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1.BARRAGE
A barrage, by definition, is a weir structure fitted with gates to regulate the Water level in the
pool behind in order to divert water through a canal for Irrigation, power generation, and flow
augmentation to another river.

The barrages may be classified as being located in the following four types of river Regimes:

- Mountainous and sub-mountainous.


- Alluvial and deltaic.

Figure I (Photo : Barrage Rishikesh)

Figure II (Satelite Image : Barrage Rishikesh)

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2.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WEIR AND BARRAGE


Weir Barrage
Low cost. High cost.

Low control on flow. Relatively high control on flow and water


levels by operation of gates.
No provision for transport communication Usually, a road or a rail bridge can be
across the river. conveniently and economically combined
with a barrage wherever necessary.
Chances of silting on the upstream is more. Silting may be controlled by judicial
operation of gate.

Afflux created is high due to relatively high Due to low crest of the weirs (the ponding
weir being done mostly by gate operation), the
crests. afflux during high floods is low. Since the
gates may be lifted up fully, even above the
high flood level.

3.SITE SELECTION (LOCATION OF DIVERSION


HEADWORKS)
Site selection for location of Diversion Headworks is very crucial factor for a Project so these
parameter should be kept in mind while site selection:

a) The river section at the site should be narrow and well-defined.


b) The river should have high, well-defined, non degradable and non-submersible banks so that
the cost of river training works is minimum.
c) The canals taking off from the diversion head works should be quite economical and should
have a large commanded area if used for irrigation purpose.
d) There should be suitable arrangement for the diversion of river during construction.
e) The site should be such that the weir barrage can be aligned at right angles to the direction of
flow in the river.
f) There should be suitable locations for the undersluices, head regulator and other components
of the diversion headworks.
g) The diversion headworks should not submerge costly land and property on its upstream.
h) Good foundation should be available at the site.
i) The required materials of construction should be available near the site.
j) The site should be easily accessible by road or rail.
k) The overall cost of the project should be a minimum.

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4.GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THE DESIGN


4.1.Design Flood
The diversion structure has to be designed in such a way that it may be able to pass a high flood
of sufficient magnitude (called the design flood) safely. It is assumed that when the design flood
passes the structure all the gates of the structure are fully open and it acts like a weir across the
river with only the obstruction of the piers between the abutments. The abutments are the end
walls at two extremes of the structure and the length in between the two is termed as the
waterway.

4.2.Rating Curve
In the absence of detailed data, preliminary rating curve may be prepared by computing the
discharge at different water levels using the following formula:
Q=(AR2/3.S1/2) /n

4.3.Afflux
If the flood in the river is less than the design flood, then some of the gates would be fully
opened but the remaining opened to such an extent which would permit the maintaining of the
pond level. However, when a design flood or a higher discharge through the barrage structure, all
the gates have to be opened. Nevertheless, the structure would cause a rise in the water level on
the upstream compared to level in the downstream at the time of passage of a
high flood (equal to or more than the design flood) with all the gates open. This rise in water
level on the upstream is called afflux. The amount of afflux will determine the top levels of the
guide bunds and marginal bunds, piers etc.

Figure III: Afflux

4.4.Freeboard
Freeboard is the difference b/w high flood level and normal flow level. Sufficient Free Board
has to be provided so that there is no overtopping of the components like abutments, piers, flank
walls, guide bunds, afflux bunds etc.
4.5.Waterway
The sectional area or the amount of opening provided for flow of water through barrages/weirs,
head regulators, etc. Waterway, or the clear opening of a barrage to allow flood flow to pass has

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a bearing on the afflux. Hence, a maximum limit placed on the afflux also limits the minimum
waterway.
Many a times, the Lacey’s stable perimeter for the highest flood discharge is taken as the basis of
calculating the waterway.
P = 4.75 Q1/2
Where Q is the design flood discharge in m 3/s for the 50 years frequency flood.

4.6.Spillway Bays
This is the main body of the barrage for controlling the discharges and to raise the water level to
the desired value to feed the canals. It is a reinforced concrete structure designed as a raft
foundation supporting the weight of the gates, piers and the bridge above to prevent sinking into
the sandy river bed foundation.

4.7.Undersluice Bays
These low crested bays may be provided on only one flank or on both flanks of the river
depending upon whether canals are taking-off from one or both sides. The width of the
undersluice portion is determined on the basis of the following considerations.

• It should be capable of passing at least double the canal discharge to ensure good scouring
capacity
• It should be capable of passing about 10 to 20 percent of the maximum flood discharge at high
floods
• It should be wide enough to keep the approach velocities sufficiently lower than critical
velocities to ensure maximum settling of suspended silt load.

Undersluices are often integrated with RCC tunnels or barrels, called silt excluders, extending
up to the width of the Canal Head Regulator. These
tunnels are provided in order to carry the heavier silt from a distance upstream and discharge it
on the downstream, allowing relatively clear water to flow above from which the Canal Head
Regulator draw its share of water.

4.8.Crest levels of spillway and undersluice bays


The bays of a barrage are in the shape of weirs or spillways and the crest levels of these have to
be decided correctly. Some of the bays towards the canal end of the barrage are provided with
lower crest in order to :
• Maintain a clear and well defined river channel towards the canal head regulator
• To enable the canal to draw silt free water from surface only as much as possible
• To scour the silt deposited in front of the head regulator

The set of undersluice bays with low crest elevations are separated from the set of spillway bays
with a small weir hump by a long wall, called the divide wall.

4.9.Glacis
The sloping portion of the floor upstream and downstream of the crest.

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4.10.Cut-off
Cut-offs are barriers provided below the floor of the barrage both at the upstream and the
downstream ends. They may be in the form of concrete lungs or steel sheet-piles. The cutoffs
extend from one end of the barrage up to the other end on the other bank.
During low-flow periods in rivers, when most of the gates are closed in order to maintain a pond
level, the differential pressure head between upstream and downstream may cause uplift of river
bed particles. A cutoff increases the flow path and reduces the uplift pressure, ensuring stability
to the structure.

Figure IV : Cutoff in Dams/Weir/Barrages

During flood flows or some unnatural flow condition, when there is substantial scour of the
downstream riverbed, the cutoffs or sheet piles protect the undermining of the structure
foundation.

Figure V : Riverbed scour resisted by sheet pile protects the foundation barrage floors

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4.11.Sheet piles

Figure VI

Made of mild steel, each portion being 1/2’ to 2’ in width and 1/2' thick and of the required
length, having groove to link with other sheet piles

4.12.Piers
Concrete or masonry structure constructed over the waterway for supporting bridge decking,
gates and hoist operating mechanism.

4.13.Hydraulic Jump
The sudden and usually turbulent passage of water from a lower level (below critical depth) to
higher level (above critical depth), during which head loss occurs and the flow passes from
supercritical to subcritical state.

4.14.Specific Energy
It is the energy of stream flow per unit weight at any section of a channel measured with respect
to the channel bottom as datum, namely vertical depth plus velocity head corresponding to the
mean velocity.

4.15.Abutment
A wall constructed at both ends of the structure mainly for effective keying the main
barrage/weir structure into the ground at either end and also to perform additional functions, such
as retaining the backfill, protecting the bank from erosion, supporting load from superstructure
and confining the flow to the desired waterway at the structure.

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4.16.Apron
A protective layer of stone or other material provided in the bed of the river where it is desired to
prevent erosion

4.17.Exit Gradient
The upward seepage force per unit volume of seepage water through foundation soil at the tail
end of a barrage/weir, tending to lift up the soil particles if it is more than the submerged weight
of a unit volume of the latter. It is also defined as the hydraulic gradient of emerging stream lines
at the end of an impervious apron.

4.18.Retrogression of level
A general decrease in the bed level of the river or channel over a sufficiently long length
downstream of a structure.

5.COMPONENT PARTS OF A DIVERSION HEADWORK:


A diversion headwork consist of the following component parts:
1. Weir or barrage
2. Undersluices
3. Divide wall
4. Fish ladder
5. Canal head regulator
6. Silt Excluder/Silt Extracting Devices
7. River Training Works (Marginal Bunds and Guide Banks)

5.1.Barrage
A diversion head works structure constructed across a river for the purpose of raising water
level in the river so that it can be diverted into the off-taking canals. A barrage has a low crest
wall with high gates. As the height of the crest above the river bed is low most of the ponding is
done by gates. During the floods the gates are opened so afflux is very small.

5.2.Undersluices
These are gates controlled openings in the weir with crest at low level. They are located on the
same side as off-take canal. If two canal take off on either side of the river, it would be necessary
to provide undersluices on either side.

Functions of undersluices
· To preserve a clear and defined river channel approaching the canal regulator.
· To scour silt deposited in front of canal regulator and control silt entry in the canal
· To facilitate working of weir crest shutters or gates. The flood can easily pass
· To lower the highest flood level.

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Figure VII: Plan of Barrage

5.3.Divide Wall
A divide wall is a wall constructed parallel to the direction of flow of river to separate the weir
section and the undersluices section to avoid cross flows. If there are undersluices at both the
sides, there are two divide walls. It is a concrete or masonry structure, with top width 1.5 to 3
meter, and aligned at right angle to the weir axis.

Figure VIII: Divide wall

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The functions of divide walls are


· To separate the floor of scouring sluices which is at lower level than the weir proper.
· To isolated the pockets u/s of the canal head regulator to facilitate scouring operation.
· To prevent formations of cross currents to a void their damaging effects. Additional
divide walls are sometimes provided for this purpose.

5.4.Fish Ladder
A fish ladder is a passage provided adjacent to the divide wall on the weir side for the fish to
travel from the upstream to the downstream and vice versa. Fish migrate upstream or
downstream of the river in search of food or to reach their sprawling places. In a fish ladder the
head is gradually dissipated so as to provide smooth flow at sufficiently low velocity. Suitable
baffles are provided in
the fish passage to reduce the flow velocity.

Figure IX: Fish Ladder

The general requirements of a fish ladder are:


· The slope of the fish ladder should not be steeper than 1:10 (i.e velocity not exceeding 2
m/s in any portion of the fish-way).
· The compartments of bays of the pass must be such dimensions that the fish do not risk
collision with the sides and upper end of each bay when ascending.
· Plenty of light should be admitted in the fish-way.
· The water supply should be ample at all times.
· The top and sides of a fish-way should be above ordinary high water level .
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5.5.Canal Head Regulator


A canal head regulator is provided at the head of the canal off taking from the diversion
headworks. It regulates the supply of water into the canal, controls the entry silt into the canal,
and prevents the entry of river floods into canal.

The head regulator is normally aligned between 90° - 120° in respect to the axis of the weir. The
regulation done by means of gates, steel gates of spans ranging between (8 m-12 m) are used and
operated by electric winches.

5.6.Silt Excluder
A silt excluder is a structure in the undersluices pocket to pass silt laden water to the downstream
so that only clear water enters into the canal through head regulator. The bottom layer of water
which are highly charged with silt pass down the silt excluder an escape through the
undersluices.

Figure X: Silt Excluder

5.7.Guide banks
Guide banks are provided on either side of the diversion head works for a smooth
approach and to prevent the river from outflanking. Marginal bunds are provided on either side
of the river upstream of diversion headwork to protect the land an property which is likely to be
submerged during ponding of water in floods.

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Figure XI: Parts of Barrage

6.CONSTRUCTION OF CONCRETE BARRAGES


Construction of concrete barrages Barrages are nowadays made of reinforced concrete and
designed as raft type structures which are light in weight compared to storage dams (designed as
gravity-type structures). The design of barrages is done by accepting some calculated risks and
hence it is important that the construction of such a structure is done with great care and there is
no room for construction failure to occur. In this section, the important steps for a careful
construction of barrage is explained and further details may be had from Bureau of Indian
Standards Code IS:11150-1993 “Construction of concrete barrages – code of practice”.

6.1.Data required for construction activities


For planning and execution of construction activities, a number of data is required, most of
which would be available from the design reports. These include:
• Index map of the site
• Contour plan of the area
• Cross-sections of the river
• Bore-hole log charts
• Permeability coefficients
• Rainfall data of the location
• Flood discharges, minimum and maximum water levels
• Location and accessibility of quarry areas for coarse and fine aggregates
• Working drawings of barrage and appurtenant structures
• Sequence of construction of various blocks comprising of number of bays and abutments, etc.
• Requirements of inter-dependence of various items
• Necessary precautions to be taken
• Special features of construction, if any

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6.2.Construction Planning for Barrage


The construction planning for any structure can be broadly classified under two heads: a)
Infrastructure planning, and b) Procurement planning and is applicable to barrage construction
also.
It also includes the finalization of a programme of works and, intermediate review of the
programme and the actual work going on in the field

6.3.Infrastructure planning
This aspect of planning needs to ensure approach roads, power and water supply, workshop,
stores, aggregate processing plant, concrete batching and mixing plants, camps and work sheds.
It also requires the establishment of other amenities, such as market, schools, medical facilities,
and other social and cultural needs of the field staff and workers. The planning should be carried
out to the extent possible before the work starts, so that the uncertainties and delays in execution
of work, and precise time estimates for the job planning could be evaluated.

6.4.Invstigations
Investigations are generally done in two stages:
1. Preliminary investigations, and
2. Detailed investigations.

6.4.1.Preliminary Investigations
These investigations should include the following:
1) Study of available maps including remote sensing maps;
2) Regional and site geology;
3) Study of existing projects upstream and downstream of barrage;
4) Assessment of water requirement;
5) Effect of proposed barrage or weir contemplated on environment and ecology;
6) Limitations or constraints imposed by custom, water laws and rights or accepted policy;
7) Availability of construction materials;
8) Land for utility services; and
9) Communication to site of work.

6.4.2.Detailed Investigations
After preliminary selection of site, the following investigation should be carried out in detail
with a view to collect data for the design of the main structure and the appurtenant works for the
site chosen;
a) Detailed topographical survey;
b) Collection of hydrological and meterological data;
c) Sediment studies;
d) Design discharge of major hydraulic structure upstream of the proposed site, if any;

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e) Surface and subsurface investigation including laboratory tests for foundation


engineering purposes;
f) Detailed river morphology and ecological studies;
g) Change in river regime due to construction of the barrage or weir,
h) Land acquisition and rehabilitation problem;
i) Diversion requirements and river training works;
j) Construction material and borrow areas survey;
k) Communication system etc.

6.5.Programme of works
This should be prepared at the start of the construction activities and consist mainly of Bar Chart
Programme for the project duration showing the quantities and monthly progress required for
various major items of the project. Another master network plan based on PERT/CPM planning
may have to be worked out for monitoring the project work. Based on these programmes, the
planning for finance, manpower, equipment required for various activities in different seasons of
work have to be prepared.

6.6.Review of programme and resources


This should be carried out from time to time as the construction work progresses and should compare
items such as the budgeted programme of work and the actual programme of work reviewed at intervals
of three or six months. Also, the actual performance of various machines have to be compared with the
estimated performance and recommend necessary corrective measures that should be taken. Availability
and procurement of essential materials like cement, reinforcement steel, sheet piles, etc. have to be
reviewed as well as that for accessory and spare parts of plant and machinery in use and the availability of
skilled and unskilled manpower.

6.7.Sequence of construction
This important activity has to be planned perfectly, since mistakes at this stage would be difficult
to be rectified later. The major items under the sequence of construction are as follows:

● Layout of the barrage axis as per the approved plan by constructing short pillars called axis
pillars at suitable locations along the line of the axis across the river.
● Benchmark location has to be established the entire project area to help site the various
components like floor, crest, piers, etc. at proper elevation.
● Temporary access bridge has to be constructed for transporting men, material and equipment
from one bank of the river to the other.
● Layout of cofferdams have to be decided on the site conditions, nature of river course, and
programme of works for the season. Coffer dams are temporary structures constructed in the
riverbed to provide an enclosed area where the actual construction might be executed. Details of
the design of a cofferdam may be had from Bureau of Indian Standards Code IS:10084-
1982(Part1) “Criteria for design of diversion works: Coffer dams”.

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● Once the coffer dams are constructed, the water within the enclosure has to be dewatered. The
Bureau of Indian Standards Code IS:9759-1981 “Guidelines for dewatering during construction”
may be referred for details, but the main points are noted below:
1. After completion of the excavation above the water table, dewatering of the foundations have
to be commenced by well points or open pumps and the water table progressively lowered. Well
point systems may be suitable for sandy soils but in silty clay foundations strata open pumps
and/or deep well pump may be preferred. If an impermeable compact shingles-coffle layer is
sand witched between sandy layers in the depth to be excavated, then deep well pumps with
strainer throughout its depth has to be used.
2. The preliminary requirements of dewatering pumps should be bored on the inflow to the work
area, calculated on the basis of permeability of the strata and closeness of the water source.
3. During dewatering operation, care should be taken to ensure that there is no removal of fines
from the sub-strata that may weaken the foundation.
4. Any seepage of water from the foundation at local points or springs have to be taken care of
properly so that there is no piping of the foundation material.
5. Excavation of the foundation to the barrage profile is to be made either manually or by
machines in reasonably dry conditions. During excavation, water table should be maintained at a
lower level at which the excavation is being done. The excavated soil should be disposed- off
either manually or by machines, to suite the site requirements. In case machinery is employed,
the final excavation of the lowest layer should be done manually to the specified depth.
6. Cutoff walls may be steel sheet -piles driven from riverbed in case of non bouldery strata of
riverbed but in bouldery strata, either concrete or steel sheet pile cut-offs have to be constructed,
both by excavating a trench and then back filling with sand. For a discussion of the details of
steel sheet pile driving or construction of cutoff walls in trenches the code IS:11150-1993
“Construction of concrete barrages - code of practice” may be referred.
7. Once the cut-off walls on the upstream and downstream sides of the barrage are installed and
partially covered with pile caps, the foundation surface of the raft floor has to be properly
leveled, dressed and consolidated. The foundation should not contain loose pockets or materials
and they should be watered and compacted to the specified relative density. Clay pockets should
be treated as specified by the designer. It has to be ensured that proper drainage arrangements in
the foundation according to the designs including inverted filter, wherever indicated, are
provided and concreting work is taken up.
8. Instruments like piezometers, pressure cells, soil stress meters, tilt meters as specified should
be installed carefully such that the electric or mechanical connections to a central control panel is
least disturbed during construction.
9. The batching, mixing, placing and protection of concrete has to be done in accordance with
IS:456-1978 “Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete”.
10. Where mechanical parts like gate guidening rails, gate seals are to be installed, block outs
should be left out so that the parts may be embedded later.
11. Dowel bars, or if necessary, metal sealing strips should be provided for the joints between the
pile caps and barrage floor.

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12. The sequence of construction of barrage bays, silt excluder and piers have to be done in lifts,
starting from the downstream end of the barrage and with continuous pour in suitable layers, or
as specified by the designer.
13. Abutment and flared out walls may be constructed on pile foundations or on well foundations
14. Divide walls have to be constructed on well foundations and the wells have to be sunk to the
founding levels and the work of barrage bays on either side of the divide wall should be taken up
after construction of well caps.
15. The cement concrete blocks in the flexible apron on the upstream and downstream of the
solid aprons of the barrage floor may be cast in-situ with alternate blocks cast at a time. These
may be constructed with form work that should be so designed that when it is stripped off, the
required gap is formed for filling the filler material to facilitate speedy construction, pre-cast
blocks may be used.

7.MISCELLANEOUS

7.1.Dewatering
It is lowering of water table to facilitate construction of the barrage substructure and connected
works in fairly dry condition either by means of well-point system, deep-well pumping, surface
or open pumping, or any other method and /or suitable combination of methods adopted to suit
site conditions. The method adopted to suit the site conditions. The method adopted should be
such that uninterrupted dewatering is possible to keep the water table at least 300mm below the
levels at which permanent works are constructed and free flow of particles below the foundation
is prevented.

7.2.Care and diversion of river


Since a barrage would be covering almost the entire width of the river, and it would take quite a
few years to construct the whole structure, it would be necessary to construct only portions of the
barrage at each construction season, when the flow in the river is relatively less. There may not
possibly be any construction in the flood season. During the construction season, the river has to
be diverted from the area enclosed for construction by suitable flow diversion works.
The programme of construction of river diversion work should mainly be determined by the
availability of working period, likely time that would be required for construction of coffer dams,
associated diversion works and construction capability.
The period available for construction of cofferdams is generally limited and depends upon the
post-monsoon pattern of the river course and quantum of discharge and programme of work of
various items of permanent nature. Cofferdam construction for the portions nearer to the river
banks where velocities may not be high, may be of earthen type cofferdams and when the work
advances into the river portion, composite type cofferdams consisting of single sheet piles
backed with earthen embankments may be provided. Suitable protection on the river side has to
be provided to avoid dislodging of sheet piles due to scour of soil backing. For details about the
choice of coffer dam to be adopted, one may refer to the Bureau of Indian Standards Code
IS:10084-1982 (part1) “Guidelines for choice of type of diversion works: cofferdams”.

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7.3.Architecture
Wherever possible, the shapes of the pier ends, finish of the abutment, pier, divide walls surfaces
etc. can be modified to increase the architectural beauty of the structure. But hydraulic
performance and safety should not be sacrificed.

7.4.Pier Cap
Properly designed pier caps shall be provided under the bridges. Their broad features shall
satisfy aesthetic requirements also.

thickness- The thickness of the pier cap shall not be less than 300 mm for spans up to 25 mtr

reinforcement - The reinforcement of the pier cap should be distributed both at the top and
bottom in the longitudinal directions. In addition to this, two layers of mesh reinforcement of 6
mm diameter spaced at 75 mm centre to centre shall be placed under the bearings of road/ rail
bridge beams.

7.5.Model Studies
For important barrages, model studies should be carried out to get an idea of hydraulic
conditions, layout of guide bunds, location and axis to barrage and also to determine distributions
of flow

8.PROTECTION WORKS
8.1.Upstream block protection
Just beyond the upstream end of the impervious floor, pervious protection comprising of cement
concrete blocks of adequate size laid over loose stone shall be provided. The cement concrete
blocks shall be of adequate size so as not to get dislodged, and shall generally be of
1500 X 1500 X 900mm size for barrages in alluvium reaches of rivers.

8.2.Downstream block protection


Previous block protection shall be provided just beyond the downstream end of impervious floor
as well. It shall comprise of cement concrete blocks of adequate size laid over a suitably
designed inverted filter for the grade of material in the river bed. The cement concrete blocks
shall generally be not smaller than 1500 X 1500 X 900 mm size to be laid with gaps of 75 mm
width, packed with gravel.

8.3.Loose Stone Protection


Beyond the block protection on the upstream and downstream of a weir or a barrage located on
permeable foundation, launching apron of loose boulder or stones shall be provided to spread
uniformly over scoured slopes. The stone or boulder used shall not be less than 300 mm size and
no stone shall weigh less than 40 kg. Where the stone is likely to be swept away due to high
velocities or where somewhat smaller stones are to be used due to non-availability of stones of

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specified size, the loose stone apron shall be provided in the form of cement concrete blocks of
suitable size depending on the economies.

9.RIVER TRAINING WORKS


'River training' refers to the structural measures which are taken to improve a river and its
banks.
River training is an important component in the prevention and mitigation of flash floods and
general flood control, as well as in other activities such as ensuring safe passage of a flood under
a bridge.

Natural problems in the River:


1. Development of natural cut off
2. Landslide in catchment resulting increase in silt load
3. Aggradation of river bed
4. Erratic behavior of braided rivers
5. Erratic behavior of river in deltaic regions
6. Erosion of banks due to heavy flood

Objectives of River Training:


 Safe and quick passage of high flood.
 Efficient transport of sediment load.
 Make river course stable and prevent bank erosion.
 Provide sufficient draft for navigation.
 Prevent out flanking of a structure by directing the flow in a defined stretch of the
river.

9.1.Guide bunds or Banks


Guide bunds or banks Alluvial rivers in flood plains spread over a very large area during floods
and it would be very costly to provide bridges or any other structure across the entire natural
spread. It is necessary to narrow down and restrict its course to flow axially through the
diversion structure. Guide bunds are provided for this purpose of guiding the river flow past the
diversion structure without causing damage to it and its approaches. They are constructed on
either or both on the upstream and downstream of the structure and on one or both the flanks as
required.

Classification of Guide Bunds


Guide bunds can be classified according to their form in plan as (i) divergent, (ii) convergent,
and (iii) parallel and according to their geometrical shape as straight and elliptical with circular
or multi-radii curved head.

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Figure XII : Types of guide bunds and typical dimensions

9.2.Groynes or Spurs:
Groynes or spurs are constructed transverse to the river flow extending from the bank into the
river. This form of river training works perform one or more functions such as training the river
along the desired course to reduce the concentration of flow at the point of attack, creating a
slack flow for silting up the area in the vicinity and protecting the bank by keeping the flow away
from it.

Classification of Groynes or spurs: Groynes or spurs are classified according to


(i) the method and materials of construction
(ii) the height of spur with respect to water level
(iii) function to be performed and
(iv) special types which include the following:

These are
 Permeable or impermeable
 Submerged or non-submerged

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 Attracting, deflecting repelling and sedimenting and


 T-shaped, hockey (or Burma) type, kinked type, etc.

Figure XIII: Different types of spurs

Figure XIV: Spurs in river Alaknanda

9.3.Cut-offs: Cut-offs as river training works are to be carefully planned and executed in
meandering rivers. The cut-off is artificially induced with a pilot channel to divert the river from
a curved flow which may be endangering valuable land or property or to straighten its approach

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to a work or for any other purpose. As the cut-off shortens the length of the river, it is likely to
cause disturbance of regime upstream and downstream till readjustment is made. A pilot cut
spreads out the period of readjustment and makes the process gradual. Model tests come in
handy in finalizing this form of river training works wherever needed.

Figure XV: Cutoff

9.4.Marginal embankments: These are earthen embankments, also known as levees,


which are constructed in the flood plains of a river and run parallel to the river bank along its
length. The aim of providing these embankments is to confine the river flood water within the
cross section available between the embankments. The flood water of a river is thus not allowed
to spill over to the flood plains, as normally would had been (Figure 8). This kind of protection
against flooding has been provided for most of the rivers of India that are flood prone with low
banks and have extensive flood plains in the last century. This may be apparent from the maps of
any riverine area.

Figure XVI: Marginal embankment or levees

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10.VIRBHADRA BARRAGE
10.1.INTRODUCTION
A barrage and head regulator on river ganga at Virbhadra, 5kms downstream of Rishikesh, has
been constructed under Garhwal Rishikesh Chilla Hydel Scheme for hydroelectric generation.
This would diver a maximum 680 cumecs (2400 cusecs) of river water in 14.3km. long power
channel. Out of this discharge, 115 cumecs (4000 cusecs) shall pass through silt ejector tunnels
and 565 cumecs (20000 cusecs) shall be used for generation of power by utilizing a head of 32.5
km at chilla power house. The water after generation of power at chilla is again dropped in river
Ganga about 5km u/s of Haridwar.

10.2.DESCRIPTION OF WORKS
The barrage comprise of 4 under sluices and 11 spillway bays of 18mtr clear span. A divide wall
has been provided separating the under sluices and spillway bays. A free flow channel, 1.5 mtr
wide has been provided adjacent to the divided well for which an additional pier 1.5 m wide has
been constructed. The under sluice and spillway bays is one meter higher i.e 326.50 km. Silt
excluder tunnels, six in number haver been provided in first under sluice bay on the basis of
model studies for excluding big boulders.

The head regulator on left bank of the river has its axis at an angle of 108 degree form axis. It
comprises 5 bays of 11 mtr clear span. The width of piers is 2mtr.

Nominal guide bunds have been provided on u/s and d/s on both banks of barrage. An afflux
bund about 1.4 km long has also been provided on u/s right bank. A head of supply channel of
1.4 cumecs (50 cusecs) for water supply to I.D.P.L is located in the afflux bund at about 280mtr
form barrage. It has two 1 mtr dia steel pipes at the mouth, fitted with steel gates which can be
manually operated from the top. Though the required discharge in the channel could be fed by
one pipe line only, one stand bye pipe has been provided. It is proposed to bring back the
conditionally clean water cumecs ( 40 cusecs ) from I.D.P.L to river upstream of barrage by
means of a feedback channel. Its tail fall has been constructed in afflux bund at about 740 meters
from barrage.

The barrage gates are vertical lift fixed wheel type. The under sluice gates are 11.5 mtr high and
spillway bay gate are 10.15 high. The under sluice gates have been provided in two tiers with
bottom tier 8 mtr height and top tier of 3.15 mtr height. This has been done to flush logs/sleepers,
which may find their way upto barrage and choke the head regulator, by raising, only the top tier
of gate provision for stop log gates in all the bays of barrage, except no. 01, in which silt
excluder tunnels have been provided has been made. There is however one set of stop log gate
which will be operated by means of 50 MT gantry crane moving on rail track constructed on the
upstream.

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The head regulator gates are vertical lift fixed wheel type. The height of head regulator gates in
7.2 mtr. A trash rack of size 75 mm with an inclination of 10 degree form vertical has been
provided at the head regulator to check entry of trash and bed load material plus 75 mm size in
power channel.

The power channel starting from head regulator to 0.208 km can carry a maximum discharge of
680 cumecs (24000 cusecs). The width of unlined section of channel in this reach is 42 mtr with
side slopes of 1:1.75 mtr and bed slope of 1 in 2320 in initial 148 mtr and 1 in 100 in last 60 mtr

At 0.208 km of power channel silt ejector tunnels have been provided to eject bed load material
of plus 1 mm size. There are 12 smaller tunnels (2.5 X 1.6 mtr ) four converging to one main
tunnel, thus making 3 tunnels at the exit. As such there are 3 gates at the outlet of tunnels. The
silt ejector channel is approximately 375 mtr long with 1 mtr fall at chainage 250 mtr. It has a
bed slope of 1:1. This channel is boulder pitches both at bed and sides and is designed for a
discharge of 115 cumecs (4000 cusecs ) with a water depth of 4 mtr. The silt ejector channel
discharges in river ganga at about 400 mtr d/s of the barrage.

10.3.SALIENT FEATURES

10.3.1.River
o Catchment area 21400 sq km
o Snow catchment area at barrage site 8450 sq km
o Maximum flood 18560 cumecs
o River Slope 1 in 435
o Assumed design Afflux 1.2 mtr
o U/S H.F.L for design discharge 336 mtr
o D/S H.F.L for design discharge 334.8 mtr

10.3.2.barrage
o Length between abutments 312 mtr
o Normal Pond level (R.L) 334.5 mtr
o Maximum pond level 336.5 mtr
o Minimum pond level 333.15 mtr
o Clear roadway over bridge 7.5 mtr
o Level of Road (R.L) 338.5 mtr
o Design discharge of barrage 14750 cumecs
o Pond storage capacity 6610 Acre Fit

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10.3.3.Under Sluice
o Length b/w abutments 84 mtr
o Size of Bays (4 nos) 18 mtr
o Thickness of piers (3 nos ) 3 mtr
o Size of gates (4 nos) 18 X 8 mtr
o bottom tier(clear) (in two tiers) 18 X 3.15 mtr
o Total weight of gate 76.77 MT
o Crest level 326.5 mtr
o Length of impervious floor 179 mtr
o Depth of U/s cut off 2.3 mtr
o Depth of D/s cut off 4.75 mtr
o Cistern level 321.75 mtr
o Discharging capacity at H.F.L / Bay approx. 960 cumec

10.3.4.Silt Excluder
o Width of tunnels at entrance (6 nos) 2 nos. 3.2 mtr wide
2 nos. 3.1 mtr wide
2 nos. 2.5 mtr wide
o Width of tunnels at exit 2.5 mtr wide
o Height of tunnels 1.6 mtr
o Maximum length of tunnels 107.4 mtr
o Thickness of Partition walls 0.6 mtr

10.3.5.Ram Dhara
o Width 1.5 mtr
o Crest level 322 mtr
o Discharge at normal pond Approx. 10 cumecs
o Discharge at minimum pond Approx. 3 cumecs

10.3.6. Divide Wall


o Width of divide wall 6 mtr
o Length of divide wall u/s 124 mtr
o Length of divide wall d/s 92.25 mtr

10.3.7. Canal Head Regulator


o Length between abutments 63mtr
o Size of bays 5 nos 11 mtr

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o Thickness of pier 2 mtr


o Size of gates (5 nos ) (clear) 11 mtr
o Crest Level ( R.L ) 327.8 mtr
o Length of D/s impervious floor 22.97 mtr
o Depth of D/s cutoff 6 mtr
o Discharging capacity at normal pond bay approx. 140 cumecs

10.3.8.Power Channel
o Capacity upto 0 km from head 680 cumecs
o Capacity from 0.2 onward 565 cumecs
o Total length 14.3 kms
o Bed width in head reaches 42 mtrs
o Bed width of channel below 0.617 kms 12.5 mtr
o Side slopes 1.75 : 1

10.3.9. Stop log Gate


(1) Number of units 6
(2) Weight of each unit approx. 25 MT
(3) First intermediate unit 18 mtr X 1.5 mtr
(4) Second intermediate unit 18 mtr X 1.5 mtr
(5) Third intermediate unit 18 mtr X 1.9 mtr
(6) Fourth intermediate unit 18 mtr X 1.9 mtr
(7) Fifth intermediate unit 18 mtr X 2.2 mtr
(8) Top most unit 18 mtr X 2.2 mtr

10.3.11. 50 T Gantry Crane


o Safe working load 50 MT
o Maximum height of lift 17 mtr
o Speed of main hosit 3 mtr / min
o Speed of long travel 12 mtr / min
o H.P of hoist main motor ( 1 no. ) 47
o H.P of long travel motor ( 2 no. ) 4 each

10.3.12. Trash Rack


o Clear width of Trash Rack 1540 mm
o Total width of Trash Rack 1560 mm
o Height of trash rack 8350 mm
o Total no. of trash rack 39 nos.
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o Flat size Vertical flat 19 Nos. of L = 8350 mm Thick 10mm


Horizontal flat 22 Nos. of L = 1540mm Thick 20 mm
o Spacing between two vertical strip 40 mm
o Inclination of trash rack from vertical 10 degree
o Length between two vertical strip 63 mtr
o Length between abutments 2 mtr
o No. of bays 5 Nos.
o Thickness of Pier ( 4 nos ) 2 mtr
o Size of gates ( 5 nos in clear ) 11 mtr
o Crest level (R.L) 327.80 mtr
o Deck level 338.50 mtr
o Height of Deck from crest level of Trash Rack 10.7 mtr

10.3.13. Power House

o Capacity 4 X 36 = 144 MW
o Maximum head 32.5 mtr
o Type of Turbine Kaplan
o Speed of Turbine 187.5 rpm
o Generation Voltage 11000 V
o Transmission Voltage 132000 V
o Make of Machine BHEL
o Total project cost Rs 98 crore

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Figure XVII: Photo (Repair work of Turbine in Chilla barrage)

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