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Answering the Future Challenges:

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
IN INDONESIAN HIGHER EDUCATION
International Conference on Embedding AI in Education Policy
and Practice for Southeast Asia, SEAMOLEC

Ismunandar
Direktur Jenderal Pembelajaran dan Kemahasiswaan
KEMENTERIAN RISET, TEKNOLOGI, DAN PENDIDIKAN TINGGI
Jakarta, 19 September 2019

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IMAGINE ONE DAY
by utilizing AI, big data, robotics,
which is integrated in various
aspects of life (education,
health, transportation, industry,
finance, etc.) can support
services and comfort sustainable
lives of human beings.

Source: Farnam Jahanian, Carnegie Mellon University,


Keynote at MIT’s “Hello World, Hello MIT” event,
February 2019

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Challenges of
INDUSTRY 4.0 Technology will create a range of new
professions which do not exist yet.
Disruptive Era
Role of humans to be replaced by machines/robots/AI
Taxi Online Taxi Driverless car
75-375 Million 1.8 Million
THE GLOBAL WORKFORCE JOBS TO BE REPLACED BY
WILL CHANGE PROFESSIONS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Data Entry Data Analytics Big Data
(McKinsey, 2017) (Gartner, 2017)

Transformed
Primitive Agriculture Industry Innovation Smart Society
Society

Transformed Physical Time Connected across


Centralized Distributed Virtual
Life Style Segmented Constrained time and space

Transformed Creative, Fast, Collaborative, Crowd Sourcing,


X-Gen Y-Gen Z-Gen
Generation Borderless, Connected
Transformed
1st Gen 2nd Gen 3rd Gen
Higher Education + Research & Innovation + Entrepreneur
Education Education Education
Education
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PricewaterhouseCoopers research results (2017),
INDUSTRY 4.0 38% of jobs in the US, 30% in the UK, 35% in
The era that is blurring the lines between
the physical, digital, and biological spheres
Germany, and 21% in Japan will be replaced by
(Schwab, WEF, 2017) robots/automation by 2030.

Man vs
Computer Network

200 BILLION THE BIG DATA BANG!


AI increasingly plays
OBJECTS a big role Humans can make
mistakes, ‘AI can
(IOT DEVICES) Artificial intelligence (AI): help’ (and be
ARE CONNECTED a combination of computers, better).
life and social sciences.
(intel, 2017)

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50% of the world’s population is under the age of 30,
how is the perception of millennial generation seeing the world (Industry 4.0)?
Results of the 2017 WEF Global Shapers Survey from 186 countries (2017)

the next big technology


(n=21.059) Destroying
; 21,4% trend? (n=21.115)
28%
Artificial Intelligence
Indonesia's demographic
Creating;
11,5% bonus (millennial) will
Biotechnology
78,6% also play a vital role in
the world development.
9,3%
Robotics
Millennial opinion in the next
big technological trends is
Millennials think that technology 9,3% “artificial intelligence” (AI)
Internet of Things
is “creating jobs” (78.6%) as 28% of votes, followed by
opposed to “destroying jobs” “biotechnology” and “robotics”
7,1%
(21.4%). Driveless Car (11.5% and 9.3%).

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Society 4.0 (information society) Society 5.0
Cyberspace Cyberspace

SOCIETY 5.0
A human-centered society
that balances economic
advancement with the CLOUD AI & BIG DATA
resolution of social problems
SENSOR INFO (ANALYSIS)
by a system that highly
High value-added
integrates cyberspace and Person access, retrieve and analyze
information
information
physical space.

(Cabinet Office, Government of


Japan, 2018)

A person search by A person Robot produce under Automatic producing


Automatic driving AI propose a person
navigation system analyze control of human by robots in
Source: information industries
• https://www.japan.go.jp/abenomics/
• https://www8.cao.go.jp/cstp/english/societ Physical Space Physical Space
y5_0/index.html
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Industry 4.0 has the potential
to deliver benefits to Indonesia
Source: AlphaBeta Strategy & Economics, 2019

Productivity • Among 15 countries in Asia Pacific, Indonesia is projected to reap one of the highest
Industry 4.0 enabled employee productivity gains of 46% by 2021.

• A study in the region shows that if low skill workers learn to perform higher order tasks
Incomes
that are non automatable, their real wages could increase by 10% by 2030.

• In Indonesia, it has been projected that in all sectors except manufacturing, agriculture
and mining, the income effect of Industry 4.0 alone could create sufficient new jobs to
Jobs
offset projected displacement losses, resulting in net gains of 1-7% by 2028.
• In particular, all occupations (except agricultural workers) are projected to see net job
gains of almost 1.47 million jobs by 2028.

• Technology enabled job matching platforms have the potential to create an additional
Workforce
employment of 3.5 million workers and a GDP boost of US$23 billion in Indonesia in
participation
2025.
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Indonesian Internet Users

This fact must be used to


improve the quality and
54,68%
or 143.26 million of the total
relevance of higher population of Indonesia.
education
(the era of AI, Big Data, Cloud
Computing).
Daily Internet Access

Potential in ~9 Hours
ICT from various digital devices
(Greater than USA 6.5 hours).
UTILIZATION
Indonesia
~4 Hours
from cellphone / smartphone
Source: (Greater than the USA 2 hours).
• Digital in 2018, We Are
Social and Hootsuite, 2018
• Kominfo, 2018

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58 Million New Jobs
created because of AI by 2020
The demand for AI expertise
Indonesia has opportunity
will continue to increase to encourage Artificial
Employer demand for AI-related roles has more
than doubled over the past three years. Intelligence to students /
— Indeed, 2018
graduates.

Amazon, Booz Allen Hamilton,


KPMG, Microsoft, and Apple tops
the list of companies with the
highest number of AI vacancies.
(Techrepublic, 2018)
The most in-demand AI jobs are data
scientist, software engineer, and
machine learning engineer.
— Indeed, 2018

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Artificial Intelligence jobs posted on Linkedin
5,000+

Source: Ashar, Mian. Artificial Intelligence in Education, Evolve Machine Learners (2018)

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Type of AI Technology

Machine Learning
Knowledge
Representation
Natural Language
Searching Processing
Strategy
Computer Vision
Reasoning
Robotics

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Knowledge
Representation
How to capture real-
world information into
computer representation
that can be used to solve
complex problems.

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Search Strategy

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Reasoning
Understand various aspects
of reasoning :

o Theorem proving
o Proof checking
o Reasoning by Induction
o Reasoning by Deduction
o Reasoning under uncertainty
o Non-monotonic reasoning

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Machine Learning
A computer program that
can improve its performance
in performing a task with
increasing experience.
Image: ZDNet

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Natural
Language Processing
o The possibility of interaction between
humans and computers using human
language (natural).
o Possible interactions between people
around the world (machine translation).

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Computer Vision
Develop various methods for processing, analyzing
and understanding real world image data.

Image: https//holyokecodes.org Image: http://vision.seecs.edu.pk

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HOW AI CHANGES EDUCATION INDUSTRY
Source: https://edtechmagazine.com/k12/article/2019/08/artificial-intelligence-authentic-impact-how-educational-ai-making-grade-perfcon

Automation Integration Acclimation Delineation Identification

By automating AI solutions can AI in can help acclimate AI-driven analytics in Data analytics informed
straightforward tasks such integrate with other IT students to the pace of education can help spot by adaptative AI
as grading, digital asset initiatives such as technological change. critical trends and solutions can help
categorization or timetable smart technology and delineate key markers identify critical areas for
scheduling, educators can IoT-driven networks to to help teachers design student and teacher
increase the amount of provide personalized the most effective performance.
time they spend actively learning solutions for classroom experience
engaging with students. students. and drive digital
transformation.

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AI Utilization for
Automated
Teaching and Grading
Learning
Intermediate
Proctoring Interval Education

Adaptive Learning
Feedback Loop
(Intelligent Tutoring
for teachers
System) Artificial
Intelligence

Personalized Virtual Facilitators


Learning

Chat Campus
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Examples of
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

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AI in Education: Intelligent Tutoring Systems

Source: Ashar, Mian. Artificial Intelligence in Education, Evolve Machine Learners (2018)
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) Entering the Art World

Portrait of Edmond Belamy Ahmed Elgammal, Rutgers University


Image: https://www.technologyreview.com/s/609524/this-ai-can-spot-art-forgeries-by-looking-at-
Image: https://www.livescience.com/63929-ai-created-painting-sells.html one-brushstroke/

Data collection of 15,000 portraits painted Creating AI that is able to identify image forgery based
between the 14th and 20th centuries for later on the reading of the scratches that make up an image.
processing and drawing by AI.
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AI Application: Computer Chess

IBM’s Deep Blue defeated world chess champion


Gary Kasparov in 1997.

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AI Application: IBM’s Watson

A question answering system that understand natural language, generate hypothesis


based on evidence and learnd dynamicaly
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AI Application: Google’s NOW

A digital personal assistant that provides the right information at the


right time and place by learning from the user behavior.
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AI: Google’s
Driverless Car
AI provides the car
with real time
decision for
accelerating, slowing
down and steering
the wheel.

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
IN INDONESIAN HIGHER EDUCATION
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Indonesia’s
MoRTHE’s Mission:
HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM Improve access to, relevance and quality of Higher
2019 Education to produce quality Human Resources
Source: FORLAP PDDIKTI, MoRTHE, 2019; BAN-PT, 2019 and Statistik
Pendidikan Tinggi 2019, PUSDATIN, MORTHE

4,713 28,091 34.58% ~8 MILLION


STUDY HE – GER REGISTERED (Vocation/Polytechnic
HEIS Students: ~15.1%)
PROGRAMS (APK) 2018 STUDENTS

~294
Autonomous THOUSAND
State Univ; 11 Academies;
LECTURERS (~14.2 % PhDs)
1,064

World Rank (QS): 3 Universities (Top 500: 292-391).


Community
Academies; 20
Universities; ACCREDITATION (BAN-PT*)
3,340 Polytechnics; • Institutions, A: 96 HEI, B: 887 HEI
278
• Study Programs, A: 3,857 HEI, B: 12,073 HEI
• Internationally Accredited, 241 Study Programs in 19
HEIs.
*Board of National Accreditation for Higher Education (BAN-PT)
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The role of universities to
Innovation (high added value) needs,
encourage AI & Big Data
(industrial-based)
research; help to produce Creativity à Critical Thinking à Scientific Logic
skilled-graduates.

New knowledge (AI, Big Data, Cloud Computing,


Able to provide Cybersecurity, etc) through RESEARCH
added value
through research
with an
entrepreneurial
spirit. STUDENTS as Agent of Change, Agent of Innovation and
Agent of Social Change

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MoRTHE’s Policy (1)
Encourage Student Scientific Logic

“Science” derived from Latin ‘to know’


Way of asking and answering questions
Encouraging students to
think & act out of the box
from their scientific fields, • Scientific logic à critical, measurable, and
opening opportunities that constructive way of thinking.
can ultimately contribute to
• The rules of scientific logic are needed to
the progress and welfare of
the Indonesian people. prove empirically the science being studied.

Strengthening Learning Methods


Problem Based Learning, Collaborative,
Comparative Learning & Industry Research.

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Scientific logic
Scientific
underlying the creation Engineering
of innovation
Innovation

Scientific
logic

Artificial Create &


Research Implement
Intelligence Technology

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Research in AI

Maritime

Digital
Economy, Agriculture
eCommerce

Health

Community
Education
service

Security
defense

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LINKING STUDENTS AS PARTICIPANTS

INDUSTRY
RESEARCH
Research- Research-
tutored based
EMPHASIS ON
EMPHASIS ON
RESEARCH
CONTENT RESEARCH
PROCESSES AND
PROBLEMS
Research- Research-
led oriented

(adapted from Alan Jenkins on


STUDENTS AS AUDIENCE mainstreaming undergraduate
research, 2009)

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MoRTHE’s Policy (2)
For students/graduates to face Industry 4.0 Era
Data Literacy
to manage the flow of big data.

Technological Literacy
to know how the machines work, tech-
Learn, Unlearn, & applications (coding, artificial intelligence,
Relearn machine learining, engineering principles,
cybersecurity, biotech, etc).
NEW
Human Literacy
LITERACIES the humanities, communication, and design
(Aoun, MIT, 2017)
-- to function as a human being.

+ Life-long learning
to adapt to change.

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The Use of AI: Learning Analytics for Hybrid Learning
of Teacher Professional Education (PPG) in-service (PPG-dalam jabatan)
To describe, diagnosa and predict student’s and instructors learning interaction
Comparison of Discussion Forum Between Time Spent Comparison between Students and
Students And Lecturers Lecturers
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35 12

30
10

25
8
20

6
15

4
10

5 2

0
S12018 S22018 S12019 S22019 0
S12018 S22018 S12019 S22019

Students Lecturers
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The Use of AI: Face Recognition
Developed by Indonesia Open University (Universitas Terbuka)

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The Use of AI: Learning Analytics and Chatbot
Developed by Indonesia Open University (Universitas Terbuka)

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Proposed National AI Center
KEMENRISTEKDIKTI Board of Advisor

National AI Research National Supercomputer & KADIN


Centers Data Center BUSINESSES & INDUSTRIES
• National AI Blueprint
• AI Agenda GOVERNMENT AGENDA
s to • Funding for 100 AI
s
a cce research priorities GOVERNMENT AGENDA
• 1000 digital startup (100
AI-based) COMMUNITIES
UI UGM ITB ITS

Network infrastructure
University network
University network
University network
University network

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Collaboration Model (example)
NVIDIA AI Technology Center, Taiwan

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Conclutions: MoRTHE’s Policy & Strategy
to Develop Indonesian Tech-HR

• Improving the University-Industry Collaboration • Improving the Quality of Graduates


- Improving the quality and capabilities of HEIs as - Curriculum adjustment by integrating new literacies
the Center of Excellence for research. (data, technological, and human literacy) to respond
- Cooperation between university-industry for the industry 4.0 era à AI, big data, cloud computing,
innovative research and training center. etc.
- Tracer studies to enhance the relevance of
- Increasing community services.
graduates.
- Accreditation system based on the output of
• University study programs need to be more adaptive
graduates.
to industrial needs - Strengthening skills (hard & soft skills), including
- Develop the emerging scientific fields. entrepreneurship and life-long learning (supports
- Study program is in harmony with the Industrial reskilling & upskilling).
Revolution 4.0.
- Dual system of vocational education, Multi Entry • Utilizing Technology for Learning Innovation
Multi Exit System, and 21st century - Instructional system based on distance learning
competences. (online/blended).
- Digital learning system (Augmented Reality, AI, etc).
• Establishing National AI Center - National online courses development.

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Terima Kasih
http://belmawa.ristekdikti.go.id/

ditjen_belmawa ditjen belmawa ditjen_belmawa

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