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Personality According to

Personality According to

Psychoanalytic Theory

Sigmund Freud

Personality

feeling, and behaving

feeling, and behaving

consistent patterns of

individual’s unique and

thinking,

An

relatively

Personality Theory

to describe and

to describe and

people are similar,

they are different, and

how

every individual is unique

why

Attempt

how

explain

Personality Perspectives • Psychoanalytic—importance of unconscious processes and childhood experiences •
Personality Perspectives
Psychoanalytic—importance of
unconscious processes and childhood
experiences
Humanistic—importance of
self
and
fulfillment
of
potential
Social
cognitive—importance of beliefs
about
self
Trait—description and measurement of
personality differences
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) • Founder of psychoanalysis • Proposed the first complete theory of personality
Sigmund Freud
(1856-1939)
Founder
of psychoanalysis
Proposed
the first complete theory
of
personality
A
person’s
thoughts and
behaviors
emerge from tension
generated
by
unconscious motives
and
unresolved childhood
Learn more about
Freud
at:
conflicts.
www.freud.org.uk
www.lcweb.loc.gov/exhibits/freud
Psychoanalytic Approach • Developed by Sigmund Freud • Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy
Psychoanalytic Approach
Developed by Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalysis is both an
approach
to
therapy
and a theory
of
personality
Emphasizes unconscious
motivation
the
main causes of behavior
lie
buried in the unconscious mind
Psychoanalysis as a Therapy • A therapeutic technique that attempts to provide insight into one’s
Psychoanalysis as a Therapy
A
therapeutic technique that attempts
to
provide
insight into one’s
thoughts
and
actions
Does
so
by exposing and interpreting
the
underlying unconscious motives
and
conflicts
Psychodynamic Perspective • A more modern view of personality that retains some aspects of Freudian
Psychodynamic Perspective
A
more modern view of personality
that
retains some aspects of Freudian
theory
but
rejects other aspects
Retains
the importance of the
unconscious mind
Less
emphasis on unresolved
childhood conflicts
Perspective:

Perspective:

Mind

the

Freud’s View of

The Psychodynamic

Free Association

person relax matter how

person relax

matter how

whatever comes

no

the

embarrassing

or

say

The Couch

mind

Freudian technique of

exploring the

unconscious mind by

having

and

to

trivial

mind Freudian technique of exploring the unconscious mind by having and to trivial

Conscious Mind • All the thoughts, feelings, and sensations that you are aware of at
Conscious Mind
All
the
thoughts, feelings, and
sensations that you are aware
of
at
this
particular moment represent
the
conscious level
Preconscious Mind • A region of the mind holding information that is not conscious but
Preconscious Mind
A
region of the mind holding information
that
is
not
conscious but is easily
retrievable
into conscious awareness
Holds
thoughts and memories
not
in
one’s
current
awareness but can easily be
retrieved (childhood memories, phone
number)

Unconscious Mind

• A region of the mind that includes unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories •
A region of the mind that includes
unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings,
and
memories
Not
aware
of these thoughts, wishes,
etc…
but
they
exert great influence
over
our
conscious
thoughts & behavior.
Freud
felt
that dreams were “The
royal
road
to
the unconsciousness” – behind
the
surface image (manifest content) lied
the
true hidden meaning (latent content).
Can also surface as “slips of the tongue”

or Freudian Slips.

Psychoanalytic Approach • Conscious – all things we are aware of at any given moment
Psychoanalytic Approach
Conscious –
all
things
we
are
aware
of
at
any
given
moment
Psychoanalytic Approach • Preconscious – everything that can, with a little effort, be brought into
Psychoanalytic Approach
Preconscious –
everything
that
can,
with
a
little
effort,
be
brought
into
consciousness

Psychoanalytic Approach

of

of

Unconscious –

inaccessible

warehouse

anxiety-

producing

thoughts and

drives

Unconscious – inaccessible warehouse anxiety- producing thoughts and drives
Perspective:

Perspective:

Id, Ego,

and

The

Superego

The Psychodynamic

Psychoanalytic

Divisions of the Mind • Id—instinctual drives present at birth – does not distinguish between
Divisions of the Mind
Id—instinctual drives present at birth
does
not distinguish between reality and
fantasy
operates
according to the pleasure principle
Ego—develops out of the
id
in
infancy
understands reality and logic
mediator between id and superego
Superego
– internalization of society’s & parental moral
standards
– One’s conscience; focuses on what the person “should” do
– Develops around ages 5-6.

– Partially unconscious

– Can be harshly punitive using feelings of guilt

Freud’s Concept of the “Id” • The part of personality that consists of unconscious energy
Freud’s Concept of the “Id”
The
part of personality that consists
of
unconscious energy from
basic
aggressive
and sexual drives
Operates
on the “pleasure principle”
-
the
id
demands immediate
gratification
Is
present from birth
Id: The Pleasure Principle • Pleasure principle—drive toward immediate gratification, most fundamental human
Id: The Pleasure Principle
Pleasure principle—drive toward immediate
gratification, most fundamental human
motive
Sources
of
energy
Eros—life instinct, perpetuates life
Thanatos—death instinct, aggression,
self-
destructive actions
Libido—sexual energy or motivation
Freud’s Concept of the “Ego” • The part of personality that mediates the demands of
Freud’s Concept of the “Ego”
The
part of personality that mediates
the
demands of the id without
going
against
the
restraints of the
superego
Follows
the reality principle
Ego: The Reality Principle • Reality principle—ability to postpone gratification in accordance with demands of
Ego: The Reality Principle
Reality
principle—ability to postpone
gratification in accordance with
demands
of
reality
Ego—rational, organized, logical,
mediator
to
demands of reality
Can
repress desires that cannot be met
in
an
acceptable manner

The Personality

Id: “I

Id: “I

Superego:

want”

“I

Ego: “I will”

should”

Superego: want” “I Ego: “I will” should”
Superego: want” “I Ego: “I will” should”

Psychoanalytic Approach

Rational, planful, mediating dimension of personality Conscious Ego Information in your immediate awareness
Rational,
planful,
mediating
dimension
of personality
Conscious
Ego
Information
in your
immediate
awareness
Superego
Preconscious
Moralistic,
judgmental,
perfectionist
dimension of
personality
Unconscious
Information
which can
easily be
made
conscious
Id
Irrational,
illogical,
impulsive
dimension of
personality
Thoughts,
feelings,
urges, and other
information
that is difficult
to bring to
conscious
awareness
Defense Mechanisms Unconscious Self-Deceptions

Defense Mechanisms

Unconscious Self-Deceptions

Defense Mechanisms

unconsciously

unconsciously

by

by the ego to reduce

distorting

Unconscious mental processes

employed

anxiety

reality.

Repression • Puts anxiety-producing thoughts, feelings, and memories into the unconscious mind • The basis
Repression
Puts
anxiety-producing thoughts,
feelings,
and memories into
the
unconscious mind
The
basis
for all other defense
mechanisms

Denial

anxious person refuse to

that

that

something unpleasant

an

is

Lets

admit

happening

Regression • Allows an anxious person to retreat to a more comfortable, infantile stage of
Regression
Allows
an anxious person to retreat
to
a
more
comfortable, infantile
stage
of
life

Reaction Formation

opposite

opposite

its

wish

Replacing an unacceptable

with

Projection

else

else

yourself to someone

Reducing anxiety by attributing

unacceptable impulses or problems

about

Rationalization • Displaces real, anxiety-provoking explanations with more comforting justifications for one’s
Rationalization
Displaces real, anxiety-provoking
explanations with more comforting
justifications for one’s actions
Reasoning away anxiety-producing
thoughts

Displacement

an unacceptable impulse

more acceptable or

object or person

object or person

a

less

Shifts

toward

threatening

Sublimation

activities that

activities that

urges are channeled

are

society

form of displacement in

into

which

sexual

A

nonsexual

by

valued

Undoing

first.

first.

action by doing a second

the

action

Unconsciously neutralizing an anxiety

causing

undoes

that

Perspective:

Perspective:

Stages

The Psychodynamic

Freud’s Psychosexual

Psychosexual Stages • In Freudian theory, the childhood stages of development during which the id’s
Psychosexual Stages
In
Freudian theory, the childhood stages
of
development during which the id’s pleasure
seeking
energies are focused on different
parts
of
the
body
The
stages
include: oral, anal, phallic,
latency,
and
genital
A
person can become “fixated” or stuck at
a
stage
and as an adult attempt to achieve pleasure
as in ways that are equivalent to how it was
achieved in these stages
Oral Stage (birth – 1 year) • Mouth is associated with sexual pleasure • Pleasure
Oral Stage (birth – 1 year)
Mouth
is associated with sexual
pleasure
Pleasure
comes from chewing,
biting,
and
sucking.
Weaning
a child can lead to fixation
if
not
handled correctly
Fixation can lead to oral activities
in adulthood

Freud’s Stages of Development

Freud’s Stages of Development
Anal Stage (1 – 3 years) • Gratification comes from bowel and bladders functions. •
Anal Stage (1 – 3 years)
Gratification comes from bowel
and
bladders
functions.
Toilet
training can lead to
fixation
if
not
handled correctly
Fixation can lead to anal retentive
or
expulsive behaviors in adulthood

Freud’s Stages of Development

Freud’s Stages of Development
Phallic Stage (3 – 5 years) • Focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals •
Phallic Stage (3 – 5 years)
Focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals
Sexual attraction for opposite sex parent
Boys
cope with incestuous feelings
toward
their
mother
and rival feelings
toward
their
dad
(Oedipus
conflict). For
girls
it
is
called
the
Electra
Complex.
Child
identifies with and
tries
to mimic the same sex
parent to learn gender
identity.
Oedipus Complex • Boys feel hostility and jealousy towards their fathers but knows their father
Oedipus Complex
Boys
feel hostility and jealousy towards their fathers
but
knows their father is more powerful. This
leads
to…
Castration
Anxiety results in boys who
feel
their
father
will
punish them by castrating
them.
Resolve
this
through Identification
imitating
and
internalizing
one’s father’s values, attitudes
and
mannerisms.
The
fact
that only the father can have sexual
relations
with
the mother becomes internalized in the boy
as
taboo against incest in the boy’s superego.
Electra Complex • Girls also have incestuous feelings for their dad and compete with their
Electra Complex
Girls also have incestuous feelings for their
dad
and compete with their mother.
Penis
Envy – Little girl suffer from deprivation
and
loss
and blames her mother for
“sending
her
into
the
world insufficiently
equipped”
causing
her
to
resent her mother
In
an
attempt to take her mother’s
place
she
eventually indentifies with her mother
Fixation can lead to excessive masculinity
in
males and the need for attention or domination
in females

Freud’s Stages of Development

Freud’s Stages of Development

Latency Stage (5 – puberty)

• Sexuality is repressed due to intense anxiety caused by Oedipus complex • Children participate
Sexuality is repressed due to intense
anxiety caused by Oedipus complex
Children participate in hobbies,
school,
and
same-sex
friendships that strengthen
their
sexual
identity

Freud’s Stages of Development

Freud’s Stages of Development
Genital Stage (puberty on) • Incestuous sexual feelings re-emerge but being prohibited by the superego
Genital Stage (puberty on)
Incestuous sexual feelings re-emerge
but
being
prohibited by the superego
are
redirected
toward others who
resemble
the
person’s opposite sex parent.
Healthy
adults find pleasure in
love
and
work, fixated adults have their energy
tied up in earlier stages

Freud’s Stages of Development

Freud’s Stages of Development