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21st Century Literature From the Philippines and the World 2.

The insignia of a National Artist and a citation;

3. Lifetime and emolument and physical
Midterm – ENG S211 benefits...such as:
Philippine National Artists for Literature a. Cash award of Php. 100, 000.00 net of
taxes for living awardees;
The order of National Artists b. Cash award of Php. 75, 000.00 net of
taxes, for posthumous awardees,
National Artist payable to legal heirs;
c. Life pension, medical, and hospitalization
 A Filipino citizen who is recognized of his/her
significant contributions to the development of
d. Life insurance coverage for Awardees
Philippine arts and letters.
who are still insurable;
 Conferred through a Presidential Proclamation.
e. State funeral and burial;
 Recognizes excellence in fields of Music, Dance,
f. Place of honor at state functions,
Theater, Visual Arts, Literature, Film and Broadcast
recognitions at cultural events.
Arts, and Architecture or Allied Arts.
Order of National Artists
1. Amado V. Hernandez – 1973
 Given a Grand Collar to symbolize their status.
2. Jose Garcia Villa – 1973
 Jointly administered by the National Commission
3. Nick Joaquin – 1976
for Culture and Arts (NCCA) and the Cultural
4. Carlos P. Romulo – 1982
Center of the Philippines (CCP)
5. Francisco Arcellana – 1990
 It embodies the nation’s highest ideals in
6. Rolando S. Tinio – 1997
humanism and aesthetic expression.
7. N.V.M Gonzales – 1997
 Conferred every three years.
8. Levi Celerio – 1997
 Originally instituted as an Award, it was elevated
9. Edith L. Tiempo – 1999
to the status of Order in 2003.
10. F. Sionil Jose – 2001
Insignia of the Order of National Artists 11. Virgilio S. Almario – 2003
12. Alejandro R. Roces – 2003
 Stylized KKK stands for CCP's motto: 13. Bienvenido Lumbera – 2006
“Katotohanan, Kabutihan at Kagandahan" 14. Lazaro Francisco – 2009
coined by Mrs. Imelda Marcos, CCP's founder. 15. Cirilio F. Bautista – 2014
16. Ramon Muzones – 2018
17. Resil Mojares – 2018
1. Living artists who have been Filipino citizens for
the last ten years prior to nomination as well
those who have died after the establishment of May Day Eve
the award in 1972 but were Filipino citizens at the
time of their death;  Nicomedes Marquez Joaquin
2. Artists who have helped build a Filipino sense of
nationhood through the content and form of
their works;  Anastasia – old woman, who told Agueda and
3. Artists who have distinguished themselves by the girls about the incantation that could reveal
pioneering in a mode of creative expression or the person they would marry.
style, making an impact on succeeding  Young Agueda – pretty, young woman who is so
generations of artists; curious, hardheaded, brave and very
4. Artists who have created a significant body of much willing to know her future husband
works and have consistently displayed  Young Badoy – a vain good looking man who
excellence in the practice of their art form, pursued whatever he wanter; he fell in love with
enriching artistic expression or style; and Agueda' beauty but was vengeful and prideful
5. Artists who enjoy broad acceptance through to fully admit it.
prestigious national and international  Dona Agueda – Married Don Badoy Montiya and
recognition, awards in prestigious national and was stuck into a lonely and miserable marriage.
international events, critical acclaim and reviews  Don Badoy – Married Agueda; described by
of their works and respect and esteem from Agueda as somehow who had “a scar of
peers within an artistic discipline. honour" and whose mustache was “dirty and
graying, and smell horribly of tobacco.”
Honors and Privileges
 Doña Agueda and Don Badoy's daughter – a
1. The rank and title of National Artist, as vain curious young girl in the middle of the
proclaimed by the President of the Philippines; narration who insisted her mother, Agueda, to
continue telling the story of her mom seeing the
devil on the mirror.
 Voltaire – The young boy at the latter part of the Conflict
story, who just like his grandma, was curious to
see his future wife will be.  Man vs. Destiny
 Man vs. Man
Settings  Man vs. Himself

 Intramuros, Manila Symbol

 Year 1847, May Day Eve
 1890
 Mirror


Exposition Theme

 There was a ball, a party to welcome men from  An approach to literature that weaves fantasy
Europe. The girls who were staying were herded and myth into everyday life.
upstairs. Anastasia, an old mistress of the  In the world of magical realism, the ordinary
mansion, told the girls of the incantation that becomes extraordinary and the magical
would make them see either the face of their becomes commonplace .
future lover if successful or the face of the devil, if
Magical Realism

Rising Action
 May Day Eve is an example of a story that
employs magical realism as central to the story
 Agueda, as hardheaded as she was went out of was the superstition belief told by Anastasia.
their bedroom and tried the incantation, and
that was where she met Don Badoy. They had an
Literary Devices
argument and she ended up biting Don Badoy's
Third Person Point of View (Omniscient Point of View)

 The story was narrated by an unknown narrator; it
was divided into two parts- the first part focusing
 Doña Agueda was now telling the story to her
on Agueda, and the second part focusing on
young daughter who asked her to reveal what
Don Badoy.
she saw. Agueda said she saw the devil. The
daughter kept asking her mom to describe how
the devil looked like, and oddly, the devil
somehow resembled her daughter’s dad.
 Interruption in the chronological sequence of a
story by the narration of events which occurred
Falling Action
earlier than the time of the story.

 Don Badoy saw his grandson, Voltaire, in front of

the mirror, saying the incantation. He stopped his
grandson and told him of his own encounter on
 The “devil" and “witch" were metaphors used to
the mirror where he saw a witch who had
symbolize how the couple saw each other.
bewitched him and ate hid heart.

Of Fish, Flies, Dogs and Woman

 Don Badoy learned from Voltaire the story his

Timothy R. Montes
grandmother told his mom years ago: that she
also saw a devil on that mirror. Having learned
 Maria Lab-asera – 5 Children
that story, Don Badoy remembered how he and
 Angelica Disgrasyada
Agueda met, how miserable their marriage had
become, and how love had turned to hatred.
Sadly, it was too late because Agueda has
already died.
 Fish – Woman
 Dogs – Husband, Critics
 Flies – Gossips and Struggles In other perspectives

Point of View Feminism

 First Person Point of View  Question to ponder: How did the characters’
gender affect them?
Sociological Criticism
 Market Place
 Question to ponder: What is the role of the
Conflict society in honing the characteristics, especially
that of Ana and Kat?
 Man vs. Man  How did the society view these two women?
 Man vs. Society

Of Fish, Flies, Dogs and Women in Different Perspectives The House on Zapote Street

Feminism  A Reportage by Quijano De Manila

 Question to ponder: How did the characters’ Reportage

gender affect them?
 (n.)
Sociological Criticism  The reporting of news.
 News or information of general interest that has
 Question to ponder: What is the role of the been reported; media coverage of a topic or
society in honing the characteristics of Maria and event.
 How did the society view these two women? Quijano De Manila

Psychological Criticism (Psychoanalysis)  Nicomedes Márquez Joaquín

 Nick Joaquin was also a journalist.
 What trauma did the characters probably have.  Whenever he wrote articles for the newspaper,
he used the penname Quijano de Manila.

There was this really Fat Girl Characters

Carla M. Pacis Dr. Leonardo Quitangon - a soft-spoken, mild-mannered,

cool-tempered Caviteño.
 is a writer, a teacher and a former bookstore
owner. She has written several books for children, Lydia Cabading - a quiet, sweet, unspoiled girl; a medical
a couple of novels for young adults and has won intern.
several local awards for her stories. She has also
edited several books, not all for children, a print Pablo Cabading - a strict father; member of Manila Police
magazine and an on-line magazine, both for Department.
Anunciacion Cabading - the wife of Pablo Cabading; an
Characters underdog to her husband.

 Ana Nilo Quitangon- Leonardo’s brother who witnessed the

 Kat incident.
 Mikey
 Marty (kat's cousin) Gene Quitangon- Leonardo’s brother.
 Marco Martinez
 Santi Ibañez Setting
 Gelo and Joey (ana's brothers.)
 Dra. Gomez  The Cabading’s residence on Zapote Street.

Conflict Point of View

 Man vs. Himself/Herself

 The story is told using the Third Person/ Omniscient Unconscious mind over the conscious mind – according
Point of View. to Sigmund Freud, the unconscious mind is where
people’s past experiences are stored and are repressed.
Plot Sometimes, people do not realize that the reason why
they are doing things is because of their repressed
Exposition memories, wants, and desires.

 Leonardo Quitangon met Lydia Cabading in a • Consider the background of Pablo Cabading. What is it
hospital where the latter worked as an intern. He in his past which you think pushed him to do such a
found her quiet nature interesting so he started horrible act?
courting her.
• Why was Pablo Cabading over-protective of his only
Rising Action daughter?

 Leonardo finally proposed to Lydia, and upon Facts

consultation with her family, they agreed to
marry with the conditions given by Pablo: a It’s a real Story
grand wedding, a dowry, and that the couple
should stay in the house on Zapote Street.  This book contains 13 true to life horror stories of
Climax  The first story on this collection was The House on
Zapote Street.
 Living with the Cabadings had made Leonardo  The reportage was the inspiration for the Film
realize the true color of Pablo Cabading. He was entitled “Kisapmata.”
a strict and controlling father. The married couple
couldn’t live on their own because their father
always meddled with them. Finally, they decided Bonsai
to elope.
Edith Tiempo
Falling Action
 Edith Tiempo is proclaimed as one of the
 After Leonardo’s family talked to the couple, Philippines foremost writers in English alongside
they decided to return and talk to Pablo other seminal writers like Jose Garcia Villa . Her
Cabading about their decision to live on their poetry is hailed for its witty and complex
own. Finally, Pablo agreed to let Lydia live away wordplay. This characteristics is most evident in
from them two of her most famous poem’s “BONSAI” and
“THELITTLE MARMOSET.” Literary scholars often
Denouement/ Resolution refer to either of these poems in their studies of
Tiempo’s work.
 Lydia was called back to their home because
she was told that her mother was sick. However,  The poem was entitled “Bonsai” because one
Pablo run amuck when he saw Lydia and loves just as something that could be kept much
Leonardo packing their things up. He ended up like a bonsai. This poem, Bonsai, is about how
killing the couple and shooting himself love is simplified and reduced so that one can
afterwards. give it out to others. Since this love is now
compacted or shrunk down to something small
that can be given, it is much like a bonsai which
is a simplified version of a huge and enormous
tree that could be given away and handed over
 Man vs. Man - The over-controlling love of the to others. Thus, this love is now being passed
father towards his daughter was the cause of down to generations.
their death.


 Fierce dogs
 Garage without a car

On a Psychoanalytic View