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Life and Works of Rizal: REVIEWER

Republic Act No. 1425 – Rizal Law



WHEREAS, today, more than any other period of our history, there is a need for a re-dedication
to the ideals of freedom and nationalism for which our heroes lived and died;

WHEREAS, it is meet that in honoring them, particularly the national hero and patriot, Jose
Rizal, we remember with special fondness and devotion their lives and works that have shaped
the national character;

WHEREAS, the life, works and writing of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere
and El Filibusterismo, are a constant and inspiring source of patriotism with which the minds of
the youth, especially during their formative and decisive years in school, should be suffused;

WHEREAS, all educational institutions are under the supervision of, and subject to regulation by
the State, and all schools are enjoined to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic
conscience and to teach the duties of citizenship; Now, therefore,

SECTION 1. Courses on the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his novel Noli
Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, shall be included in the curricula of all schools, colleges and
universities, public or private: Provided, That in the collegiate courses, the original or
unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo or their English translation
shall be used as basic texts.

SECTION 2. It shall be obligatory on all schools, colleges and universities to keep in their
libraries an adequate number of copies of the original and unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me
Tangere and El Filibusterismo, as well as of Rizal’s other works and biography. The said
unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo or their translations in
English as well as other writings of Rizal shall be included in the list of approved books for
required reading in all public or private schools, colleges and universities.

SECTION 3. The Board of National Education shall cause the translation of the Noli Me
Tangere and El Filibusterismo, as well as other writings of Jose Rizal into English, Tagalog and
the principal Philippine dialects; cause them to be printed in cheap, popular editions; and cause
them to be distributed, free of charge, to persons desiring to read them, through the Purok
organizations and Barrio Councils throughout the country.
SECTION 4. Nothing in this Act shall be construed as amendment or repealing section nine
hundred twenty-seven of the Administrative Code, prohibiting the discussion of religious
doctrines by public school teachers and other person engaged in any public school.

SECTION 5. The sum of three hundred thousand pesos is hereby authorized to be appropriated
out of any fund not otherwise appropriated in the National Treasury to carry out the purposes of
this Act.

SECTION 6. This Act shall take effect upon its approval.

Approved: June 12, 1956

Rizal’s Higher Education

Colegio de San Juan de Letran

- This was Rizal’s dream school

- On June 10, 1872, Paciano Rizal (Rizal’s brother) and Jose Rizal went to Manila to
enroll file an application and enroll to Letran.
- His wish to study in Letran was not granted because his father wanted to enroll him to
Ateneo because of its advanced educational system.

Rizal in Ateneo de Manila University

- Previously called as Escuela Pia or Charity School of Manila

- Rizal started to study there during 1872 to 1877 (high school)

- Fr. Magin Fernando – the priest who denied his application in Ateneo because:
1) Rizal was 1-month late of his registration (because of his mother’s arrest. His mother
was arrested because her mother was accused for poisoning Rizal’s aunt.)
2) Rizal appeared to be frail, undersized and sickly

- Manuel Xerez Burgos – the nephew of Fr. Jose Burgos of GomBurZa, he persuaded Fr.
Fernando to accept Rizal in Ateneo
- While studying at Ateneo, he took private lesson in Santa Isabel College
- He lived in Caraballo Street, Sta. Cruz, Manila while studying
- Jesuit Educational System
- There are two classifications of students in Ateno:
1) Roman Empire
-students who are mistizo (foreigners)
2) Carthaginian Empire
- students who are pure Filipino

- Categories of students under Roman and Carthaginian Empire:

1) Empire – students who are excellent
2) Tribune – students who are very good
3) Decurion – students who are good
4) Centurion – students who are fait
5) Bearer (or Standard – Bearer) – students who are slow-learners

- Fr. Francisco Paula de Sanchez – Rizal’s first and most favorite teacher in Ateneo

- Educational Emphasis in Ateneo:

1) Rigid Discipline
2) Character Building
3) Religious instructions
4) Physical Culture
5) Humanities
6) Scientific Studies

Rizal in University of Santo Tomas

- Rizal’s mother, Dona Teodora, opposed Rizal in aiming for a higher degree because:
1) She did not want Rizal to be executed like the GomBurZa incident
2) The Spanish will cut his head off if he became educated and knowledgeable
3) He wanted Rizal to go home and have his own business

- He studies there as College and took up Philosophy and Letters because it’s his father’s
choice and his father liked it for Rizal
- Fr. Pablo Roman – rector of UST during Rizal’s time and advised Rizal to take
Medicine as his course.
- while in UST, Rizal enrolled in Ateneo for a Vocational Course in Land Surveying
- He took Fr. Roman’s advise and took up medicine also for the reason of his desire to
cure his mother’s failing eyesight
- Dominican Educational System
- He was unhappy in UST and these are the factors:
1) Dominican professors were hostile/unfriendly/unapproachable
2) Filipino students in UST suffered discrimination
3) Method of instruction in UST is obsolete and oppressive

- Reasons for his Struggling Academic Performance in UST:

1) He was not satisfied with the educational system
2) There were plenty of things to distract him in the peak of his youth (Chickboy si Rizal)
3) He would later realize that he likes Arts not Medicine

Rizal’s Travel in Spain

- He went to Spain to observe their way of living and culture, languages, customs,
industries, commerce and government
- He used the name “Jose Mercado” to remain undetected by the Spaniards
- May 3, 1882, Rizal departed from the Philippines on boat to go to Spain
- After 44 days, June 16, 1882, Rizal arrived and went to Barcelona, Spain
- The most famous street in Spain is, Las Ramblas
- There he wrote an article called, “Amor Patrio”, translated as “The Love for Country”
- His pen name was “Laong Laan”
- His articles were published at Diaryong Tagalog which was published Basilio Teodoro
- His second article was “Los Viajes”
- Nov. 3, 1882, he enrolled at Unibersidad Central de Madrid after 5 months of stay in
- He took up Medicine, also Philosophy and Letters as his courses
- He also enrolled in Academy of San Fernando with the course of Fine Arts: Painting
and Sculpture
- He also learned about Shooting and Fencing at the gym
- June 21, 1884, he was confirmed for Licentiate in Medicine
- June 19, 1885, he was confirmed for Licentiate in Philosophy
- In Spain, Rizal started writing his novel called, “Noli Me Tangere”

Rizal in Paris, France

- Nov. 26, 1884 – Rizal wrote a letter to his family stating his desire to return to the
Philippines as soon as possible.
- January 1, 1885 – Paciano Rizal replied to Rizal’s letter showing his disagreement to his
possible decision on coming home to his homeland.
- 300 pesos – Rizal’s allowance per month.
- 1st Week of October 1885 – Rizal went to Paris, France and studied Ophthalmology
- Rizal enrolled at Dr. Louis Wecker’s clinic to learn and apply what he studied in
- Dr. Louis Wecker – the most popular doctor in Ophthalmology in France. Studied
medicine in Wurzburg, Berlin. Treats 50 to 100 patients a day.
- In France, Rizal studies French, German, Italian, Polish, English, and Greek language.
- In order to survive despite having a small allowance per month, his
friends/compatriots, Juan Luna, Felix Hidalgo and the Tavera Brothers lended him
money for his everyday needs.
- To give back to his friends for what they did, Rizal helped Juan Luna in his paintings. He
portrayed as Chief Sekatuna in Blood Compact and portrayed as the Egyptian Priest
in the Death of Cleopatra in Juan Luna’s paintings.
- Also, Rizal made a sketch of the story, “The Monkey and the Turtle”, which he will give
to Luna’s wife named, Maria dela Paz Pardo de Tavera.
- Rizal made literary works of the following in French:
1) Written review of “The Pistol and the Little Barones”
2) Review about the “Kite and the Hen”
3) Review about “The Fisherman and the Fish”
- Rizal’s life revolved in helping and observing Dr. Wecker in his clinic.
- Rizal met Dr. Maximo Viola in Paris, France who helped Rizal in publishing Noli Me

- 3 things Rizal learned from Dr. Louis Wecker

1) Actual performance of eye operation
2) Recent studies on the ailments of the eye.
3) Various techniques of eye operation.

Rizal in Germany

- Feb. 1, 1885 – Rizal left Paris because of high-cost of living which he could not cope
- Heidelberg, Germany – famous for its university (University of Heidelberg) and by its
romantic surroundings.
- Feb. 3, 1886 – Rizal arrived at Heidelberg, Germany
- Rizal became a chess player and became a part of Club of Heidelberg in Chess.
- Rizal became popular because he drinks a lot.
- Rizal decided to stay in a boarding house near University of Heidelberg
- He was privileged to work in an eye hospital in University of Heidelberg and work
under Dr. Otto Becker and witnessing performance of curing eye ailments.
- Rizal wrote a letter to Maria Rizal and Trinidad Rizal describing Germany as “a
country of order and obedience”.
- Rizal went to Wilhelmsfeld – a mountainous village in Germany.
- Rizal met Dr. Karl Ulmer in Wilhemsfield.
- June 2, 1886 – he returned to Heidelberg
- Rizal wrote a correspondence letter to Ferdinand Blumentritt.
- Ferdinand Blumentritt – a close friend of Rizal and was the Director of Ateneo.

- Rizal went to Berlin, Germany because of four reasons:

1) To supplement his study of language and science.
2) To study and observe political and economic condition of Germany.
3) Join the circle of famous German scientists and scholars.
4) To complete and publish Noli Me Tangere

- Rizal published Noli Me Tangere in Berlin, Germany with the help of Dr. Maximo
Viola offering him an additional of P300 for publishing purposes.
- Rizal met Dr. Feodor Jagor – the author of “Travel in the Philippines”
- The book “Travel in the Philippines” prophesized and predicted the Americans coming
to the Philippines, and predicted the collapse of Spanish Regime in the Philippines.

- Because of Dr. Jagor, he became friends with:

- 1) Dr. Rudolf Virchow – a German Anthropologist.
- 2) Dr. Hans Virchow – a German Professor of Descriptive Anatomy.
- 3) Dr. Joest – a German Geographer.
- 4) Dr. Karl Ernest Shweigger – German Anthropologist.