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Lingayen, Pangasinan

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CHAPTER 1
THE LEARNER

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At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. identify the learner’s attitudes and beliefs about learning, and
b. discover the learner’s multiple intelligences.

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I. OVERVIEW
The principal elements that make teaching and learning possible and attainable are
the teacher, the learner, and a conducive learning environment. Only when a positive
relationship exists among them can teaching and learning occur with precision and
predictability.
The teacher serves as the prime mover of the educational wheel while the learner is
the key participant in the learning process. The favorable environment provides essential
features and ingredients that could make a headway in guiding the teaching-learning processes
and methodologies needed for a smooth linkage among the three.

II. THE LEARNER


The learner is an embodied spirit. He/She is a union of a sentient body and a rational soul.
His/Her body experiences sensations and feels pleasure and pain. His/Her soul is the spirit
that has a tendency to respond to environmental stimuli such as danger signs or volition. As
teachers then, let us care for the embodied-spirit learner. Let us feed his/her body as well as
his/her spirit.
III. FUNDAMENTAL EQUIPMENT OF A LEARNER
1. COGNITIVE FACULTIES
a. Five Senses – The five senses are part of the learner’s sentient body. For effective and efficient
learning, it is important that his/her senses function normally.

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b. Instincts – The word instinct comes from the Latin word, instinctus, which means impulse.
This means that the learner has a natural or inherent capacity or tendency to respond to
environmental stimuli such as danger signs for survival or self-preservation.
c. Imagination – It is the ability to form a mental image of something that is not perceived
through the senses. It is the ability of the mind to build mental scenes, objects or events that do not
exists, are not present or have happened in the past.
d. Memory – This is the cognitive faculty of retaining and recalling past experiences.
e. Intellect – Using learner’s intellect, the learner can engage in cognitive processes such as
forming ideas or concepts, reasoning out and making judgment.
2. APPETITIVE FACULTIES
a. Feelings and Emotions – Emotion is the on and off switch for learning. Positive feelings and
emotions make the teaching and learning process an exciting and a joyful, fruitful affair. Negative
feelings and emotions make the same process a burden.
b. Will – The learner’s will serve as the guiding force and the main integrating force in his/her
character.
IV. FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE DIFFERENCES AMONG LEARNERS
1. Ability. The learner’s ability dictates the prospects of success in any purposeful activity. It
determines the capacity to understand and assimilate information for their own use and
application.
2. Aptitude. Aptitude refers to the learner’s innate talent or gift.
3. Interest. Learner’s interest in learning makes learning no longer a task but a pleasure. The
learner’s cognitive faculties of sensorial experience, memory, imagination, concept formation,
reasoning and judgment are at their height when learners’ interest are also at its peak.
4. Family and Cultural Background. Students who come from different socioeconomic
background manifest a wide range of behavior due to differences in upbringing practices. Some
families allow their members to express their preferences regarding self-discipline while others are
left to passively follow home regulations.
5. Attitudes and Values. A positive attitude will enhance the maximum and optimum use of the
learner’s cognitive and affective faculties for learning. A negative attitude towards learning robs
them of many opportunities for learning.

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IV. EXERCISE # 1:
Before we proceed to the next topic, use this exercise to explore your attitudes and beliefs
about learning. Put a check mark beside the statements that are TRUE of you.
_______ 1. There will always be something new to learn for as long as I live.
________ 2. I’m not afraid to commit mistakes as long as I learn from them.
________ 3. I take advantage of every opportunity to learn.
________ 4. I take charge of my own learning.
________ 5. I am very willing and eager to learn.
________ 6. I am grateful to teachers who demand quality and excellence for effective learning.
________ 7. I have made it habit to set my personal learning goals.
________ 8. I find time to check my progress against y personal learning goals.
________ 9. I give my best in everything I am asked to do in order to learn.
Questions:
a. How many did you score out of nine highest possible score?
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b. Review the statements which you didn’t check. How can these unchecked items affect your
learning? ____________________________________________________________________
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c. Choose one statement that you didn’t check, think of two steps that you could take right now to
build a positive learning attitude in this area. _________________________________________
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V. GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY

The learner is gifted with intelligence. The concept of intelligence evolved through the
years. Intelligence then was measured only in terms of language and mathematical competence.

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With Howard Gardner’s theory on multiple intelligences, the concept of the learner’s intelligence
has gone beyond linguistic and mathematical intelligences. Below is the complete list of Gardner’s
theory.

VI. LEARNING STYLES


Another factor that makes your students differ from one another is learning style. Learning
style is the way a person processes, internalizes, and studies new and challenging material. Dunn
and Dunn present different learning styles according to five groups of stimuli.

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EXERCISE # 2:

Note: Taken from the Questionnaire used by Dr. Terry Armstrong


http://www.literacynet.org/mi/assessment/findyourstrengths.html

This form can help you determine which intelligences are strongest for
you. If you're a teacher or tutor, you can also use it to find out which
intelligences your learner uses most often. Many thanks to Dr. Terry
Armstrong for graciously allowing us to use his questionnaire.

Instructions: Read each statement carefully. Choose one of the five


buttons for each statement indicating how well that statement describes
you.

1 = Statement does not describe you at all


2 = Statement describes you very little
3 = Statement describes you somewhat
4 = Statement describes you pretty well
5 = Statement describes you exactly

1 2 3 4 5

1. I pride myself on having a large


vocabulary.

2. Using numbers and numerical


symbols is easy for me.

3. Music is very important to me in


daily life.

4. I always know where I am in


relation to my home.

5. I consider myself an athlete.

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6. I feel like people of all ages like


me.

7. I often look for weaknesses in


myself that I see in others.

8. The world of plants and animals is


important to me.

9. I enjoy learning new words and do


so easily.

10. I often develop equations to


describe relationships and/or to
explain my observations.

11. I have wide and varied musical


interests including both classical and
contemporary.

12. I do not get lost easily and can


orient myself with either maps or
landmarks.

13. I feel really good about being


physically fit.

14. I like to be with all different


types of people.

15. I often think about the influence I


have on others.

16. I enjoy my pets.

17. I love to read and do so daily.

18. I often see mathematical ratios in


the world around me.

19. I have a very good sense of pitch,


tempo, and rhythm.

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20. Knowing directions is easy for


me.

21. I have good balance and eye-


hand coordination and enjoy sports
which use a ball.

22. I respond to all people


enthusiastically, free of bias or
prejudice.

23. I believe that I am responsible for


my actions and who I am.

24. I like learning about nature.

25. I enjoy hearing challenging


lectures.

26. Math has always been one of my


favorite classes.

27. My music education began when


I was younger and still continues
today.

28. I have the ability to represent


what I see by drawing or painting.

29. My outstanding coordination and


balance let me excel in high-speed
activities.

30. I enjoy new or unique social


situations.

31. I try not to waste my time on


trivial pursuits.

32. I enjoy caring for my house


plants.

33. I like to keep a daily journal of


my daily experiences.

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34. I like to think about numerical


issues and examine statistics.

35. I am good at playing an


instrument and singing.

36. My ability to draw is recognized


and complimented by others.

37. I like being outdoors, enjoy the


change in seasons, and look forward
to different physical activities each
season.

38. I enjoy complimenting others


when they have done well.

39. I often think about the problems


in my community, state, and/or
world and what I can do to help
rectify any of them.

40. I enjoy hunting and fishing.

41. I read and enjoy poetry and


occasionally write my own.

42. I seem to understand things


around me through a mathematical
sense.

43. I can remember the tune of a


song when asked.

44. I can easily duplicate color, form,


shading, and texture in my work.

45. I like the excitement of personal


and team competition.

46. I am quick to sense in others


dishonesty and desire to control me.

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47. I am always totally honest with


myself.

48. I enjoy hiking in natural places.

49. I talk a lot and enjoy telling


stories.

50. I enjoy doing puzzles.

51. I take pride in my musical


accomplishments.

52. Seeing things in three dimensions


is easy for me, and I like to make
things in three dimensions.

53. I like to move around a lot.

54. I feel safe when I am with


strangers.

55. I enjoy being alone and thinking


about my life and myself.

56. I look forward to visiting the zoo.

57. Most often I ponder on the


question “Why am I here in this
world”.

58. I often reflect on why innocent


people suffer?

59. I spend my time reading


inspirational books.

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60. I want to live my life


meaningfully.

61. What’s my mission in life?

62. Is there such a thing as hell?

63. Where can I find happiness?

INTERPRETATION
The following items in the questionnaire can be categorized into the nine intelligences:
1. Linguistic - 1, 9, 17, 25, 33, 41, 49
2. Mathematical - 2, 10, 18, 26, 34, 42, 50
3. Musical - 3, 11, 19, 27, 35, 43, 51
4. Spatial - 4, 12, 20, 28, 36, 44, 52
5. Kinesthetic - 5, 13, 21, 29, 37, 45, 53
6. Interpersonal - 6, 14, 22, 30, 38, 46, 54
7. Intrapersonal - 7, 15, 23, 31, 39, 47, 55
8. Naturalist - 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56
9. Existentialist - 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63

Add your scores per intelligence. Identify your dominant intelligence, the top 3 or 4.

All your future students have these multiple intelligence with two or more intelligence
more developed than others. If you teach in the same way throughout the year, then you do an
act of disservice to your students. To cater to varied multiple intelligence, you must have a
variety of teaching methods.

- End of Chapter 1 -

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CHAPTER 2
THE TEACHER

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At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:

a. describe the professional teacher, his/her personal and


professional attributes.
b. reflect on the qualities of a professional teacher

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I. THE PROFESSIONAL TEACHER


The professional teacher is the “licensed professional” who possesses dignity and
reputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional competence…s/he adheres
to, observes and practices a set of ethical and moral principles, standards, and values. (Code of
Ethics of Professional Teachers, 1997). The professional teacher is one who went through four to
five year period of rigorous academic preparation in teaching and one who is given a license to
teach by the Board for Professional Teachers of the Professional Regulation Commission after
fulfilling requirements prescribed by law such as passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers
(LET). S/he is a registered in the roster of professional teachers at the Professional Regulation
Commission and undergoes continuing professional education.

A. Professional Attributes
1. Control of the knowledge base of teaching and learning and use of this knowledge to guide
the
science and art of his/her teaching practice.
2. Repertoire of best teaching practice and can use these to instruct children in classrooms and
to
work with adults in the school setting.
3. Dispositions and skills to approach all aspects of his/her work in a reflective, collegial, and
problem-solving manner.
4. View of learning to teach as a lifelong process and dispositions and skills for working towards
improving his/her own teaching as well as improving schools.

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B. Personal Attributes
Personalities may be described as authoritarian, weak, dynamic, or magnetic. Teachers’
personality must be natural and genuine, that is devoid of pretenses and artificiality.
Some outstanding personal qualities that never fail to win their flock are the following:
1. PASSION. Passion for teaching is a compelling force that emerges from teachers’ love for
children. It is passion for teaching that drives them to care for their students corrected
with appropriate reformative action.
2. HUMOR. Teachers’ humor connects them with their students like a magnet. They help in
merging two worlds – youth and maturity. A clean joke will always elicit rapport in a
learning environment.
3. VALUES AND ATTITUDE. Teachers are models of values. Values connote standards,
code
of ethics, and strong beliefs.
a. Open-Mindedness. Open-mindedness is basic in promoting respect and trust between
teachers and students.
b. Fairness and Impartiality. Fairness and impartiality in treating students eliminate
discrimination. Teachers must be unbiased and objective in judging their work
and
performance.
c. Sincerity and Honesty. These are values exhibited in words and in actions. Teachers
must
show their real self, devoid of pretenses and half-truths. Sincerity dictates that they
d. Professionalism. It is highly treasured in the teaching profession. Teachers are adjudged
professional if they are knowledgeable, skilled and value-laden. They must have
internalized the edicts of the profession, thus exhibit ethical and moral conduct.
4. PATIENCE. Patience refers to a teacher’s uncomplaining nature, self-control and
persistence.
While it is natural to feel irritated, and upset at times, meeting disquieting
situations
with cool-headedness is indicative of one’s moral strength and fortitude.
5. ENTHUSIASM. This is synonymous to eagerness and excitement. Enthusiastic teachers are
full of energy and dynamism. Their passion and love for children are easily felt.
6. COMMITMENT. Commitment is a “solemn promise” to perform the duties and
responsibilities mandated by the laws and code of ethics of the profession. It is an
unwavering pledge to perform all teaching and learning activities with consistency
and selflessness to the best interest of the students under their care.

II. Research Findings on Effective Teachers (Stronge ,2012 )


1. Teachers with a major or minor in content area are associated with higher student
achievement

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especially in the area of science and mathematics.


2. Caring teachers who know their students create relationships that enhance the learning
process.
3. Effective teachers practice gender, racial, and ethnic fairness.
4. Effective teachers consistently behave in a friendly and personal manner, while maintaining
appropriate teacher-student role structure.
5. High levels of motivation in teachers relate to high levels of achievement in students.
6. Effective teachers exude positive attitudes about life and teaching.
7. Teachers whose students have high achievement rates continually mention reflection on their
work as an important part of improving their teaching.

III. EXERCISE # 3 :
1. Think for a moment about your favorite teacher. Make a mental list of what made that teacher
so special that even years after leaving elementary, high school, or college, you can still
remember the teacher’s name.
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2. Surf the internet for at least 5 inspirational quotes on teachers. Reflect on them.
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- End of Chapter 2 -

CHAPTER 3
THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

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At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:

a. describe a facilitative learning environment.

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I. INTRODUCTION
The learning environment consists of the physical environment as well as the psychological
atmosphere or the socio-emotional climate which is mainly a product of the interaction and
relationship between the teacher and students and among the students.

II. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT


The physical environment includes the physical condition of the classroom, the
arrangement of furniture, seating arrangement, the classroom temperature and lighting.
We enjoy learning in a neat, tidy orderly, spacious, well-lighted, well-ventilated, and quiet
classroom. We can’t learn in a topsy-turvy, warm, poorly ventilated and noisy classrooms.

III. PSYCHOLOGICAL CLIMATE


Researchers agree that in addition to conducive physical learning environment, the
psychological atmosphere or climate that reigns inside the classroom is also important. The
favorable school climate includes;
1. Safety ( rules and norms, physical safety, social-emotional safety)

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2. Relationships (respect for diversity, school connectedness/engagement, social support


from students and from adults, and leadership.
3. Teaching and Learning ( social, emotional, ethical and civic learning, support for
learning,
professional relationships)

Pine and Horne (1990) described a facilitative learning environment for learning. It is one;
1. which encourages people to be active.
2. which promotes and facilitates the individual’s discovery of the personal meaning of
idea.
3. which emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of learning.
4. in which difference is good and desirable.
5. which consistently recognizes people’s right to make mistakes.
6. which tolerates ambiguity
7. in which evaluation is a cooperative process with emphasize on self-evaluation.
8. which encourages openness of self rather than concealment of self.
9. in which people are encouraged to trust in themselves as well as in external sources.
10. in which people feel they are accepted.
11. in which people feel they are respected.
12. which permits confrontation.
13. A conducive learning environment is necessary in the full development of the cognitive
and appetitive faculties of the learner.

IV. EXERCISE # 4:
1. Research on the characteristics of a CHILD-FRIENDLY school. Draw or sketch its picture
and write a written report about your findings.
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- End of Chapter 3 -

CHAPTER 4
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING

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At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:

a. cite specific classroom situations depicting the different


principles of learning.
b. describe the effectiveness of the different laws of learning.

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I. INTRODUCTION

The learning of our students is our foremost concern. Learning is the acquisition of a
knowledge-based used with fluency to make sense of the world, solve problems and make
decisions. This definition implies that learning begins with knowledge acquisition. The
knowledge that is just acquired without being utilized is what American philosopher North
Whitehead referred to as “inert ideas”. These are ideas that are merely received into the mind
without being utilized, or tested, or thrown into fresh combinations.

II. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING

By knowing some principles on how learning takes place, we will be guided on how to
teach. Below are some principles of learning from Horne and Pine (1990):

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1. Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated by the learner. The
process of learning is primarily controlled by the learner and not by the teacher. No one directly
teaches anyone anything of significance.

2. Learning is the discovery of the personal and relevance of ideas. Students more readily
internalize and implement concepts and ideas which are relevant to their needs and problems.
It is necessary that the teacher relates lessons to the needs, interest and problems of the
learners.

3. Learning (behavioral change) is a consequence of experience. If experience is the best teacher,


then teacher should make use of experiential learning. Experiential learning makes use of
direct as well as vicarious experiences.

4. Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process. Cooperation fosters learning. Teacher


should make use more of cooperative and collaborative approaches. This way, students are
taught to live together and learn interdependently.

5. Learning is an evolutionary process. Changes takes time. Let us not expect results overnight. As
teachers and learners, let us learn to be patient. Things that are worthwhile in life take time.

6. Learning is sometimes a painful process. It may be good to make our students realize that
learning is a difficult task. It is accompanied by sacrifice, inconvenience and discomfort. But it
leads to inner joy.

7. One of the richest resources for learning is the learner himself. As a teacher, you must draw
these learners’ ideas, feelings and experiences. You midwife the birth of ideas.

8. The process of learning is emotional as well as intellectual. Learning is affected by the total state
of the individual. As teachers, let us not appeal to our students’ intellect as well as their
emotions.

9. The process of problem solving and learning is highly unique in an individual. Each person has
his own unique styles of learning and solving problems. As people become more aware of how
they learn and solve problems and become exposed to alternatives models used by other
people, they can refine and modify their personal styles so that these can be employed more
effectively.

III. LAWS OF LEARNING by Edward Thorndike

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1. Law of Effect – Learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling


and weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling.
2. Law of Exercise – Things most often repeated are best remembered.
3. Law of Readiness – Individuals learn best when they are physically, mentally, and emotionally
ready to learn, and they do not learn well if they see no reason for learning.

IV. ADDITIONAL LAWS

1. Law of Primacy – Things learned first create a strong impression.


2. Law of Recency –Things most recently learned are best remembered.
3. Law of Intensity – The more intense the material taught, the more it is likely learned.
4. Law of Freedom – Things freely learned are best learned

V. EXERCISE # 5: After reading all the principles, please fill up the following table citing specific
situations where these principle is applied.

Principles of Learning Specific Classroom Situations

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2. Present pictures of classroom scenarios that depicts the different laws of learning by Edward
Thorndike. Write a short caption on each picture.

- End of Chapter 4 -

CHAPTER 5
OBJECTIVE-RELATED PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING

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At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. Explain the objective-related principles and their implications
to teaching.
b. write SMART lesson objectives in three domains.
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I. GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN DETERMINING AND FORMULATING LEARNING


OBJECTIVES
1. “Begin with the end in mind.”. In the context of teaching, this means that we must begin our
lesson with clearly defined lesson objective. With a definite lesson objective in mind, we do not
lose sight of what we intend to teach.

2. Share lesson objectives with students. Make known to our students our instructional objective
and encourage them to make it their own. This lesson objective when shared and possessed by
our students will become their personal target. When our students set their own targets, we are
certain that they will become more self-motivated.

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3. Lesson objectives must be in two or three domains – knowledge (cognitive), skill


(psychomotor), and values (affective). Our lesson objective maybe dominantly cognitive,
psychomotor or affective. Dominantly cognitive if it is meant primarily for knowledge
acquisition and dominantly psychomotor if it is intended for the acquisition and honing of skills.
Lesson objectives in the affective domain are mainly focused on attitude and value formation.
A cognitive or skill lesson must always include the affective dimension for holistic learning. We
may end up with more head knowledge that is measured in test then completely forgotten after
the test. If we teach only skill unaccompanied by values, we may contribute to the formation of
people who will have all the skills to oppress, to abuse and to take advantage of the unskilled
and the unlearned. So it is necessary that our lesson objectives in the two or three domains with
the affective domain always present.

5. Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims of education as embodied in the Philippine
Constitution and other laws and on the vision-mission statements of the educational institution
of which you are a part. The aims of education as enshrined in the fundamental law of the land,
in the Education Act of 1982, the Ten-Year Medium Term Development Plan must be
reflected in the vision-mission statements of educational institutions. In turn, the vision-mission
statements of educational institutions must filter down to the course objectives stated in course
syllabi and in lesson objectives laid down in lesson plans.

6. Aim at the development of critical and creative thinking. If we want to contribute to the
development of citizens who are critical and creative thinkers, the type of citizens needed to
make democracy, then we should include in our scope of questions the high level, divergent, or
open-ended questions. Our teaching strategies and techniques must be such that they serve as
catalyst in the development of higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) and creative thinking skills.

7. For accountability of learning, lesson objectives must be SMART (Specific, Measurable,


Attainable, Result-oriented/Relevant, Time-bound/Terminal). When our lesson objective is
SMART, it is quite easy to find out at the end of our lesson if we attained our objective or not.
SMART objectives increases our accountability for the learning of our students. With these
objectives, there is a greater match between instruction and assessment, thus there is curriculum
alignment.

II. TAXONOMY OF OBJECTIVES


With educational taxonomy, learning is classified into three domains namely, a) cognitive,
b) affective, and c) psychomotor.
A. COGNITIVE
1. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain
Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, ranging from simple recall or recognition
of facts as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the

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highest level which was identified as evaluation.

2. Anderson’s and KrathwohlsTaxonomy of Cognitive Domain


Anderson, Bloom’s former student, together wit a team of cognitive psychologists, revisited
Bloom’s taxonomy in the light of the 21st Century skills. This led to Anderson’s taxonomy.

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B. AFFECTIVE DOMAIN
1. Krathwohl’s Taxonomy of Affective Domain
David Krathwohls’s affective learning is demonstrated by behaviors indicating attitudes of
awareness, interest, attention and values of concern, and responsibility, ability to listen and
respond in interactions with others, and ability to demonstrate those attitudinal characteristics or
values which are appropriate to the test situation and the field of study. His taxonomy is ordered
according to the principle of internalization.

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2. Bloom’s Taxonomy

C. PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN
1. Anita Harlow’s Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain.
It is organized according to the degree of coordination including involuntary
responses as well as learned capabilities. Simple reflexes begin at the lowest level of the
taxonomy, while complex neuromuscular coordination make up the highest levels.

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2. Blooms Taxonomy on Psychomotor Domain

III. HOW TO WRITE LESSON OBJECTIVES


Objectives are outcomes rather than an instructional process. Objectives are measurable
outcome statements. Mager (1998) cites the following characteristics of objectives:
1. It describes student performance.
2. An objective is about ends rather than means.
3. An objective describes the conditions under which the performance occurs on the job.
4. An objective describes the standard of acceptable performance, it tells how well someone must
perform before being considered competent on that objective.
IV. STANDARDS AND COMPETENCIES IN THE K TO 12 CURRICULUM
The Curriculum Guide of the K to 12 Curriculum contains content and performance
standards and competencies, not objectives. It make use of standards-based instruction.
Content standards define what students should know and be able to do. These are
benchmarks which identify the expected understandings and skills for a content standard at
different grade levels. Performance standards (indicators) describe how well students need to
achieve in order to meet content standards. They are the levels of proficiency which the
students are expected to demonstrate what they know and what they are able to do.
Competencies are more specific versions of the standards. They are specific tasks performed
with mastery. They also refer to the ability to perform activities within an occupation or function
to the standards expected by drawing from one’s knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

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V. EXERCISE # 6:
1. Choose a topic from the K to 12 Curriculum Guide fitted to your specialization. Formulate at
least 2 objectives in every domain. Use the following questions to assess your objectives. Use the
matrix below for your answers.
a. Are the terms behavioral?
b. Are they SMART?
c. Are they relevant and significant and therefore, worth pursuing?
d. Are the three domains of objectives represented in the chosen topic?

Topic Objectives

_ End of Chapter 5 -

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CHAPTER 6
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF CONTENT

\________________________________________________________________
At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. Describe the structure of a subject matter
b. Employ strategies for the teaching of conceptual
understanding, thinking skills in the different levels and values.

______________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION
Our leaders in the basic education level came up with the Philippine Elementary Learning
Competencies (PELCs) and Philippine Secondary Learning Competencies (PSLCs) in 2001. The
intended content of what we teach is laid down in such document. In the K to 12 Currriculum,
standards and competencies are also spelled out. This means that we are not entirely free in the
selection of our content. They are “given”. But how they are organized and presented in the
classroom ultimately depends on you. Below are some principles to guide you:

II. GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN THE SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF CONTENT

1. One guiding principle related to the subject matter content is to observe the following qualities
in the selection and organization of content:
a. Validity – This means teaching the content that we ought to teach according to national
standards explicit in the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum. It also means teaching the content in
order to realize the goals and objectives of the course as laid down in the basic education
curriculum.
b. Significance – What we teach should respond to the needs and interest of the learners,
hence meaningful and significant.
c. Balance – Content includes not only facts but also concepts and values. The use of the
three-level approach ensures a balance of cognitive, psychomotor and affective lesson content.
d. Self-sufficiency – Content fully covers the essentials. Learning content is not “mile-wide
and inch-deep”. The essentials sufficiently covered and are treated in depth.
e. Interest – Teacher considers the interest of the learners, their developmental stages and
cultural and ethnical background.

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f. Utility – Will this content be of use to the learners? It is not meant only to be memorized
for test and grade purposes. What is learned has a function even after the examinations are over.
g. Feasibility – The content is feasible in the sense that the essential content can be covered
in the amount of time available for instruction.

2. At the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content is FACTS. We can’t do away
with facts but be sure to go beyond facts by constructing an increasingly richer and more
sophisticated knowledge base and by working out a process of conceptual understanding.

a. Providing opportunities for experimentation.


b. Presenting the ideas of others.
c. Emphasizing conceptual understanding.

Here are some specific strategies that can help you develop conceptual understanding:
 Organize units around a few core ideas and themes.
 Explore each topic in depths.
 Explain how new ideas relate to students’ own experiences and to things they have
previously learned.
 Show students through the things we say, the assignments we give, and the criteria we used
to evaluate learning.
 Ask students to teach to others what they have learned.
 Promote dialogue.
 Use authentic activities.

3. Subject matter content is the integration of cognitive, skill and affective elements.

III. THE STRUCTURE OF SUBJECT MATTER CONTENT


 COGNITIVE (KNOWLEDGE)
1. Fact – is an idea or action that can be verified.
Ex. Names and dates of important activities
2. Concept – is a categorization of events, places, people and idea.
Ex. The concept of furniture includes objects as chairs, tables, beds, desks.
3. Principle – is the relationship between and among facts and concepts.
Ex. The number of children in the family is related to the average scores on
nationally standardized achievement tests for those children.
4. Hypotheses – are educated guesses about relationships (principles).
5. Theories – refer to a set of facts, concepts and principles that describe possible
underlying unobservable mechanisms that regulate human learning, development
and behavior.

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Ex. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development


6. Laws – are firmly established, thoroughly tested principle or theory.
Ex. Thorndike’s Laws of Learning

 PSYCHOMOTOR (SKILL)
1. Manipulative Skills
There are courses that are dominantly skill-oriented like Computer, TLE,
and Physical Education. The learning of these manipulative skills begin with naïve
manipulation and ends up in expert and precise manipulation.

2. Thinking Skills

Divergent thinking – includes fluent thinking, flexible thinking, original


thinking and elaborative thinking.
Convergent thinking – it is narrowing down from many possible thoughts to
end up on a single best thought or an answer to a problem.
Problem Solving – Problem solving is made easier when the problem is
well-defined. Problems can be solved by using an algorithm or a heuristic
strategy. Solving problems by the use of algorithm means following a step by
step-by-step instructions. Using heuristics, we employ a general problem-
solving strategy for a solution.
Metaphoric Thinking – This type of thinking uses analogic thinking, a
figure of speech where a word is used in a manner different from its
ordinary designation to suggest or imply a parallelism or similarity.
Critical Thinking – It involves evaluating information or arguments in terms
of their accuracy and worth. It takes a variety of forms - verbal reasoning,
argument analysis, hypothesis testing and decision making.
Creative Thinking - This type of thinking involves “producing something
that is both original and worthwhile”. It develops the following behaviors:
 Awareness – The ability to notice the attributes of things in the
environment so as to build a knowledge base that is the beginning of
all other forms of creative thinking.
 Curiosity – The ability and inclination to wonder about things and
mentally explore the new, novel, unique ideas.
 Imagination – The ability to speculate about things that are not
necessarily based on reality.
 Fluency – The ability to produce a large quantity of ideas.
 Flexibility – The ability to look at things from several different
perspectives or viewpoints.

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 Originality – The ability to produce new, novel, unique ideas.


 Elaboration – The ability to add to add on to an idea.
 Perseverance – The ability to keep trying to find an answer, to see a
task through completion.

 AFFECTIVE (ATTITUDES AND VALUES)


In the three-level approach to teaching, values are at the apex of the triangle.
It is because it is in the teaching of values that the teaching of facts, skills and
concepts become connected to the life of the students, thus acquiring meaning.
Without the value-level of teaching, we contribute to the development of persons
who have big heads but tiny hearts. We contribute to the formation of “intellectual
giants” but emotional dwarf.
Values have a cognitive dimension. When we teach the value of honesty we
ask the following questions: What is meant by honesty? Why do I have to be
honest? The affective dimension – You have to feel something towards honesty.
The behavioral dimension – You practice honesty and so lead an honest life.
How can we teach values?
 By deutero-learning – Your student learns by being exposed to the
situation, by acquainting himself with a setting, by following models,
pursuing inspirations and copying behavior. YOUR CRITICAL ROLE AS
MODELS IN AND OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM CANNOT BE
OVEREMPHASIZED.
 By positively reinforcing good behavior.
 By teaching the cognitive component of values in the classroom.

IV. EXERCISE # 7: Get a copy of a lesson plan from a high school teacher teaching a subject
in line with your specialization. Analyze the lesson plan and answer the following questions.

1. Were the lessons focused on information/cognitive domain only or mental procedures only
or psychomotor procedures/physical skills only? Or were the lessons combinations of two or
three? Explain your answer.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

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2. What is the effect on learning when teaching is focused on only one domain?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

3. How can you make your teaching more meaningful and more relevant? Is lesson more
relevant when you teach only in the cognitive or when you teach in the cognitive domain
combined with the affective or psychomotor combined with the affective? Cite examples to
support your answer.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

-End of Chapter 6-

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CHAPTER 7
SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES

\________________________________________________________________
At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. State the implications of these principles to the teaching-
learning process.
b. Organize objectives and strategies to be used in developing a
chosen topic.
______________________________________________________________________________

I. GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING


STRATEGIES
1. Learning is an active process. This means that we have to actively engage the learners in
learning activities if we want them to learn what we intend to teach. We have to give varied
activities to our students for “hands-on-minds-on” learning. Researchers found out that the
most effective approaches – resulting in 75 % and 90 % retention rates, respectively – are
learning by doing and learning by teaching others…
2. The more senses that are involved in learning, the more the better the learning. Humans are
intensely visual animals. The eyes contain nearly 70 % of the body’s receptors and send
millions of signals along the optic nerves to the visual processing centers of the brain. We take
in more information visually than through any of the other senses.
3. Emotion has the power to increase retention and learning. The more emotionally involved our
students in our lesson, the greater the impact.
4. Learning is meaningful when it is connected to students’ everyday life. Abstract concepts are
made understandable when we give sufficient examples relating to the student’s experiences.
5. Good teaching goes beyond recall of information. Ideally, our teaching should reach the levels
of application, analysis, evaluation and synthesis to hone our students’ thinking skills.
6. An integrated teaching approach is far more effective than teaching isolated bits of information.
An integrated teaching approach incorporates multiple intelligences and learning styles,
research based and brain-based strategies.

II. RESEARCH FINDINGS ABOUT THE BRAIN (WOLFE, 2001)


Without rehearsal or constant attention, information remains in working memory for only
about 15 to 20 seconds.
Learning is a process of building neural networks.

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Our brains have difficulty comprehending very large numbers because we have nothing in
our experience to “hook” them to.
The eyes contain nearly 70 % of the body’s sensory receptors and send millions of signals
every second along the optic nerves to the visual processing of the brain.
There is little doubt that when information is embedded in music or rhyme, its recall is
easier than when it is in prose.
III. BRAIN-BASED STRATEGIES
Involving students in real-life or authentic problem solving.
Using projects to increase meaning and motivation.
Simulations and role plays as meaning makers.
Classroom strategies using visual processing.
Songs, jingles and raps.
Mnemonic strategies.
Writing strategies.
Active Review.
Hands-on Activities.
There is no such thing as best teaching method. The best method is the one that works, the
one that yields results.
IV. EXERCISE # 8: Now that you read the different principles in teaching, try to analyze the
following questions using classroom scenarios as your bases.
1. What are the implications of these principles to the teaching-learning process? Cite specific
examples.
______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
2. Based from the objectives that you had formulated in Exercise #6 based on the subject matter
related to your specialization, what teaching strategies and principles in teaching do you think
will be effective if you will teach the lesson? Cite as many as you can.
______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
3. Write the Part 1 and Part II of your lesson plan using the format below:

Lesson Plan in ________________


I. Objectives: At the end of a 60-minute period, 100 of the students are expected to do the
following with at least ____ level of success:
A. ______________________________________________________________
B. ______________________________________________________________
C. ______________________________________________________________
D. ______________________________________________________________
E. ______________________________________________________________
II. Subject Matter: _______________________________________________________
Reference(s) : _________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Materials: _____________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

- End of Chapter 7 -

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CHAPTER 8
DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND METHODS IN TEACHING

\________________________________________________________________
At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. Identify how a teacher start, develop and end a lesson based on the
class observed.
b. Differentiate direct and indirect method of instruction.
______________________________________________________________________________
I. INTRODUCTION
Teaching approach is a set of principles, beliefs, or ideas about the nature of learning
which is translated into the classroom. It springs from a teachers’ own philosophy of education,
the nature of education, the role of the teacher and that of the student.
Teaching strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal.
Strategy applies to many disparate fields such as military strategy, economic strategy, teaching
strategy and the like.
Teaching method is a systematic way of doing something. It implies an orderly logical
arrangement of steps. It is more procedural.
Teaching technique is a well-defined procedure used to accomplish a specific activity or
task. It is a teachers’ particular style or trick used to accomplish an immediate objective.

II. TEACHING APPROACHES


A. DIRECT/EXPOSITORY APPROACH
1. Direct Instruction/Lecture Method
Direct instruction is aimed at helping students acquire procedural knowledge which is
knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. Procedural knowledge refers to skills
needed in the performance of a task. It is also used for lessons that are factual and non-
controversial.

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To employ this methodology in teaching, follow these steps: a) provide the rationale, b)
demonstrate the skill, c) provide guided practice until mastery, d) check for understanding and
provide feedback, e) provide extended practice and transfer, and assess learning at the end.
2. Demonstration Method
As the name implies, in the demonstration method the teacher or an assigned student or
group shows how a process is done while the students become observers. This approach is
employed in presenting lessons that use sophisticated equipment and technical know-how.
B. INDIRECT/GUIDED/EXPLORATORY APPROACH
Indirect instruction method is best used when the learning process is inquiry-based, the
result is discovery and the learning context is a problem. This can come as a) inquiry/discovery
method, b) problem solving method, c) project method.
1. Inquiry Method - We must provide the students with opportunities to explore, inquire, and
discover new learnings. The core of inquiry is spontaneous and a self-directed exploration.
Textbook-dictated procedures do not allow an active probe into the unknown.
2. Problem Solving Method
Problem solving is a strategy that employs the scientific method in searching for
information. The five basic steps of the scientific method or investigatory process are:
a. Sensing and defining the problem.
b. Formulating hypothesis.
c. Testing the likely hypothesis.
d. Analysis, interpretation and evaluation of evidence.
e. Formulating conclusion.
3. Project Method
Learners solve a practical problem over a period of several days or weeks. The
projects may be suggested by the teacher but they are planned and executed as far as possible by
the students themselves, individually or in groups. Project focuses on applying, not imparting,
specific knowledge or skills, and on improving student involvement and motivation in order to
foster independent thinking, self-confidence, and social responsibility. It is also a method that
requires the students to present in concrete form the results of information gathered about a
concept, principle or innovation. The data can be organized and presented in the form of a
model, a dramatization or any visual illustration. It is sometimes referred to as “self-directed
study”.

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4. Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning makes use of a classroom organization where students work in
groups or teams to help each other learn. Concepts from small group theory and group
dynamics serve as the basis upon which skills in democratic procedures and collaborations are
developed. It has two important components namely: a) a cooperative incentive structure – one
where 2 or more individuals are interdependent for a reward, and b) a cooperative task
structure – a situation in which 2 or more individuals are allowed, encouraged or required to
work together on some talks, coordinating their efforts to complete the tasks.
5. Peer Tutoring/Peer Teaching
Make students teach each other in a “Think, Pair, Share” manner. This method is
commonly employed when the teacher requests the older, brighter and more cooperative
member of the class to tutor other classmates. This is based on the rationale that the former is
better equipped than the others. Tutoring arrangement may be in any of the following:
a. Instructional Tutoring – older students help younger ones on a one-to-one or one-
to-
a group basis.
b. Same Age Tutoring – This arrangement works well with children who can act as
interactive pairs.
c. Monitorial Tutoring – The class may be divided into groups and monitors are
assigned
to lead each group. This frees the teacher from whole class
monitoring to attend to others while the assigned tutor monitors
and supervises the rest.
d. Structural Tutoring – Highly structured tutoring is administered by trained tutors.
e. Semi-structured Tutoring – This is a combination of unstructured and structured
where the tutor guides his/her tutee through a carefully
planned
learning guide but is free to modify it according to the tutee’s
own
interest and skills.
6. Partner Learning
As the name of this method implies, this is learning with a partner. A student
chooses partner from among his/her classmates. This also means assigning “study
buddy”.

III. TWO CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHING METHODS

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1. DEDUCTIVE METHOD
In the Deductive method, the teacher tells or shows directly what he/she wants to
teach. This is also referred to as direct instruction. For example: A teacher wants to
teach his/her pupils how to add similar fractions. S/he begins by stating the rule: To add
similar fractions just add the numerators then copy the denominator. Then she will give
examples. After which, she will give written exercises for her pupils.

2. INDUCTIVE METHOD
The opposite of direct method and deductive method is the inductive method.
This is also called indirect instruction.
The inquiry method or problem solving method and project method fall under
indirect, guided and exploratory approach to instruction. They begin with questions,
problems and details and end up with answers, generalizations, conclusions. In the
inductive method, instead of the teachers giving the rule in adding similar fractions at the
outset, s/he will give them at least five examples of added similar fractions at one time.
Ask the pupils to study the examples then ask them to explain how s/he arrived at the
sums. From there, s/he will ask the pupils to state the rule in adding fractions.

IV. OTHER APPROACHES


1. Blended Learning
Blended learning is learning that is facilitated by the effective combination of different
modes of delivery, models of teaching styles of learning, and is based on transparent
communication amongst all parties involve with a course. This is also described as
“integrative learning”, hybrid learning, multi-method learning, mobile learning and on-
line learning.
2. Reflective Teaching
Students/teachers learn through an analysis and evaluation of past experiences. Through
reflection, the students/teachers experience acquires meaning.
Strategies:
a. Self-analysis
b. Writing journals
c. Keeping a portfolio
3. Metacognitive Approach
It is an approach that goes beyond cognition. It is an approach that makes our students
think about their thinking. It has something to do with our students monitoring their
own cognitive processes as they are engaged in their cognitive task.
4. Constructivist Approach
Constructivists view learning as an active process that results from self-constructed
meanings. A meaningful connection is established between prior knowledge and the
present learning activity.

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5. Integrated Approach
The integrated approach is interdisciplinary, intradisciplinary, and transdisciplinary.
There are no walls that clearly separate one subject from the rest. Integrating listening,
reading, writing, speaking and viewing in language arts is a common example.
6. Problem-based Learning
It is the learning that results from the process of working toward the understanding of
the resolution of a problem. This is also known as project-based learning or place-based
learning.

V. EXERCISE # 9:
1. Observe a high school class and observe how the teacher teaches the lesson. Write your
observations below and answer the questions thereafter.
a. Write how the teacher start, develop and end the lesson by writing on the space
provided for it.
Start of the Lesson:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Development of the Lesson
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Ending of the Lesson:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

2. Did the teacher use indirect or direct approach in teaching the lesson? Explain your answer.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. What other strategies were used in developing the lessons? Cite specific examples.

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_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. From the chosen topic (related to your specialization) where your objectives were anchored,
write the Part III of your lesson plan integrating the fitted approaches and methods.
Follow the format below.

PART III. Procedure


A. Motivation
B. Presentation of the Lesson
C. Development of the Lesson
D. Exercises
E. Generalization
F. Valuing
IV. Evaluation
V. Assignment

- End of Chapter 8 -

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CHAPTER 9
SELECTION AND USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

\________________________________________________________________
At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. Produce instructional materials that are appropriate to the chosen
topic or on the planned lesson.
b. Apply the principles in the selection of instructional materials.
______________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION
There is no drab lesson if appropriate media is used in its presentation. Properly selected
and used, its impact on the attention, sustained interest, and participation of students has long been
recognized to a point that this wide collection of teaching tools earned the title “sub-strategies”.

II. PRINCIPLES IN THE SELECTION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. All instructional materials are aids to instruction. They do not replace the teacher.
2. Choose the instructional material that best suit your instructional objectives.
3. If possible, use a variety of tools.
4. Check out your instructional material before class starts to be sure if it is working
properly.
5. For best results, abide by the general utilization guide on the use of media given below:
a. Learn how to use the instructional material.
b. Prepare introductory remarks, questions or initial comments you may need.
c. Provide a conducive environment. Arrange the chairs, equipment and materials.
Provide sufficient lighting and ventilation.
d. Explain the objectives of the lesson.
e. Stress what is to be watched or listened to carefully.
f. State what they will be expected to do with the information they will learn.
Discussion or a test may follow.
g. There is a need to summarize or review the experience. Prepare measures that
can assess their gains based on the objectives.

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III. EXERCISE # 10:


From your lesson plan in the previous exercise, produce at least three (3) sample
instructional material that you can use to develop your lesson. Be guided by the following criteria
to be used in evaluating your instructional materials;
a. Creativity - 30 %
b. Relevance to the Topic 40 %
c. Artistic Appeal 20 %
d. Cost of materials 10 %
Total 100 %

-End of Chapter 9 -

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CHAPTER 10
ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING

\________________________________________________________________
At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. Explain the guiding principles in the assessment of learning and
their implications to the teaching-learning process.
b. Give examples of appropriate assessment tools based on the chosen
lesson.
______________________________________________________________________________

I. GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING

1. Assessment of learning is an integral part of the teaching-learning process.


We teach with a certain objective to attain. If assessment or evaluation is built into the
teaching learning process, students’ allergy to tests may be cured because it becomes very common
and natural to them. Students are made to understand that the purpose of assessment is to check
on learning.

2. Assessment tool should match with performance objective.


Which assessment tool to us, which test to formulate must be based on our performance
objective. If our assessment tool is aligned with our performance objective, we can claim it as a
valid tool.

3. The results of assessment must be fed back to the learners.


If the main purpose of assessment is to find out how well the learner has attained a
particular learning objective, it goes without saying that the assessment process serves its purpose
only when we return corrected quizzes, tests, seatworks, assignments and examinations.

4. In assessing learning, teacher must consider learners’ learning styles and multiple intelligences
and so must come up with a variety of ways of assessing learning.

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The learning styles and multiple intelligences are considered in our assessment activities.
The traditional assessment practice of giving written tests is inadequate, we need to introduce other
techniques like portfolio assessment and other authentic assessment tools.

5. To contribute to the building of culture of success in the school, it is pedagogically sound that in
our assessment techniques, give some positive feedback along with not so good ones.
6. Emphasize on self assessment.
7. If we believe that our task as teachers is to teach all pupils/ students, and that it is possible that
all students even those from limited backgrounds, will have access to opportunities and therefore
can achieve, then the bell curve mentally must be abandoned.
8. Assessment of learning should never be used as a punishment or as a disciplinary measure.
9. Results of learning assessment must be communicated regularly and clearly to parents.
10. Emphasize on real world application that can favor realistic performances over out of contest
drill items.
11. To ensure learning, do formative assessment.
12. To ensure reliability of assessment results, make use of multiple sources.

II. EXERCISE # 11.


1. From the different principles in the assessment of learning, how are you going to apply these in
assessing learning of your students? Cite examples.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

2. Make a sample 10-item objective test based on your chosen topic. Use the lesson plan that you
formulated in Exercise #9. Use the format below:
Part IV. Evaluation
Direction: _____________________________________________________
1. ____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________________
6. ____________________________________________________________

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7. ____________________________________________________________
8. ____________________________________________________________
9. ____________________________________________________________
10. ___________________________________________________________

- End of Chapter 10 -

CHAPTER 11
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

________________________________________________________________
At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. Discuss the principles of classroom management and their
implications in facilitating learning.

______________________________________________________________________________
I. INTRODUCTION
A common problem, sometimes the most common, that beginning teachers face is poor
classroom management. Classroom management is not yet teaching but, it is a pre-requisite to
teaching. We cannot teach if our classes are inattentive, worse when they are unruly. This is how
critical classroom management is.
As classroom managers, we manage resources to facilitate learning. The resources include
the 3 Ms – Moment, Materials and Man. In the content of teaching and learning, these are time,
teaching materials and other physical features like desks and tables and the learners themselves.

II. PRINCIPLES IN CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT


1. Consistent, proactive discipline is the crux of effective classroom management.
To be consistent to our classroom management, we apply established rules and policies to
all pupils and students regardless of creed, color, economic status, and academic standing in class.
We do not say this and do another. That will be a blow to our credibility.

2. Establish routines for all daily tasks and needs.


Routinized collections of assignments, passing of papers, and preparation for experiments
saves a lot of time and effort. Routinized procedures give rise to orderly learning environment and
maximum and optimum use of precious time.

3. Orchestrate smooth transitions and continuity of momentum throughout the day.

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Smooth transitions and continuity of momentum throughout the day ensure us that every
instructional moment is made use of wisely.

4. Strike a balance between variety and challenge in students’ activities.


A variety of student activities will ensure the students’ multiple intelligences and varied
learning styles are considered in the conduct of student activities.

5. As classroom manager, be aware of all actions and activities in the classroom.


Our heightened awareness of everything that is happening in our classroom puts our pupils
and students on their toes all the time. While our back faces them when we write on the board ,
our “eyes-on-the-back-of-our-heads” will make our pupils and students feel that we know what they
are doing. This is what Kounin calls with-it-ness.

6. Resolve minor inattention and disruption before they become major disruptions.
The old adage “a stitch on time saves nine” aptly applies here. Misdemeanor has a “ripple
effect” if not checked properly.

7. Reinforce positive behavior.


Be generous with genuine praise. For our praise to be genuine, it should be given according
to merit. It is our way appreciating and recognizing hard work and good behavior.

8. Treat minor disturbance calmly.


“Do not make a mountain out of a mole”. If a stern look or gesture can kill the
inappropriate behavior so be it. Let us not make a fuss about it.

9. Work out a physical arrangement of chairs that facilitates an interactive teaching-learning


process.
Let us work for a flexible seating arrangement where we can rearrange seats or desk to suit
our learning needs and conditions.

10. Make good use of every instructional moment. Minimize discipline time to maximize
instructional time.

III. EXERCISE # 12:


1. Cite at least 3 indicators of consistent classroom management. How these indicators helped in
effectively facilitating learning?
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______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

2. If you will be the teacher, what classroom management strategies will you initiate and implement
as you teach your chosen topic? Explain your answer.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

3. Prepare for a teaching demonstration using your lesson plan. Please notify your teacher for the
schedule and prepare your instructional materials. Apply the principles that you identify from the
previous exercises.

-End of Chapter 11 -

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CHAPTER 12
MANAGEMENT OF TIME

\________________________________________________________________
At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:

a. State effective techniques to maximize instructional time.

______________________________________________________________________________
I. INTRODUCTION
We have two hundred five days (205) for the whole school year. If the average teaching-
learning hours is six (6) hours per day, then we have one thousand two hundred thirty hours for
the entire school year. These are inclusive of hours and days devoted to four periodical
examinations. The problem is not all these hours are used for instruction. Many hours for
instruction are robbed from the students for several reasons. One big reason is the disruption due
to disciplinary problems, interruptions due to announcements, administrative tasks, such as
checking of attendance, brown out and the like. What can we do to minimize the time spent on
discipline problems in order to maximize the academic time?
II. SOME RESEARCH-BASED EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUES IN SPENDING TIME
WISELY
1. Orchestrate smooth classroom transitions.
2. Remain involved with the students during the entire class period allowing for no idle time.
3. Use fillers, in case you finish the lesson ahead of time.
4. Use planning or pacing material such as syllabus.
5. Use a common place to keep materials.

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6. Follow consistent schedule and maintain the procedures and routines established at the
beginning of the school year.
7. Handle administrative task quickly and efficiently.
8. Prepare materials in advance.
9. Make clear and smooth transitions.
10. Limit disruptions and interruptions through appropriate behavioral management technique.

III. SUGGECTED TIME MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR QUALITY OUTPUT


1. Schedule all activities with corresponding time allotment way ahead of time.
2. Provide enough time for everything you expect to happen.
3. Avoid rushing since you know you have carefully enough time for every activity.
4. Anticipate difficulties or failure of some operations in order to be able to pursue alternative
options.
5. Be flexible with time assignments.
6. Set the example by showing that you are time-conscious.

IV. EXERCISE # 13
A. Using the formulated lesson plan and using a 60-minute lesson, identify the number of minutes
allotted to each part of your lesson starting with the procedure part.
Part of a Lesson Plan Time Alloted
1. Motivation
2. Presentation of the Lesson
3. Development of a Lesson
4. Exercises
5. Generalization
6. Valuing

B. Cite examples of classroom situations where instructional time is maximized rather than the
discipline time.

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______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
-End of Chapter 12-

CHAPTER 13
DISCIPLINE

______________________________________________________________________________
At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. Trace some causes of disciplinary problems.
b. Describe the various modes of establishing classroom discipline.
______________________________________________________________________________
I. INTRODUCTION
The subject of discipline is a matter of continuing and great concern in schools. We read
about bullying and physical violence happening in schools. Much time is lost due to disciplinary
problems. Teachers may be partly blamed because of mistaken ideas about discipline which have
led them to be hesitant in controlling behavior. Teachers, administrators, and parents and other
education stakeholders see the need for the exercise of appropriate and effective discipline in
schools.
Discipline is a controlled behavior. It constitutes the next important concern of teachers as
part of good management. No matter how well-managed a learning environment is students will
occasionally misbehave. Teachers must be ready to deal with them with utmost care and
consideration.
II. SOME CAUSES OF DISCIPLINARY PROBLEMS
1. Unfavorable Learning Conditions
Following are some classroom situations that contributes to
unfavorable learning:
a. overcrowded with more than the regular member of students to a class..
This results in immobility or discomfort in moving around, especially
when there is a need to operate instructional equipment and materials.
b. with poor lighting facilities and inadequate ventilation. Attention and interest will

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be difficult to sustain.
c. with furniture and storage cabinets disorderly positioned, making the collection
and retrieval of tools less efficient.
d. with inappropriate seating arrangement such that distractions can easily occur.
e. near sources of noise which obstruct understanding of the lesson.

2. Teacher’s Poor Management Skills.


The teachers’ lack of adequate knowledge and skills in handling occurrences of
misbehavior likewise contributes to a trouble-prone setting. The teachers’ ability to meet
discipline-challenging situations can spell the difference between a good or distressed
classroom control. So much depend on their: a) knowledge and skill in employing a wide
range of classroom strategies and procedures, and b) personal and emotional attributes.

3. Students’ Varied Background


The students bring to the classroom a surprising record of individual attitudes,
interest and abilities. Said characteristics could be traced from their differences in a) family
background, b) physical and mental capacities, and c) emotional traits among others.

III. HOW TO PREVENT DISCIPLINE PROBLEMS


Seasoned teachers have learned how to prevent discipline problems. They have accepted
from varied experiences that no matter how hard they try, somehow a case of misbehaving may
occur. The good reminder they share to others is “You must know how to anticipate trouble so
that minor skirmishes may not erupt to full-fledged battles”. The following are some proven
effective measures:
1. Depending on the students’ abilities and interest, teachers can implement group-oriented
methodologies such as a) cooperative learning approach, b) team learning, c) peer tutoring,
and d) group projects and collections.
2. Teachers who are sensitive to possible misdirection of efforts and interactions are fast to
switch from one technique to another as the need arises. There must be clear
understanding
3. Of prime importance are the teachers’ personal attributes such as: a) patience, b)
compassion, c)concern and caring attitude, and d)respect and trust for others. A calm and
composed reaction in the midst of an untoward behavior can ensure an acceptable
solution for all.
4. The teachers’ personalities influence students’ behavior. A warm, respectable relationship
with students through sincere and straightforward communications can demonstrate trust
and credibility.
5. The teachers’ teaching style will determine how the students will respond , at times
receptive, sometimes withdrawn.

IV. EXERCISE # 14: THE CANTER MODEL OF ASSERTIVE DISCIPLINE

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Find out if you practice assertive discipline. Rate yourself from a scale of 1 to 5. To what
extent does each statement apply to you? Circle your answer using the codes below.

1 – Not at all
2 – Seldom
3 – Sometimes
4 – Often
5 – Always

1. I will not tolerate any student stopping me


from teaching. 1 2 3 4 5
2. I will not tolerate any student preventing
another student from learning. 1 2 3 4 5
3. I will not tolerate any student engaging in any
behavior that is not in the students’ best interest
and the best interest of others. 1 2 3 4 5
4. Whenever a student chooses to behave
appropriately, I will immediately recognize, and
reinforce such behavior. 1 2 3 4 5
5. I am the “boss” in the classroom. 1 2 3 4 5
6. I have the skills and confidence necessary
to “take charge” of my classroom. 1 2 3 4 5
7. I have the right to expect good students’ behavior. 1 2 3 4 5
8. I have the right to expect support from my
superiors to establish discipline in the classroom. 1 2 3 4 5
9. My students have the right to a favorable learning
environment. 1 2 3 4 5
10. I have the right to teach without being disrupted
by students’ behavior. 1 2 3 4 5

_____________________________________________________________________________
Interpretation:
The closer you are to 50, the more assertive is your approach to discipline is, the farther you are
from 50, the less assertive your approach is.
______________________________________________________________________________

Your Score: ______________________________


Interpretation: __________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

V. WAYS OF DEALING WITH DISCIPLINE PROBLEMS

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A. ACCEPTABLE AND EFFECTIVE


1. Use verbal reinforcers that encourage good behavior and discourage bad tendencies.
2. Use non-verbal gestures, frown or a hard look to dissuade them from mischiefs.
3. Dialogues can help in discovering problems and agreeing on mutually beneficial solutions.
4. Focus attention on one who is unruly and is about to disturb the neighbors. Lead him/her to a
secluded area and nicely convince her to be quiet.
5. Award merits for good behavior and demerits for inconsistencies and lapses.
6. A private one-on-one brief conference can lead to a better understanding of mistakes that need
to be remedied or improved.
7. Give students the freedom to express or explain agitated feelings and misgivings rather than
censure them right away.

B. UNACCEPTABLE AND INEFFECTIVE


1. Scolding and harsh words as a reprimand will have a negative effect on the entire class.
2. Nagging and faultfinding, together with long sermons are repugnant and nasty.
3. Keeping a student in a detention area during or after classes as a penalty for his misbehavior.
4. Denying a student some privileges due to unnecessary hyperactivity can all more encourage
repetitions.
5. Assignment of additional homework compared to the rest can make them dislike the subject.
6. Use of ridicule or sarcasm could humiliate and embarrass a student.
7. Grades for academic achievement should not be affected due to misdemeanor.

VI. EXERCISE # 15. Answer the following questions comprehensively:

1. Is there a weakness of assertive discipline? If yes, mention at least two.


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

2. Leaving the students solely accountable for their conduct in class develops a deep sense of
orderliness in their actions and manners. They learn self-control in life which will help them deal
with others with confidence. What could be possible risks here? Cite specific classroom situations.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
-End of Chapter 13 -

CHAPTER 14
MANAGING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

______________________________________________________________________________
At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. Defend one’s proposed model for a conducive learning
environment.
______________________________________________________________________________
I. INTRODUCTION
A well-designed utilization of classroom space is of utmost necessity if the aim is to be able
to manage all learning activities to a successful completion. How should the environment be
structures for effective teaching and learning?
II. FURNITURE ARRANGEMENT
The physical features in the classroom must be located in areas where the contents could
be viewed well and be made available for use. Well-arranged, they make the room look spacious
and orderly. Furniture such as chairs and tables for demonstrations or displays must be positioned
appropriately. Exhibit shelves are either permanently pinned to the wall or are made to stand at the
sides.
Whiteboard for writing and clarifying lesson discussions, together with bulletin board, are
available for posting important messages and outstanding pieces of students’ work, art, and
illustrations.

III. SEATING ARRANGEMENT


The choice of the right size of the chair would depend on the students’ size. If kept on a
large desk or a smaller one, they will feel uncomfortable and their movements will be affected.

IV. PHYSICAL CONDITION OF THE CLASSROOM


Clean rooms, hallways and surroundings are wholesome places to stay in. The teacher
should schedule who is responsible for their neatness on a regular basis. In case of accidental spills,
students should be trained to mop or wash the area immediately. Used instruments and devices
must be returned to their proper places. Always erase the board after use. Place a waste basket
nearly.

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The physical environment must also be a safe place where curious, overactive and
energetic children are always on the go. Avoid slippery floors, rickety chairs and old furniture. For
a live, and freshly look, potted indoor plants can be placed at the corners and flowers on the
teacher’s table. Noise and discipline problems can be avoided in an orderly and well-managed
classroom.

V. EXERCISE # 16:
1. Sketch or make a drawing of a conducive physical classroom environment. Describe it briefly.
Include the desired seating arrangement and position of furniture and boards in the classroom.

-End of Chapter 14 -

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CHAPTER 15
ESTABLISHING CLASSROOM ROUTINE

______________________________________________________________________________
At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. Justify the establishment of a classroom routine.

______________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION
Routines have to be learned. We get used to doing them in order for them to become
routinized. It is therefore, necessary that we identify and explain specific rules and procedures in
our classroom.
Some routines on the following can be of great help:
a. Beginning and ending the class day or period.
b. transitions
c. getting /distribution of materials/equipment
d. seatwork and teacher-led activities

II. TRANSITIONS
A. Pre Lesson Transitions
1. Delegate administrative tasks to students when possible.
2. Attendance, announcements, materials distribution and homework collection should be
routinized.
3. Use the first few minutes of the class and the last few minutes to encourage creative
thinking activities.

B. Sample 5-Minute Routines


1. Problem of the day
2. Brain teaser
3. Vocabulary “Word of the Day”
4. React to a quotation
5. Warm up problem on overhead to copy and solve

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6. Respond to a newspaper editorial


7. Conundrum

C. During the Lesson Transitions


1. Give supplementary exercises for the fast workers
2. Get the fast learners to tutor students in need of help.
3. Ask the Fast learners to assist you in your administrative tasks.
D. Rules and Procedures
1. Moving in and out of the group
2. Expected behaviors of students in a group
3. Expected behaviors of students not in a group
4. Group communications with the teacher
5. Seatwork and teacher-led activities

E. Some Effective Signals


1. 5,4,3,2,1 countdown
5 – for freeze
4 – for quiet
3 – for eyes on the teacher
2 – for hands free
1 – for listen to instructions
2. raise your hand if you wish to participate
3. freeze
4. gently tap on your neighbor’s arm to get his/her attention
5. face the teacher and listen to instructions

III. EXERCISE # 17

1. Is it wise to give all your rules and procedures on the first day of school? Why? Or Why not?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

2. “Plan to teach from bell to bell” is an advice from an experienced teacher. What does she
mean? Is this a sound advice? Why? Why not?

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______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
- End of Chapter 15 -

CHAPTER 16
EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING AND REACTING TECHNIQUES

______________________________________________________________________________
At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. classify different types of questions.
b. Demonstrate effective questioning and reacting techniques.
______________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION
The kind of questions we ask determine the kind of thinking we develop. A question is
taken as a request for information. It is simply an inquiry about something. In teaching, it takes the
form of a problem at the start of an investigation or a query about a current issue such as time or
classroom management. It is a statement that demands an explanation, a purpose or an argument.

II. TYPES OF QUESTIONS ACCORDING TO PURPOSE


1. For Assessing Cognition
This type of question is used to determine one’s knowledge in understanding. They
promote high level thinking. Divergent questions and open-ended inquiries call for analysis and
evaluation.
Ex: Why is sound heard louder when underwater than out of it?
2. For Verification
It determines the exactness or accuracy of the results of an activity or performance.
Ex: Why is lightning seen before thunder is heard?
3. For Creative Thinking
It probes into one’s originality.
Ex: How will you present the layers of the earth to your class?
4. For Evaluating
It elicits responses that include judgments, value and choice.
Ex: Was your teacher’s slide presentation well done?
5. For Productive Thinking

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It includes cognitive reasoning. It analyses facts, recognizes patterns or trends and invokes
memory and recall.
Ex: How can we apply the Law of Conservation of Energy?
6. For Motivating
Before discussing the lesson, a number of questions about the topic can serve to arouse
their interest and focus attention. It attempts to put students in the right mood.
Ex: Did you ever train a pet?

7. For Instructing
The question asks for useful information. It directs, guides and advises on what and how to
do an activity.
Ex: What are the steps in performing an experiment?

III. TYPES OF QUESTIONS ACCORDING LEVEL/ANSWER

1. LOW LEVEL QUESTIONS


They include memory questions or those that require simple recall.
Ex: Define energy.
2. HIGH LEVEL QUESTIONS
These questions call for a respondent’s ability to analyze, evaluate and solve problems.
Ex: Why does temperature rise towards noontime?
3. CONVERGENT QUESTIONS
They are questions that require a single predictable answer.
Ex: When does lunar eclipse occur?
4. DIVERGENT QUESTIONS
They require the respondents to think in “different directions”, to think of alternative
actions or to arrive at own decision. There are several possible answers.
Ex: What will happen if you leave it under direct sunlight for a week?

IV. QUESTIONING SKILLS


Class interaction is dependent on your questioning skills. Which skills should you acquire
to generate interaction among your students?

1. Varying type of question.


2. Asking non-directed questions.
3. Calling on non-volunteers.
4. Rephrasing.
5. Sequencing logically.
6. Requiring abstract thinking.
7. Asking open-ended questions.
8. Allowing for sufficient wait time.
9. Assessing comprehension.

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10. Involving as many students as possible.

V. HOW TO IMPROVE QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE


1. Know your own style of questioning.
2. Request a colleague to critique your own style.
3. Increase your own repertoire of type of questions.
4. Consider the individual abilities and interests of the students.
5. Spend time reflecting on the type of questions you ask. Improve on them.

VI. HANDLING PUPILS’/STUDENTS’ RESPONSE


1. Providing feedback on the correctness and incorrectness of a response.
2. Giving appropriate praise to high quality responses.
3. Making follow up questions.
4. Redirecting questions.
5. Following up a student’s response with related questions.
6. Re-phrasing the seemingly unclear question.
7. Showing non-verbal encouragement.
8. Encouraging learners to ask questions.

VII. EXERCISE # 18:


1. Prepare 5 convergent, 5 divergent, 5 high level and 5 low level questions about the topic that you
choose. What are the advantages of asking questions classified as such?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

- End of Chapter 16 -

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CHAPTER 17
ASSIGNMENT/HOMEWORK

______________________________________________________________________________
At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to:
a. Explain the guiding principles in giving effective homework.
b. Write a complete lesson plan related to the chosen topic.
______________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION
Research has proven that for every 30 minutes of “additional homework” a student does
per night, his/her overall grade point average (GPA) increases about half a point (Keith, 1982).
Students, for one reason, are not happy with homework. But when done properly, homework
leads to mastery of learning.

II. FUNCTIONS OF HOMEWORK

1. PRE-LEARNING - The homework is a preparation for an in-depth discussion of the next


lesson
by getting an introduction or a background.
2. CHECKING FOR UNDERSTANDING – By way of homework, teachers gain insight into
student learning.
3. PRACTICE – Homework is an opportunity for practice of rote skills such as multiplication
tables,
spelling words, or facts that need to be memorized for internalization and
mastery.
4. PROCESSING – Homework is used when teachers want students to reflect on concepts and
skills
in real life, and think of new questions.

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III. GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN THE USE OF HOMEWORK

1. The purpose of homework and outcome of homework should be identified and articulated.
Connect homework to classroom learning and relevant tasks.
2. Homework tasks should be differentiated by a) difficulty or amount of work, b) by the amount
of scaffolding provided, and c) learners’ learning style or interest.
3. Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum.
4. If homework is assigned, it should be commented on.
5. Move from grading to checking.
6. Establish and communicate a homework policy.
7. Establish a homework support program.

IV. EXERCISES # 19:

1. DepEd Memorandum No. 392, 2010 orders teachers to avoid giving assignments on Friday,
citing parents’ complaints about the heavy weekend study load of their children. Surf the DepEd
website for a complete copy.
a. Does the DepEd memo contradict the lessons you learned on homework? Explain your
answer.
b. Do you agree with the DepEd Memo? Why? Why not?

2. Write an assignment related to your chosen topic. Check if the given direction/instruction is
clearly
stated.

3. Write your completed semi-detailed lesson plan based on your chosen topic, following the
prescribed format.

I. Objectives
II. Subject Matter
Reference:
Materials:
III. Procedure
A. Motivation
B. Presentation of the Lesson
C. Development of the Lesson
D. Exercises
E. Generalization
F. Valuing
IV. Evaluation
V. Assignment

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- End of Chapter 17 -

REFERENCES:

Acero, Victorina O., et. al. Principles and Strategies of Teaching. Manila:Rex
Book Store, 2000.

Andres, Thomas Quintin. How To Become An Effective Teacher and Trainer.


Manila:Rex Book Store. 1999

Aquino, Gaudencio. Teaching Models, Strategies and Skills. Manila:Rex book


Store. 1997

Boiser, Diosdada. Strategies For Teaching:A Modular Approach. Manila: Rex


Book Store. 2000

Corpuz, Brenda. Principles and Srategies of Teaching . Quezon City:Lorimar


Publ.2003

Garcia, Manuel. Focus on Teaching (approaches, methods, techniques).


Manila:Rex Book Store. 1989.

Gregorio, Herman C. Principles and Methods of Teaching. Quezon city:Garotech


Publishing. 1976

Hidalgo, Fe. Tips on How To Teach Effectively (A description of 60 teaching


methods) Manila:Rex Book Store. 2001

Salandanan, Gloria. Teaching Approaches and Strategies. Quezon city: Katha

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Publishing. 2001.

Sunga, Nilda A. A Teacher’s Package on the Art of Classroom Questioning.


Mandaluyong City:Sibs Publishing Co. 2004.

Tullao, Tereso. Education and Globalization. Makati City:APEC Study Center


Network. 2003.

Vergel, Virgilio. The Education System of the Filipinos. Quezon City:Giraffe.


2004.
Zulueta, Francisco and Kathleen Guimbatan. Teaching Strategies and
Educational Alternatives. Vol. 1 and 11. Mandaluyong City:Academic
Publishing corp. 2002.

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