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Didactics and language learning resources
Didactics and language learning
resources

According to Oerbaek (2008), the term “didactics” originates

from the Greek Didaskein, which means to teach, to educate.

In EFL, didactics is a major component of teacher education

because it revolves around the answers to the questions

“what”, “how”, and “why”.

Navarro and Piñeiro (2012) define didactics as the discipline

that studies techniques, procedures, strategies, and methods

to enhance the teaching process for students to approach in a wide, deep, and significant way knowledge(p. 234).

Didactics and language learning resources
Didactics and language learning
resources

John Amos Comenius (The great didactic)

learning resources John Amos Comenius (The great didactic) The proper education of the young does not

The proper education of the young does not consist in stuffing their heads with a mass of words, sentences, and ideas dragged

together out of various authors, but in opening up their

understanding to the outer world, so that a living stream may flow from their own minds, just as leaves, flowers, and fruit spring from the bud on a tree.

Language learning resources
Language learning resources

Managing resources: equipment and teaching aids

How Ts can use different resources to make lessons more interesting and

effective.

The board

The OHP

Visuals

Worksheets & workcards

The Cassette recorder (The CD player)

Video

Computers

The photocopier

Published materials: coursebooks, skills books, readers, supplementary books,

references books, resources books, CALL.

Authentic materials: theater programs, newspapers, magazines, songs, brochures, info. leaflets, menus, news broadcasts, films, etc.

(Gower, Walters & Philips, 2005)

Language learning resources
Language learning resources

Materials

Salvadores, 2004)

and

resources

for

ELT

(Trujillo,

Torrecillas

&

2004) and resources for ELT (Trujillo, Torrecillas & Audio and visual r e s o u

Audio and visual

resources

• The blackboard • Visual aids • • The textbook • • Hand-made materials Traditional
• The blackboard
• Visual aids
• The textbook
• Hand-made
materials
Traditional
resources
The OHP The audio player • The video player and camera
The OHP
The audio player
• The video player
and camera
• Physical setting • The internet • Off-line use • On-line use ICT in the
Physical setting
The internet
Off-line use
On-line use
ICT in the
teaching of
English
Language learning resources
Language learning resources
Language learning resources (Harmer, 2004, pp. 175-176).
Language learning resources (Harmer, 2004, pp. 175-176).

(Harmer, 2004, pp. 175-176).

Language learning resources
Language learning resources

Students themselves.

Objects, pictures, and things: realia, pictures, cards, cuisenaire rods.

The coursebook

Ways of showing: the board, the OHP, the flip chart, computer-based

presentation technology.

Ways of listening: CDs, MP3

Ways of finding out: dictionaries, concordances, the internet.

Ways of composing: word processing/editing, mousepals, chat, blogging, authoring, website design.

Virtual learning: from emails to simulated environments.

(Harmer, 2004, pp. 176-194).

Language learning resources
Language learning resources

RESOURCES

ACTIVITIES

Students

Thoughts Experiences

Realia

Stimulators / Evocative objects

Pictures

Drills / Games / Understanding / Ornamentation / Prediction / Discussion

Cards

Matching and ordering / Selecting / Card games

Cuisenaire rods

Word stress / Structures / Prepositions

Coursebook

Omit and replace / Change: add, rewrite, replace, reorder, reduce.

The board

Note-pad / Explanation aid / Picture frame / public workbook / game board / Notice board

(Harmer, 2004)

Language learning resources
Language learning resources

RESOURCES

ACTIVITIES

OHP

Grammar exercises, pictures, diagrams, gradual

work.

The flip chart

Making notes, recording main points, group work.

Computer-based

Computer and data projector, PowerPoint, IWB.

presentation

Dictionaries

Paper dictionaries (bilingual or monolingual), CD- ROMs, electronic pocket dictionaries, online dictionaries.

Concordances

Word research and vocabulary exploration.

The internet

References, encyclopedias, webquests.

Composing

Word processing/editing, keypals, chatting, blogging, authoring (hot potatoes), websites (Google sites)

(Harmer, 2004)

Language learning resources

The role of materials in the language classroom (Crawford, 2002) - Attitudes

Debilitating crutch: Ts reduce

to classroom technicians and implementers.

O’Neill (1982): Uniqueness of the class cannot be met.

Allwright (1981): Make decisions for Ts and Ss .

Nunan

(1989):

Fail

to

provide

authentic models.

 

Walts (1989): Fail to contextualize.

Apple (1992): Materials are not neutral.

Helpful scaffold: Materials as

guides and negotiating points.

Loewenberg-Nall and Feiman-Nenser ( 1988 ) : Assist inexperienced Ts .

Donoghue (1992): Source of info and support for experienced Ts .

Hutchinson and Torres (1994):

- Agent for change: training, guidance,

collegial support, clear picture.

- A structuring tool = social routinisation

reduces unpredictability and unfamiliarity.

- A useful map: Negotiation, accountability, and orientation.

Language learning resources
Language learning resources

Resource

What?

How?

The learner

   

The board

   

Visuals

   

Worksheets and

   

workcards

Computers

   

Why?

References

Crawford, J. (2002). Role of materials in language classroom: Finding the balance. In J. Richards & W. Renandya (eds), Anthology of current practice (pp. 84-87). Australia: Cambridge University Press. Harmer, J. (2004). The practice of English language teaching (4 th edition). USA: Pearson Longman. Gower, R., Walters, S., & Phillips, D. (2005). Teaching Practice: A Handbook for Teachers in Training. Oxford: Macmillan education.

Navarro, D., & Piñeiro, M. (2012). Didactic strategies for teaching English as a foreign language in seventh and eighth grades in secondary schools in Costa Rica. Káñina, Revista de Artes y Letras, Univ. Costa Rica, 36(2),

233-251.

Oerbaek,

dissertation). University of Southern Denmark-Odense, Denmark. Trujillo, F., Torrecilla, J., & Salvadores, C. (2004). Materials and resources for ELT. In D. Madrid & N. McLaren (Eds) TEFL in Primary Education (pp. 310-339). Granada: Editorial Universidad de Granada.

K.

(2009).

Didactics

and

didactisizing.

(Unpublished

PhD’s