force.
Classification of Piles
Classification of Piles
3. Classification based on method of installation

 Bored piles:- Bored piles are constructed in pre-bored

holes either using a casing or by circulating stabilizing
agent like bentonite slurry. The borehole is filled with
concrete after placing or lowering reinforcement. The
main advantage in bored piles is no damage due to
handling and driving which is common in driven piles.
The different types of bored piles are: small diameter
piles up to 600mm diameter: Large diameter pile
greater than 600mm; Under-reamed piles generally
300 to 450mm diameter.
Classification of Piles
3. Classification based on method of installation

 Driven piles:- Driven piles may be of concrete, steel

or timber. These piles are driven into the soil strata by
the impact of a hammer. Generally boring is not used
in these cases. When pile is driven into granular
soils it densifies the soil and increases stiffness
(strength) of soil.
Classification of Piles
3. Classification based on method of installation

 Cast-in-Place Piles:- These piles are formed by driving

a tube with a closed end into the soil strata, and then
filling the tube with freshly prepared concrete. The
tube may or may not be withdrawn afterwards.
Design methodology
 What are the various capacities of pile
commonly used in practice?
◦ Axial capacity
◦ Lateral capacity
◦ Tension capacity
 How to estimate the capacity of a Pile? What
are the approaches?

 Field approach
◦ In this approach the pile is loaded to the desired level and its
capacity is estimated.
 Theoretical Approach
◦ In this approach the pile capacity is calculated using some
formulae into which soil data is fed for obtaining the capacity.
 Load Tests On a Single Pile The load tests are
categorized as
Stress tests:-
•Maintained load test
•Constant rate of penetration test
•Lateral load test
•Dynamic load test
•Cyclic load test
Strain tests:-
•Low strain integrity testing
•High strain integrity testing
 Pile load tests are usually carried out for the
following main reasons:
◦ To obtain back figured soil data that will enable other piles
tobe designed

◦ To confirm pile lengths and hence contract costs before the

client is committed to over all job costs

◦ To counter check results from geotechnical and pile driving


◦ To determine the load-settlement behavior of the pile,

especially in the region of anticipated working load, that
the data can be used for prediction of group settlement.

◦ To verify the structural soundness of the pile.


 Construction methodology
 The purpose if this chapter is to examine the
research methodologies available for this

 The outline research methodology includes;

Literature review of book, articles and
journals on design and construction methods
of bored piles in the industry.
 There are two types of reserch strategies,
Qualitative and Quantitative.

 Qualitative data is data in the form of

descriptive accounts of observations or data
which is classified by type.

 Quantitative data is data which can be

expressed numerically or classified by some
numerical value.
 Here our research methodologies based on
Qualitative strategies, The state of the art has
been defined through literature review, for
the design approach & data collection has
been used previous case of pile design in
qatar project
4. Data Collection & Analysis
Bore Pile Design considerations

1.Pile Capacity:

• Toe load-carrying capacity of a pile depends on the properties of

the soil in which it is embedded.

2 Negative shaft resistance or down drag Force:

• Negative friction is downward drag acting on a pile due to the

downward movement of the surrounding compressible soil relative
to the pile.
Design Phase

Design Steps
1. Drawings and Calculations

• Structural Engineer pile layout drawing.

• Make sure it includes pile reference numbers and the

amount of load each pile will be subjected to.

• Ensure calculations demonstrate how the load amount

figure was generated for each pile.
Design Steps
2. Site Investigation Report
• Conduct a geotechnical site investigation(Soil Investigation report base on bore holes)
along and beneath the piles.

• Ensure investigations extend to at least 3 times the pile diameter or a minimum of 5

meters in accordance with BS codes and guidelines.

3. Factor of Safety
• This will be determined based on the design, site investigation and pile load testing.

• It should have a factor of safety rating of between 2 and 3 in accordance with BS8004

4. Testing
• Testing needs to be carried out to ensure the foundations meet the design requirements.
There are two types of testing available which are:

• Static load testing

• Dynamic load testing.

Testing for pile design

Load Tests On a Single Pile The load tests are categorized

as Stress tests
• Maintained load test (Static vertical load test)
• Constant rate of penetration test
• Lateral load test
• Dynamic load test
• Cyclic load test
• Low strain integrity testing
• High strain integrity testing.
Type of Pile Designing methods

1- Manually
• By human hand and mind using
standard codes & base on given
manual data to be calculated all the
requirements of design criteria until
unless achieved the best suitable
pile design for given structure.
Type of Pile Designing methods

• Pile design software used for the analysis
of modelling the shoring of excavations in stratified
soil using sheet pile walls. Calculation methods are
based on the British Steel Piling Handbook and the
US Steel Sheet Piling Design Manual as we as per
base on given data.
Software of Pile Design
3- Pile - GEO5 4- RSPile
5- sap20000 6- SHAFT v2012
7- VERSAT-2D 8- McTrans
Bored pile is usually ignored due to doubts in cleaning.
If it is not possible for the case of the dry hole and the
inspection of the base, the basic resistance with the
corresponding mobilizing factor can be considered.
For the design of bored piles in the ground, the two common
methods, namely semi-empirical and simplified methods of soil
mechanics, are mostly used to determine the final piling
The use of load transfer method is important to optimize the pile
design for value engineering and also provide settlement
The use of the load transfer method is important in order to optimize
the pile design for value engineering and also provide settlement
For rock socket pile design, design approach and charts with
consideration of socket roughness, rock strength, rock mass stiffness
and socket geometry are presented and discussed.
For the design of rock socket, the design approach and the tables are
presented and discussed, taking into account the roughness of the
bushings, the rock thickness, the rock resistance and the geometry of
the bushes.
Instrumentation test pile is used for design optimization and value
engineering if there are enough pile points for the project to justify the
testing cost.
 Recommendations
The results of this research indicates that improvements in
designing friction piles are important to benefit from the
advantages involved in the design. The following items
provide the required recommendations to be implemented:

 The collected data from this project should be planned into a

central database. Creating a database will be the most
effective way to view and use the data that have been collected
in an effort to calibrate regional Load Resistance Factor Design
(LRFD) resistance factors.

 Incorporatingthe effects of pile setup into design would

provide the ability to reduce pile lengths and pile sizes which
may not be considered.
 Recommendations
A standardized pile driving record needs to be kept during the
installation of all piles in the projects. The information in this
document should fully describe the project, location of the pile
with respect to the structure, pile length, and blow count per foot
during installation. Even though the data collected in a pile
driving record are simple, they can be used to generally evaluate
the consistency in the subsurface in the location of the piles. The
pile driving records should be made part of the “as built” plans of

 Additional research grade static pile load tests should be

performed in ongoing construction projects to increase the
reliability and validity of the current data sets collected. Pile setup
is an important factor in piles friction into clay deposits.
Incorporating the effects of pile setup into design would provide
the ability to reduce pile lengths and pile sizes that may not be
Thanks you.