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PHYSICS CLAS S E S

PHYSICS

PHYSICS CLAS S E S

CLAS S E S

for

IIT-JEE, NEET, INPHO, KVPY & Other Entrance Exams

By

Sanjeet Singh

IIT (ISM), Dhanbad

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

IIT-JEE

CONTENTSCONTENTSCONTENTSCONTENTSCONTENTS

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

1. Theory

2. Solved Problems

(Subjective, Objective, Multiple Choice, Passage Based, Matching , Assertion-Reason)

3. Assignments

Section - I : Subjective Questions (Level I, Level - II and Level - III)

Section - II : Single Choice Questions

Section - III : Multiple Choice Questions

Section - IV

• Passage Based Questions

• Matching Type Questions

• Assertion-Reason Type Questions

Section - V : Problems Asked in IIT-JEE

4. Answers

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

IIT-JEE-Syllabus Faraday's law, Lenz's law; Self and mutual inductance
IIT-JEE-Syllabus Faraday's law, Lenz's law; Self and mutual inductance

IIT-JEE-Syllabus

IIT-JEE-Syllabus Faraday's law, Lenz's law; Self and mutual inductance
IIT-JEE-Syllabus Faraday's law, Lenz's law; Self and mutual inductance
IIT-JEE-Syllabus Faraday's law, Lenz's law; Self and mutual inductance
Faraday's law, Lenz's law; Self and mutual inductance

Faraday's law, Lenz's law; Self and mutual inductance

Faraday's law, Lenz's law; Self and mutual inductance

INTRODUCTION

Whenever magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes, an e.m.f. is induced in the circuit. If the circuit is closed, a current is also induced in it. The e.m.f. and current produced lasts as long as the flux linked with the circuit changes. The phenomenon is called electromagnetic induction (EMI).

FARADAY’S LAWS OF ELECTRO-MAGNETIC INDUCTION

On the basis of experimental observations Faraday summarized the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction by giving following laws.

a) Whenever magnetic flux linked with a closed coil changes, an induced e.m.f. (or induced current) is set up in the coil

b) This induced e.m.f. (or induced current) lasts as long as the change in magnetic flux continues.

c) The magnitude of induced e.m.f. is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linked with the circuit. If φ is magnetic flux linked with the circuit at any instant t, then induced e.m.f.

ξ ∝

d φ

dt

… (i)

d) The direction of induced e.m.f. (or induced current, if circuit is closed) is such that it opposes the change in flux that produced it. This law is also called Lenz’s law. In view of Lenz’s law, equation (i) takes the form d φ

ξ∝−

dt Conventionally, the change in flux is given with one turn and if the coil contains N turns, then

d φ

ξ∝− N

dt If R is resistance of the circuit, then current induced

I

=

ξ

N

d

φ

= −

R

R

dt

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

The charge induced in time dt is given by

N d φ N dq = Idt = − dt = − d φ R
N d
φ
N
dq
= Idt
= −
dt
= −
d φ
R dt
R
φ
2
q N
⇒ = −
q
=
dq
d
φ
0 R
φ
1
N
⇒ 
q
=
∆φ
 
R
 
Net Change in flux
⇒ q
=
Resistance
So, we observe that the charge induced is independent of time.
Illustration 1. A square wire frame PQRS of each side carrying a steady
current I 1 is placed near a long straight conductor carrying a
current I 2 . The frame and the conductor are in one plane, with
the length of the conductor parallel to the side PS and QR of
the square frame as shown in the figure.

Prove that the work done in moving the conductor from position P 1 to position P 2 is given by

W

=

−µ

0

π

(

I I

1

2

)

log e

d

+  

d

P 1

I P Q I 1 I 2 R S d d
I
P
Q
I
1
I
2
R
S
d
d

P 2

Solution :

On changing the position of the long conductor from P 1 to P 2 , there is a change of magnetic flux linked with the square frame PQRS carrying a current I 1 .

The magnetic flux

position

Φ

1

linked with loop due to the current

I

2

in the conductor lying at

P

1

is

Φ

Φ

1

1

=

=

d

+

d

µ

0

I

2

µ

0

2

I

2

π r

log

dr

d +

 

d

2

π

e

cos 180º

= −

µ I

0

2

d +  

 

d

2

π

e

log

Similarly, the magnetic flux

conductor at position P 2 is given by

Φ

2 linked with the wire frame due to current I 2 in the

Φ 2

=

µ I

0

2


d

+

2

π

e

d

log

cos 0º

=

µ

0

I

2

 

d

+

 

2 π

e

d

log

So, change in the value of the flux linked with the loop when the wire moves form first position to the second is given by

∆Φ = Φ

2

− Φ

1

=

µ

0

I

2

d +  

 

d

π

log e

Further by definition, work done is given by

W

=

I

1

∆Φ = −

µ I

I

012

d +  

 

d

π

log e

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

LENZ’S LAW

Lenz’s law is based on Law of Conservation of Energy and it gives

the nature of induced e.m.f. or direction of induced current in the coil. When north pole of a magnet is moved towards the coil, the

induced current flows in a direction so as to oppose the motion of

magnet towards the coil. This is only possible when nearer face of the coil acts as a magnetic north pole which

makes an anticlockwise current to flow in the coil. Then the repulsion between two similar poles opposes the motion of the magnet towards the coil.

Similarly, when the magnet is moved away from the coil, the direction of induced current is such as to make the nearer face of the coil as a south pole which makes a clockwise induced current to flow in the coil. Then the attraction between two opposite poles opposes the motion of the magnet away from the coil. In either case, therefore work has to be done in moving the magnet. It is this mechanical work, which appears as electrical energy in the coil. Hence the production of induced e.m.f. or induced current in the coil is in accordance with the Law of Conservation of Energy.

(a)
(a)
is in accordance with the Law of Conservation of Energy. (a) (b) t h e INDUCED

(b)

the

INDUCED E.M.F. IN A CONDUCTING ROD MOVING THROUGH A UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD

Let a thin conducting rod PQ of length move in a uniform magnetic field b directed perpendicular to plane of paper, inwards. Let the velocity v of rod be in the plane of paper towards right.

By Fleming’s left hand rule a positive charge (q) in the rod suffers magnetic force qvB directed from Q to P along the rod while an electron will experience a evB directed from P to Q along the length of rod. Due to this force, the free electrons of rod move from P to Q, thus making end Q negative and end P positive. This causes a potential difference along the ends of rod. The potential difference developed is called induced emf ξ . If E is electric field developed in the rod, then

ξ . If E is electric field developed in the rod, then ξ = ξ being

ξ

= ξ being e.m.f. induced across the rod. For equilibrium of charges;

Electrical force = Magnetic force

E

eE = evB

E =vB

So, induced e.m.f. ξ = E = B v

If the rod moves across the magnetic field moving at an angle θ with it, then induced e.m.f. ξ =

where

B

n

is component of magnetic field normal to v. Here

induced e.m.f. ξ = Bv sin θ

B

n

= B

sin

θ

B

n

v ,

 

IMPORTANT

 

If

is a vector directed along the direction of induced current, then a general notation for induced e.m.f.

ξ

is

 

(

)

 

ξ =

B.

×v

   

So, for e.m.f. or induced current to exist we must make sure that B

 

and

must never be coplanar.

 

,

v

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

FLEMING’S RIGHT HAND RULE

The direction of induced current is given by Fleming’s Right Hand Rule which states that stretch the First Finger, Middle Finger and the Thumb of Right Hand in such a way that all three are mutually perpendicular to each other. First finger points in the direction of field. Thumb points in the direction of motion of conductor, then Middle figure point along the direction of Induced Conventional Current.

INDUCED E.M.F. IN A LOOP BY CHANGING ITS AREA

(i) Consider a straight conductor CD moving with velocity v towards right on a U-shaped conducting guide placed in a uniform magnetic field B directed into the page. As the conductor moves, the area of the loop CDFG increases, causing a change in flux and hence an e.m.f. is induced in the coil. Let the loop move through dx in a time dt.

ξ=

d

φ

d

=

dt dt

dA

ξ = B

dt

 

dx

dt

ξ = B

 

ξ = B v

(

BA

)

(in magnitude)

 

{A = dx }

BA ) (in magnitude)   { ∵ A = dx } If R is the resistance

If R is the resistance of the loop then the induced current is

I

=

B

v

R

Direction of induced current is given by Fleming’s Right Hand rule and it will flow anticlockwise.

Illustration 2.

Solution :

A rectangular loop with a sliding connector of length is located in a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the loop. The magnetic induction is equal to B.

E A D B R R v R 1 2 B F C
E
A
D
B
R
R
v
R
1
2
B
F
C

The connector has an electric resistance R, the sides AB and CD have resistances R 1 and R 2 respectively. Neglecting the self inductance of the loop, find the current flowing in the connector during its motion with a constant velocity. The magnitude of induced e.m.f. is dA

ξ = B
ξ
=
B

=

B

v

dt The induced e.m.f. is distributed over the entire circuit in such a way that the current I flowing through R is divided at E into two resistances R 1 and R 2 and finally returns to F. According to Lenz’s law, the current in loop AEFB must be in anticlockwise direction (so that field produced by this current is normally upwards, opposite to B) and in EDCF, current flows in clockwise direction. The effective resistance R eff of the circuit is given by

A R 1 B R E F C D R 2 I
A
R 1
B
R
E
F
C
D R
2
I

ξ

R

eff

= R

+ 

R R

1

2

R

1

+ R

2

 

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

Illustration 3.

I

=

ξ

=

B

v

 
 

R

eff

R

+ 

 

R R

1

2

   

R

1

+

R

2

A rod PQ of length L moves with a uniform velocity v parallel to a long straight wire carrying a current I. The end P remains at a fixed perpendicular distance r from the wire. Calculate the e.m.f. induced across the rod.

Solution : The rod moves in the magnetic field produced by the current carrying wire as a result of which an e.m.f. is induced across the rod. Let us consider a small element of length dx of the rod at a distance x and x + dx from the wire. The e.m.f. induced across the

…(1)

v P r x x+dx L
v
P
r
x
x+dx
L

element, d ξ = Bvdx

The magnetic field B at a distance x from a wire carrying a current I is given by

Q

I

B

µ

0

=

2

…(2)

…(3)

π x Using (2) in (1), we get µ I

d

ξ =

0

vdx

2 π x Induced emf across the entire length of the rod PQ is given by

ξ =

ξ

=

r

+

d

L

ξ =

Q

P

µ I 2 π x

0

v dx

I v dx 2 π x

µ

0

r

µ

0

Iv

ξ =

[

log

e

(

r

+

L

)

log

e

r

]

2 π

(ii) Consider the situation shown in the figure in which let the current flows clockwise.

Further, the current in the loop will cause force F , F and F to act on the three arms PQ, PS and

F , being equal and

1

2

3

QR respectively.

F

2

and

3

opposite, will cancel out,

F 1 is given by

F

1

=

BI

=

B

2

2

v

R

I =

B

v

R

ξ =

µ

0

Iv

r

dx

+

L

=

µ

0

Iv

2

π

x

2

π

r

[

log

e

x

]

r

r

+ L

ξ µ Iv  r + L  0 ⇒ = log e 2 π
ξ µ Iv
 r
+ L 
0
⇒ =
log
e
2 π
 
r
 
2
1
3
= =
= =

The power required to pull the loop is

P

=

F v

1

=

B

22

v

2

R

The rate at which Joule’s heat is produced in the loop is

H

=

I

2

R

=

B

22

v

2

R

Which is same as P, as expected, according to the law of conservation of Energy.

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

Illustration 4. A connector AB can slide without friction along π -shaped conductor located in a horizontal plane. The connector has a length , mass m and resistance R. The whole system is located in a uniform magnetic field of induction B directed inwards perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Initially, a constant horizontal force F starts acting on the connector translating to the right. Find how the velocity of the connector varies with time t. The inductance of the loop and the resistance of the π -shaped conductor are assumed to be negligible.

A B R F B
A
B
R
F
B

Solution :

Magnetic force on connector AB due to field is

F

m

= BI

 ξ 

 

 

 

B

v

 

=

B

2

2

v

 

I =

ξ B

=

v

F

m

=

B

Net force on the connector along the direction of motion is

R

R

R

=

B

R

R

F

F

m

= ma

F

B

2

2

v

dv

=

ma

=

m

R

dt

Integrating we get

v

0

mdv

=

dt

(

F

log e

B

F

2

2

v

B

2

/

R

2

v

)

/

R

B

2

2

F

mR

= −

t

0

⇒ =

v

RF

B

2

2

 

1

e

B

2

2

mR

t

 

mdv ⇒ = dt ( 2 2 F − B v / R ) v
mdv
= dt
(
2
2
F
B
v
/ R
)
v
2
2
m
B
v
⇒ −
log
F −
= t
(
2
2
B
/ R
)
e
R 
0
2
2
2
2
B
 F
− B
v
/ R
t
t ⇒
 
= e
mR
F 
2
F
B 2
−α t
⇒ v
=
( 1
e
) ,
where
α =
m α
mR

(iii) If a rod is rotated in the field with angular velocity ω, then the induced e.m.f. is

B (Area swept by the Rod)

ξ Time to complete one Revolution

=

ξ

=

B

(

π

2

)

2 π

ω

ξ =

Illustration 5. A metal rod OA of mass m can rotate about a horizontal axis O, sliding along a circular conducting ring of radius r as shown in figure. This arrangement is located in a uniform magnetic field of induction B, directed perpendicular to the plane of the ring. The axis O and the rim of ring are connected to a source of e.m.f. to form a non-inductive closed circuit of resistance R. Neglecting friction and ring resistance, find the expression for the e.m.f. in terms of time t, so that the rod rotates with constant angular velocity ω.

1

2

B ω

E

2

A ωt F mag A r O ωt ×B O mg (a) (b)
A
ωt
F mag
A
r
O
ωt
×B
O
mg
(a)
(b)

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

Solution :

Following forces are acting on the rod as shown in figure. The induced e.m.f. across the ends of the rod is

ξ =

1

2

B ωr

2

Net e.m.f. in rod – ring circuit is

E

= E

0

−ξ

If I is the current in the circuit then

I

=

E

E

0

B

ω

r

2

/2

=

R

R

…(1)

The magnetic force on the rod opposing the motion is

F

m

= BIr

{ perpendicular to the rod at mid-point}

Since the rod rotates with constant angular velocity so any point on the rod once taken will have a constant velocity throughout the entire tenure of rotation. So for equilibrium we have

F

m

= mg

sin

ωt

BIr = mg sin ωt

I

mg sin ω t

=

Br

…(2)

From equation (1) and (2), equating the value of I we get

 

( E

0

B

ω

r

2

/2

)  

R  

rB

=

mg

sin

2E rB r B ω = 2mgR sin ωt

0

3

2

E

0

=

1

2 rB

r

3

B

2

ω+

2

mgR

sin

ω

ω

t

t  

(iv) Production of induced e.m.f. in a coil by rotating it in a magnetic field (The A.C. Generator) Suppose a coil of N turns, and area A is rotated in a uniform magnetic field B with angular velocity ω . As the coil rotates, the flux through it changes.

ω axis coil
ω axis
coil

B

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

At t = 0 At any instant t T At t = 4 φ =
At t = 0
At any instant t
T
At t
=
4
φ = NBA cos0
φ = NBA cos θ
φ = 0
⇒ φ = NBA
→ B
⇒ φ = NBA cos(ωt )
→ B
→ B
ω
→ B
→ B
→ B
3 T
At t =
At t = T
At t
= T

4

At t = T
At t
= T

φ = NBA cos0

φ = 0

φ = NBA cos180

φ=−NBA

Figure showing cross-sectional view of coil rotating clockwise in a uniform magnetic field with uniform angular velocity ω

Due to this change in flux an induced e.m.f. is set up in the coil.

Since ,

At any instant.

ξ =

d φ

dt

φ = NB .A NBA cos θ = BA cos(ωt )

where

ξ

So,

ξ=−

d

dt

 

NBA

cos(

⇒ ξ = NBA ωsin (ωt )

ξ=ξ 0 sin

(ω

t

)

ω

t

)

 

0 = NBA ω = Peak value of AC voltage developed.

We note that the induced e.m.f. ξ has a sinusoidal variation, having the peak value NBA ω .

This forms the basic principle of the Alternating Current generator, which is a device converting mechanical energy into electric energy.

principle of the Alternating Current generator, which is a device converting mechanical energy into electric energy.

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

BACK E.M.F. IN D.C. MOTOR

A motor is the reverse of generator—it converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. When current is passed

through a coil placed in a magnetic field, it rotates. As the coil rotates, the magnetic flux linked with it changes,

giving rise to an induced e.m.f. This e.m.f. opposes the applied e.m.f. (ξ) and is, therefore, called back e.m.f. (e). If R is the resistance of the coil, the current through it is given by

I

ξ − e

=

R

The efficiency of the motor is

e

η = ξ

Maximum efficiency of a motor is 50%

i.e.

η

max

=

e 1

=

ξ 2

EDDY CURRENTS OR FOUCAULT’S CURRENTS

When a metallic body is moved in a magnetic field

in such a way that the flux through it changes or is

placed in a changing magnetic field, induced currents circulate throughout the volume of the body. These are called eddy currents. If the resistance of the said conductor is small, then the magnitude of eddy currents are large and the metal gets heated up.

This heating effect is a source of power loss in iron-cored devices such as dynamos, motors and transformers. The effect can be reduced by laminating the core. Application of eddy currents are given below :

the core. Application of eddy currents are given below : B INDUCTION FURNACE Joule’s heat causes

B

INDUCTION FURNACE

Joule’s heat causes the melting of a metal piece placed in a rapidly changing magnetic field.

DEAD-BEAT GALVANOMETER

If a moving coil galvanometer is intended to attain steady value quickly, damping is necessary to prevent

oscillation. This is achieved by winding the coil on a metallic frame – the large eddy currents induced in the frame provide electromagnetic damping.

MAGNETIC BRAKES

A drum is attached to the axle of the wheels of a train. It rotates when the train is moving. To stop the train, a

strong magnetic field is applied to the rotating drum. The eddy currents set up in the drum oppose the rotation

of the drum and the train stops.

SELF INDUCTANCE Whenever the electric current flowing through a circuit changes, the magnetic flux linked with the circuit also changes. As a result of this, an induced e.m.f. is set up in the circuit. This phenomenon is called self induction and the induced e.m.f. is called the back e.m.f. So, the phenomenon of the production of an induced e.m.f. in the coil when the flux linked with the coil changes is called phenomenon of self induction.

If I is the current flowing in the circuit, then flux linked with the circuit is proportional to I.

φ ∝ I

φ = LI

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

where L is called coefficient of self-induction or self-inductance or simply inductance of the coil and its SI unit is henry (H)

if

then

I

I

L = φ (numerically)

= 1 WbA

= 1 A,

-1

So, inductance of a coil is numerically equal to the flux linked with the coil when the current in the coil is 1 A.

since ,

if

then

ξ=−

ξ=−

ξ = L

d φ

dt

d

(

dt

dI

dt

LI

dI

dt

= 1As

L = ξ

-1

,

)

(in magnitude)

(numerically)

So, inductance of a coil is numerically equal to the e.m.f. induced in the coil when the current in the coil changes at the rate of 1 As -1 .

IMPORTANT

Here we must note that if we are asked to calculate the induced e.m.f. in an inductor, then we have

d I

ξ=− L

dt

But when we are asked to calculate the voltage (V) across the inductor then

V =ξ= L

d I dt
d I
dt

ENERGY STORED IN AN INDUCTOR

If dW

is the infinitesimal work done in time dt, then

dW =VIdt

where V is voltage across an inductor.

Since,

V

=

dW

L

dI

dt

=  

LdI

dt

W =

I

0

LIdI

Idt

= LIdI

=

1

2

LI

2

This work done is stored in the form of energy of the magnetic field in an inductor.

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

Also,

If

2W

=

I

= 1A

2

I

L = 2W

L

Thus the self-inductance of a circuit is numerically equal to twice the work done against the induced e.m.f. in establishing a current of 1 A in the coil.

IMPORTANT

The role of self-inductance in an electrical circuit is the same as that of the inertia in mechanical motion. Thus the self- inductance of a coil is a measure of its ability to oppose the change in current through it and hence is also called electrical inertia.

CALCULATION OF SELF-INDUCTANCE

FOR A CIRCULAR COIL Consider a circular coil of radius r and number of turns N. If current I passes in the coil, then magnetic field at centre of coil

B

=

µ

0

NI

2 r

The effective magnetic flux linked with this coil

NBA

=

N

 µ

0

NI

A

 

 

2 r

 

 

φ

=

 

I

=

µ

0

N

2

A

=

µ

0

N

2

π

r

2

 

2

r

2

r

φ =

Since, by definition

L

L

  2 r 2 r φ = Since, by definition ⇒ L L ⇒ L =

L

=

µ

0

N

2

π

r

2

FOR A SOLENOID Consider a solenoid with n number of turns per metre. Let current I flow in the windings of solenoid, then magnetic field inside solenoid is given by

B = µ

0

nI

The magnetic flux linked with its length is φ = NBA , where N is total number of turns in length of solenoid.

Since,

Since,

φ = ( n

φ

L =

)

L

I

= µ n

0

n =

N

BA

=

2

A

n

Self-inductance,

(µ

0

nI

)

A

L =

µ 0 N

2

A

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

MAGNETIC ENERGY DENSITY (U m )

Since,

For a solenoid

Since,

W

=

1

LI

2

2

L

= µ n

0

2

A

and

B

 
   

1

(

 

2

)

B

 

W

=

µ

0

n

 

A

 

2

 

µ

0

n

W

= 

B

2

(

A

)

 

2

µ

0

 

W

=

Energy

=

U

=

A

U

Volume

=

B

2

 

m

m

2 µ

0

=

µ 0 nI

Magnetic Energy Density

Thus making us conclude that the energy is stored in the form of magnetic field in a solenoid.

Illustration 6.

A long coaxial cable consists of two concentric cylinders of radii a and b. The central conductor of the cable carries a steady current I and the outer conductor provides the return path of the current. Calculate

(i) the energy stored in the magnetic field of length of such a cable,

(ii) the self inductance of this length of the cable.

Solution :

(i)

The magnetic field B in the space between the two conductors is given by

B

=

µ I

0

2 π r

where I = current in either of two conductors

r = distance of the point from the axis .

According to Ampere’s Law

B.d

0 ×

current enclosed by the path

B

(

2πr

)

= µ I

0

 

The energy

density

 

in the space between the

conductors

 
 

B

2

=

1

µ

0

I

2

=

µ

0

I

2

joule

u =

2

µ

0

2

µ

0

2

π

r

 

8

π

2

r

2

metre

3

dr a r O b
dr
a
r
O
b

Consider a volume element dV in the form of a cylindrical shell of radii r and (r + dr)

Energy dW

=

udV

=

dW

=

µ I

0

2

 

dr

4

π

r

µ

0

I

2

8

π

2

r

2

×

2

π r

dr

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

NARAYANA

INSTITUTE OF CORRESPONDENCE COURSES

Total

r = b .

So,

W

magnetic energy is obtained by integrating

=

b

µ I

0

2

a

 

dr

W

=

dW

=

µ I

0

2

4

π

e

a

log

 

b

4 π

 

r

 

this expression

from

r

= a

to

(ii) If L be the self inductance of length of the cable, then the energy in magnetic field

will be

Hence,

 

1

2

 

LI

2

.

1

2

=

µ

0

2

 

b

2

4 π

e

a

LI

log

L

=

µ

0

 

b

2

π

e

a

log

 

 

MUTUAL INDUCTANCE

Consider two coils P (Primary) and S (Secondary) placed close to each other such that if a current passes in coil P, the coil S is in the magnetic field of coil P and vice-versa.

When the key K is closed then the current flowing through a coil (P) changes, the magnetic flux liked with the neighbouring coil (Q) also changes. As a result of this an induced e.m.f. and hence an induced current is set up in coil Q.

The circuit, in which an emf is induced due to change in current in the neighbouring coil, is called the secondary circuit. This phenomenon of production of e.m.f. in a coil when the current in neighbouring coil changes is called mutual induction. The neighbouring circuit it which e.m.f. is induced is called the secondary circuit.

If I is current flowing through primary coil then at any instant, the flux linked with secondary coil is given by

P S
P
S

K

G
G

1

φ

2

I

1

φ

2

= MI

1

where M is called the coefficient of mutual induction or mutual inductance of the coils.

If I = 1A , then φ = M (numerically)

1

2

So, M is numerically equal to the flux in the secondary coil when the current in the primary is 1 A.

Also induced e.m.f. in secondary coil,

d

d φ

2

dI

1

dt

ξ

2

=−

=−

dt

dt

(

MI

1

)

=−

M

…(i)

…(ii)

If

dI

1

dt

=

1As

1

,

then

M

= ξ

2

(numerically)

So, M is numerically equal to the e.m.f. induced in the secondary coil when the rate of change of current in the primary coil is 1 As -1 .

Like self-inductance, the unit of mutual inductance is henry (H). The direction of induced e.m.f. or induced current arising due to a change in magnetic flux in all cases is given by Lenz’s law.

13

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Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

CALCULATION OF MUTUAL INDUCTANCE

FOR A TWO COIL SYSTEM

Consider two co-axial coils having number of turns N 1 and N 2 and radii R 1 and R 2 respectively. If I in outer coil, the magnetic field at its centre,

B

1

=

µ

0

N I

1

1

2 R

1

The flux linked with the inner-coil,

φ

1

= N

2

BA

1

2

⇒  µ

φ

2

= N

2

0

N I

1

1

 

1

2 R

A

2

(

π

R

2

2

)

φ

=

µ

0

NNA

1

2

2

=

µ

0

N N

1

2

2

M

=

I

1

2

R

1

2

R

1

1 O 2 2 1 1
1
O
2
2
1
1

1 is current

FOR A SOLENOID-COIL SYSTEM

Let

of cross-section A. Let a coil

solenoid completely. If I is current in solenoid, then magnetic field within it,

turns per unit length surround the

having area

n

1

be number of turns per metre length of a long solenoid

1

S

2

of

n

2

S

1

B

1

= µ

0

n I

1

1

2 1
2
1

The magnetic field does not exist inside the annular region (region between S 1 and S 2 ).

The magnetic flux linked with coil,

hence,

φ

=

2

(

M

= N BA

2

1

n

2

)(

µ nI

011

)

A

=

φ

2

I

1

= µ

nnA

012

MUTUAL INDUCTANCE OF TWO CLOSE COILS AND COEFFICIENT OF COUPLING

If two coils of self-inductances L 1 and L 2 M = K LL 1
If two coils of self-inductances
L
1 and
L
2
M = K
LL
1
2

are placed near each other, then mutual inductance

where K is constant, called coefficient of coupling

If flux linkage between coils is 100% then

K

= 1

and

so

M

=

LL 1 2
LL
1
2

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

Illustration 7.

A small square loop of wire of side

is placed inside a large square loop of wire of side L ( ) .

The loops are coplanar and their centers coincide. What is the inductance of the system ?

Solution :

The larger loop consists of four wires. The field

each wire is given by

at the center O, at a distance

L

2

from

µ I  µ 8 I 1 0 0 B = 4 ⋅ ⋅ 2sin
µ
I
µ
8
I
1
0
0
B
=
4
2sin 45
°
=
×
×
 
4
π
d
 
4
π
(
L
/2
)
2
µ
8
2
L
0
⇒ B
=
×
I
O
4 π
L
So, flux linked with smaller loop is
µ
8
2
0
2
i
Φ =
BA
=
×
×
I
×
 
4 π
L
  
Φ
µ
8
2
2
⇒ =
M
=
0 ×
×
I
4 π
L
2
µ
0
⇒ 2
M
=
2
×
×
π L
INDUCTANCES IN SERIES AND PARALLEL
SERIES
If two coils of self-inductances
L
1 and
L
having mutual inductance are connected in series and are far from
2

each other, so that the mutual induction between them is negligible, then net self inductance

L

S

= L

1

+ L

2

when they are situated close to each other, then net inductance

L

S

= L

1

+ L

2

±

2

M

PARALLEL

If two coils of self-inductance

each other, then net inductance L is

L

1

1

1

1

=

+

L

P

L

1

L

2

and

L

2

having mutual inductance are connected parallel and are far from

L

P

=

L

1

L

2

L

1

+

L

2

When they are situated close to each other, then

L

P

=

L L

1

2

M

2

L L

1

+

2

± 2

M

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

INDUCTION COIL

Induction coil is based on mutual induction and is used to produce a larger e.m.f. from a source of low e.m.f.

It has two coils, Primary and Secondary. When current in primary coil changes, the magnetic flux linked with the secondary also changes thus setting up an induced e.m.f. in the secondary. During self-induction of

primary the rate of growth of current is slow but when circuit breaks rate of change of current

dI dt
dI
dt

in the

secondary is very large and so induced e.m.f. in the secondary is also very large.

Induction coil can be used to produce an e.m.f. of the order of 50,000 V from a 12 V battery. Induction coil is often used to operate a discharge tube.

TRANSFORMER

A transformer is a device for converting high voltage at low

current to low voltage at high current and vice-versa.

It consists of two coils would on a soft iron core. The primary

coils is connected to an a.c. source. The secondary coil is

connected to the load which may be resistor or any other electrical device.

There are two types of transformers.

E P E S
E P
E S

STEP UP TRANSFORMER It converts low voltage at high current into high voltage at low current.

STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER

It converts high voltage at low current into low

voltage at high current.

The principle of transformer is based on mutual induction and a transformer works on AC only. The input is applied across primary terminals and output across secondary terminals. If the resistance of primary coils is zero then voltage across the primary is equal to the applied voltage.

The ratio of number of turns in secondary and primary is called turn ratio. So,

Output Primary Coil Secondary Coil
Output
Primary Coil
Secondary Coil

Turn Ratio N

=

N

S

N

P

If

across primary and secondary terminal respectively, then

For an Ideal Transformer (Efficiency = 1) we have

E

P

and

E

S

are alternating voltages,

I

P

and

I

S

the alternating currents,

 

1

Output Power

ξ

S

I S

η=

ξ

S

=

I

P

Input Power

= ξ

P

I P

 

=

ξ

P

I

S

ξ φ

S

S

N

S

=

ξ φ

P

P

=

N

P

Also we observe that

φ

P

and

φ

S be the magnetic flux

Physics : Electromagnetic Induction

So for an Ideal Transformer

ξ

S

φ

S

N

S

I

P

=

=

=

ξ

P

φ

P

N

P

I

S

For a non-ideal transformer (with efficiency η < 1 )

We have

ξ

η = ξ

S

I

S

P

I

P

So, we get

ξ

S I

P

ξ

P

I

S

= η

ξ

S

N

S

φ

S

η

I

P

=

=

=

ξ

P

N

P

φ

P

I

S

In actual transformer, there is some power loss. The main sources of power loss are :

a)

b)

c)

d)

I

2 R loss due to Joule heat in copper windings.

Heating produced due to Eddy currents in the iron core. This reduced by using laminated core.

Hysteresis loss due to repeated magnetization of the iron core.

Loss due to flux leakage.

When all the losses are minimized, the efficiency of the transformer becomes very high (90—99%).

LONG DISTANCE TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRIC POWER

Two minimize the