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第一节 基本结构和用法

一、文章开头
I. 引用名人名言,警句
1. There is the saying: “Good health is the best wealth.”
2. It’s never too old to learn. 活到老学到老。
3. Practice makes perfect. 熟能生巧。
4. “Knowledge is power”. 知识就是力量。
II. 问句开头,激发兴趣
1. Do you believe that there is a world shortage of fresh water?
2. What makes life worth living?
III. 列出现象或背景
1. These days we often hear about…
2. Recently the problem/question/ issue of …has aroused wide concern
3. With the rapid development/growth/decline in / of..
4.Now people are becoming aware of the importance of …
二、扩展段写法
1.因果分析( because, because of, as a result of, owing to, due to, thanks to, therefore, thus,
so)
1. There are many reasons for this but the main two are …
2. Many factors are responsible for the problem…
3. …will result in…/lead to…/contribute to…
2. 比较和对比 (while; on the one hand, … on the other hand; like)
1. Obviously, it has both negative effects and positive effects….
2. However, like many other things, … has both advantages and disadvantages.
3. Many argue that …, while others maintain that …
4. Some people enjoy talking about their fears while others resent being asked to discuss
their personal feelings.
三、常用句型
1. 关于社会热点的文章可用 3-W Approach : what, why, how. (现象,原因,对策)。
表示现象句型:
1. This shows/tells /indicates us…
2. It is/was reported that …
3. We must face the fact that …
2.表示对策一般从以下三方面考虑:..LMN (Laws, Measures, Consciousness)
表示对策句型:
1. We should lay down / formulate laws and regulations to protect / to ensure …
2. We must take effective measures to…, such as planting trees, building
pretreatment works along the rivers,…
3. All of us should form the consciousness of environment protection.
3.让步和转折
1. Despite/In spite of all the difficulty/problem
2. although/ unless
3. But / However
4.表示目的
1. They carried an umbrella in order that they would stay dry in the rain.
2. To tackle the problem, …
四、文章结尾
I.结论
1. Therefore, we can come to a conclusion that…
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2. In summary/conclusion/a word, it is important…
3. To sum up, In short, In a word, All in all….
4. In my opinion,
5. From this point of view,
2.号召性和意义
1. It is time that we urged/put an immediate end to…
2. It is necessary that some effective steps should be taken …
3. We may have a long way to go before…
4. Only by doing this can we…
3.展望,后果
1. We are sure that …
2. I only hope that some day there can be a solution to this problem.
常用句型
1.据说、据报导、听说、听人家说、老实说、众所周知、就我所知等.
据报导那个地区的工厂比 1970 年增加了两倍。
It was reported that there are now three times as many factories in that district as in
1970.
2. “随着 ”是表示条件的一个固定格式,常译为 with 短语,也可译为 as 从
句。
随着时间的过去,他将会懂得我所讲的话。(82.VI.1)
As time goes on, he will understand what I said.
随着科学与技术的普及,电子计算机正越来越广泛地在各个领域中得到应用。
With the popularization of science and technology, computer has found an increasing
wide application in all fields.
3 . 用 “ 如 果 ” ( “只 要 ” , “ 要 是 ” 等 ) 连 接 的 句 子 译 为 英 语 时 , 要 分 清 该
用 real condition, 还是 unreal condition。 “只要 ”译为 only (when) 开头时,后边用
倒装语序。
只要我们继续努力工作,我们就能提前完成任务。(82.VI.4)
So long as we continue to work hard, we can finish the task ahead of schedule.
要是你仔细一些,这种错误就不会发生了。
Had you been more careful, such an error would not have occurred.
4 . “越 ……越 ……”( 越 A 越 B) 句 型 中 , 一 般 说 来 , A 和 B 不 同 , 就 用
the…the…来翻译,A 和 B 相同,有的可用 the…the…,有的不能。
这门课我越学越喜欢。(81.VI.1)
The more I study the subject, the more I like it.
天气越来越热。
It is growing hotter and hotter.
5.表示原因的除 “因为 ”还有 “由于 ”,可视情况选用。
大家很尊敬他,因为他努力工作,更重要的是他乐于助人。
People show great respect for him because he works hard, and what’s more, he is
always glad to help others.
由于爱因斯坦的理论,科学家再也不把世界看成他们以前所看成的那样了。
Owing to Einstein’s theory, scientists never again regarded the world as they had
before.
6. “如此 ……以致 ”这个汉语句本是英式的,还原为 so…that, 或 too…to.
天如此之热以致谁也不想打篮球。
It was so hot that no one wanted to play basketball.
He has changed so much in appearance that you might well not recognize him.
7.不仅 ……而且 ……
他不仅是一位科学家,而且也是一位科幻小说家。
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He is not only a scientist but also a science fiction writer.
不仅同他在一起工作的人赞扬他,而且邻居们也都说他好。
Not only did his fellow workers praise him, but his neighbours spoke well of him.
8. “虽 然 ……但 是 ……”在 汉 语 里 是 可 以 配 对 用 的 , 译 为 英 语 用 了 though
不能用 but, 用了 but 不能用 though。
许多人以为电是燃料,但事实上并非如此。
Many people think that electricity is a fuel, but, as a matter of fact, it is not.
表示让步关系的还有“尽管”,“不管”等。
尽管我们的政治和经济制度存在着巨大差异,我们两国在许多方面有共同的利
益。
Despite the great differences between our political and economic systems, our two
countries share a wide range of common interest.
9……这 ……
1)后句译为非限定性定语从句
半导体的导电性在导体和绝缘体之间,这是电学方面的常识。
Semiconductors come between conductors and insulators in conductivity, which is
common sense in electricity.
2)译作 It’s…for +不定式
我们要建造高层建筑而没有充足的钢作为结构材料,这是不可能的。
It is impossible for us to build high rise buildings without sufficient steel as structural
material.
3)译作两句
氢可以由海上的太阳能装置来制造,这是未来的远景规划。
Hydrogen may be produced by sea solar plant, This is only a futuristic scheme.
4)译作 It is…that 结构
电子计算机在科研方面起着重要作用,这是无可争辨的。
It is without controversy that electronic computers play an important part in scientific
research.
10. “There be” 句型
1. There are at least three reasons for the problem. (复数)
2. There are both advantages and disadvantages in developing car industry in our country.
(并列主语,复数)
3. There are still many children, especially in some poor countryside, who cant’ afford to
go to school. (跟定从)
4. There is evidence (to show, showing) that pollution is getting more serious. (跟同位语
从句,单数)
5. There have been different opinions about (of) the issue. (完成)
6. In the future, I believe, there will be more and more people who will go travelling in
their holidays. (将来)
7. There was a rapid increase in 1980. (过去)
8. There can be no doubt that ads play an important role in the modern society. (情态动
词+be)
9. The more cars there are on the road, the more crowded the road will be.” (“The 比较级
……,the 比较级……”句型)
11. “主一系(词)一表(语) ”句型
10. The negative effect of developing car industry is obvious. (a. 作表语)
11. The side-effect of the progress is a self-evident fact. (n.)
12. Our present task is to educate the public on the importance of preserving natural
resources. (不定式)
13. Another measure is helping them to plan their time carefully so that they can both
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study and work well. (动名词)
14. The reasons for the problem are as follows. (表从)
12 形容词三级(原级、比较级、最高级)表达同一意思的句式辨析:
① 原级:Nothing else (No other thing) is as important as knowledge.
② 比较级:Knowledge is more important than anything else (any other thing).
最高级:Knowledge is the most important thing in our age.
13.强调句型 It is…that…辨析:
①that 作主语:It is several social and economic factors that lead to (result in, cause)
so many children leaving school.
that 作状语:It is in this situation that” the Project Hope” was put into practice.
14.两种分词用法辨析:
1 The result of our effort is satisfying (exciting, pleasing, surprising, inspiring…). “令
人如何……“
2 But people are still not satisfied with (excited about, pleased with, surprised at,
inspired by…) the result.
15. 形 容 词 后 跟 介 词 :The bike is cheaper in price, easier in maintenance and safer in
riding.
16. 形 容 词 后 跟 不 定 式 : In contrast, the motorcycle is more expensive to buy, more
difficult to repair and more dangerous to drive.
17. “It” 位于句首的各种句式归纳:
1 It is easy to see that the merits are more than the shortcomings.
2 It is a fact that information means power and money. (主从)
3 It is reported (well known, believed, widely accepted, estimated, hoped, expected,
said, claimed…) that pollution will become more serious unless we take effective
measures. (被动态,主从)
4 It is no use (help, value, sense, significance) learning book knowledge without
applying it into practice. (特定句式,动名词)
18. “it” 位于句中作形式宾语的句型(主+谓+宾+宾补+真正宾语)
1 Some peasants even think it useless for girls to go to school. (不定式作真正宾语)
2 I believe it necessary (vital, essential, urgent) that the public are educated on the
importance…(宾从)
3 They shouldn’t take it for granted that parents have to provide them with everything
they need. (固定词组,宾从)
III. “主谓(行为动词或词组)”句型
19. 主、谓:Why do more and more people smoke?
20. 主、谓、宾:Many social problems deserve our attention.
21. 现在完成: Great changes have taken place since the adopting of reform and open-
door policy.
22. 被动完成:Many “hope elementary schools” have been set up to enable dropouts to
return to classrooms.
23. 现在进行:The population in some big cities is becoming heavier and heavier (larger
and larger).
24. 被动进行: The computers are being bought so fast that nobody can tell their exact
number in China.
25. 现在完成进行:From then on China’s foreign trade has been increasing (developing,
going up) rapidly.
26. 情 态动 词 + 动词 原形 : In order to improve (better) the present condition, we must
(have to, are to, should, ought to, can, may, had better, might as well) take the
following measures (steps).
27. 被动态的情态动词+V.原形:Traffic accidents can (may, are likely to) be reduced by
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the following methods.
28. 单句虚拟:Without these basics of life, how could man survive?
29. 主从句虚拟三种基本句式:
1 现 在 : If there were no fresh water, no living things could possibly exist (live,
survive).
2 过 去 : If I had taken (followed) his advice, I would (should, could, might) have
made more (better, greater) progress.
3 将来:If I were to (should) do the job, I would (might) do it another way.
I. 各句之间关系辨析(简单句、并列句、主从句、并列主从句等)
30. 汉意:“在市场经济发展中,出现许多新事物,大学生打工就是一例”。
1 用两个独立的简单句表达: Many new things have appeared in the development
of the market economy. College students’ doing part-time jobs is one of them.
2 用并列句表达:Many…economy and college students’…is one of them.
3 用主从句表达(带定从):In the development of the market economy many new
things have come into being, of which (or: among which) college students’ doing
spare work is one example (instance).
4 用一个长长的简单句(仅一套主谓结构)表达: During the past ten years or so,
the swift (rapid, fast) development of the socialist market economy has brought
about many new things, including college students’ undertaking various kinds of
jobs in their spare time.
II. 若干常用特定句式举例辨析:
31. Only 位于句首表示强调的倒装句:
Only in this way (by these methods, by doing so, in so doing, by the combination of
these measures, by taking the above steps, by adopting the above-mentioned measures)
can we solve the problem (will we resolve the matter, shall we succeed in protecting
our environment, are we able to stop the bad tendency, are we capable of avoiding the
negative effect of the issue).
32. So 位于句首表示强调的倒装句:
So fast (rapidly, swiftly) does science and technology develop that almost everyone
finds it difficult to keep up with the latest achievements even in his own field.
33. Such 位于句首表示强调的倒装句:
Such remarkable changes does “the Information Age” bring about that many people
even have difficulty (in) living in the modern society.
34. 含 “n” 字母的否定词位于句首、表示强调的倒装句:
Never before have we seen the great power that science and technology has brought us.
(neither has he, nor does she, nothing can be, )
35. 不含 “n” 字母的否定词位于句首、表示强调的倒装句:
Scarcely had they finished a complicated design when they were assigned another
important project. (merely, barely, hardly, little, few, only a little, only a few, seldom,
much less )
36. 表示否定意义的固定词组位于句首、表示强调的倒装句:
At no time and under no circumstances will China first use nuclear weapons. (in no
way, by no method, by no means, not only … but also, on no occasion, on no account,
in no case )
37. It takes (took, will take; costs ) one (us) much time and energy to master a foreign
language.
38. Many adults spend (waste) much of their spare time on continued education.
39. “直到 ……才 ……”英译的几种方法:
1 Some people got to (came to) realize the importance of health only when (after)
they got (became) seriously ill.
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2 双否:Some people didn’t realize…until they got….
3 倒装:Only when they got…did they realize….
40. 若干表达法总结、辨析:
① 对…有利:be good to, do good to; be beneficial to, bring benefit to
②“对…有害:be harmful to, do harm to
③ 必须跟 v—ing 的表达法:have difficulty (trouble, pleasure) doing…; be worth
doing…; be busy doing…; It is no use (point, sense, help, value, good) doing…; be
(get, become) used (accustomed) to doing; feel like doing; devote…to doing

第二节 过渡词总结
英语作文和演讲必须表达清楚,语义边贯。要做到这一点,考生应当学会使用过渡
词。过渡词(Transitional Words)是一种关系指引词,它是连接句与句、段与段之间的
纽带。过渡词一般为副词或起副词作用的短语。另外,代词、连词、上下文的同义词也
可以起到过渡的作用。在传统的汉语写作中,人们讲究文章的启、承、转、合,英语写
作也应该如此,而过渡词的作用正在于使文章更好地做到这一点。例如:
Smoking results in a series of negative effects. To begin with, it has been proved that
poisonous nicotine contained in cigarettes can reduce your fitness. And what is worse, it can
even cause lung cancer if you smoke constantly. That is why such warning as “smoking is
harmful to our health” must be printed on the cover of the cigarette case in western
countries. Furthermore, passive smoking occurs in your family members and other people
as a result of your smoking at home or in public places. Consequently, their health will be
unfavourably influenced. In addition, smoking adds to your financial difficulty if you
happen to be short of money. Even if you are rich, you are encouraged to spend your money
on valuable books, nutritious food, high-quality TV sets, etc. , not on meaningless smoking.
Therefore, giving up smoking is a good way to make you and your family happy.
根据在文章中的作用,过渡词大致可分为以下四类:
(1)表达“启”的常用词语:用于引导主题句,或用于主题句的后面,引导第一个发
展句。
first (ly), at first, first of all, in the beginning, in the first place, at present, to begin with,
currently, to start with lately, for one thing, now, recently, on the one hand, in general,
generally speaking, at present, in recent years, comparatively (speaking), nowadays, in
general, in a sense, in a way, in my opinion, obviously, undoubtedly, 等。
(2)表达“承”的过渡词语:用于承接主题句或第一个(或前一个)发展句。
second (ly), third (ly), also/too, besides, in addition, furthermore, moreover, what is
more, for another thing, for example, for instance, as an example, as another example,
namely, then, in other words, in particular, in the same way, after that, afterwards, after a
few days, after a while, from now on, later, just as, similarly, meanwhile, at the same time,
by this time, soon, consequently, of course, for this purpose, equally important, what is
worse, certainly, surely, obviously, especially, indeed, still, in fact, in plain terms, in
practice, for he most part, no doubt, 等。
(3)表达“转”的过渡词语:用来表示不同或相反的情况。
after all, but, yet, however, nevertheless, nonetheless, conversely, though, although,
despite, in spite of, on the contrary, contrary to + n., in contrast, unlike, whereas, on the
other hand, unfortunately, still, in fact, as a matter of fact, in any case, at any rate ( 无论如
何), otherwise, or else, instead, 等。
(4)表达“合”的过渡词语:用于总结段落中上文的内容,引导一个发展句或结论句,
也可以用于文章的最后一段。
finally, hence, in brief, in conclusion, in short, in summary, in sum, therefore, thus, to
sum up, to conclude, to summarize, briefly, above all, as a consequence, as a result, for his

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reason, as has been noted, as I have said, at last, at length, by and large, consequently,
eventually, accordingly, so, after all, in general, in a word, on the whole, as a whole, 等。
“启,承,转,合”表达实例:
Chinese differs from English in several ways. (启) In the first place / To begin with /
First of all / To start with / First (ly), their word orders are different. (承) For instance / For
example / As an example, in English, a common greeting is “How are you?”. ( 转 ) Yet /
But / However / Nevertheless, in Chinese, “You are how?” is correct. ( 承 ) Second (ly) /
Also / Besides / Next / What is more / Furthermore / Moreover, in Chinese, our verbs do not
have the past tense; Instead, we know the time from the adverb. In English, (转) however /
on the other hand / nevertheless / yet, time is indicated by the tense. ( 承) In addition to /
Besides / Apart from these problems, Chinese has many small differences. (承) For instance
/ For example / As an example, Chinese does not distinguish between “he” and “she”, nor is
there a difference between “a” and “an” as there is in English. ( 合 ) Undoubtedly /
Certainly / Indeed / Obviously / Thus / In short / In brief, it is these differences that make
English difficult for the Chinese students to learn.
上述四类词语,有些是配套或成对使用的,背诵和运用时应予注意。

第三节 典型例段
1、状况描述段
儿童辍学已成为一个严重的社会问题
Many social problems deserve our attention. Children’s dropping out of school is one
of them. For a variety of reasons, many teenagers have left schools both in the countryside
and in the cities. Some of them do all kinds of hard work in the fields, at the working sites
or in the factories. Others help their parents run small businesses, either selling on the
streets or working at narrow workshops.
污染情况日趋严重
With the development of science and technology, the side-effects of the progress are
being felt more strongly than ever before, especially the problem of pollution
(contamination). To begin with, the most obvious pollution is that of the air. As the factories
and cars keep pouring out smoke, the air is no longer clean and healthy. Next, the pollution
of water makes it difficult, or even impossible, for life in water to survive. In addition, much
valuable land has been or is being taken up by solid wastes. Furthermore, the loud noise
produced by machines, cars, TV sets and stereos almost drives us mad. In sum, we literally
live in pollution: Not only do we see it, smell it and taste it, but also we actually eat it, drink
it and breathe it.
计算机正在普及
During (In) the past few years, computers have become more and more popular in our
country. They are being bought so fast that nobody can tell their exact number in factories,
companies, offices, shops and schools. The recent developments in science and technology
enable computers to become smaller, Cheaper, and more powerful, which naturally attracts
more and more consumers.

2、观点论证段
交通事故可以大大减少
Traffic accidents can be avoided or at least be greatly (considerably) reduced (cut
down). As is well known, the main cause of road accidents is carelessness. Therefore, if
everyone observes traffic regulations and takes care while driving, riding bicycles or
walking along the street, most accidents can certainly be avoided. To bring this about,
drivers must be well educated on the importance of driving at a proper speed. Meanwhile,

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pedestrian (people walking in streets) have to be further educated on the necessity of
observing the traffic rules. Of course, other measures should also be taken, such as
improving road conditions, strengthening traffic control, etc.
大众媒体是现代社会重要组成部分
Mass media play an important role in the modern society. Each medium has its
strengths and weaknesses. Though both newspapers and magazines carry news, the former
lay (place) emphasis (stress) on rapidity, whereas (and, while) the latter on detailed analysis.
Radio seems to be a simple and convenient means of keeping us well informed of what is
going on worldwide. As to (As for, With regard to, Talking of) TV, the most popular form of
mass media, it enables viewers to see as well as to hear what is on, bringing them right into
the action. Since the media affect (influence) our life positively and considerably, they are
rightly regarded as great contributors to the development of our modern society.
计算机能以不同方式帮助人们
Computers can help different people in different ways. They can help children with their
lessons and homework. For college students and scholars, computers do all sorts of
complicated (complex) calculations, analyze data, and present the latest achievements as
well as the desired information. Moreover, computers can assist engineers and experts in the
design of machines, of bridges or of spaceships. Needless to say, computers can also offer
fun and entertainment for children and adults alike. So we can easily see computers really
have many functions.

3、原因分析段
我国外贸额迅速增长的原因
What are the reasons for the rapid (fast, swift) increase of China’s total volume (amount)
of foreign trade? Obviously (It is obvious that…), among others, the chief reason is the
practice of the reform and the open-door policy since 1978. It proves the superiority of our
socialist system and the correctness of our Party.
烟民越来越多的原因
Why do more and more people smoke? The reasons are as follows. First, smoking rarely
leads to any disease immediately. A man may suffer from a disease or several diseases many
years after his first cigarette. Second, it is very difficult for a heavy smoker to give up
smoking. Third, many young people believe that smoking makes them look manly and
helps them make friends with other people. Lastly, parents’ and teachers’ smoking habit has
bad (negative) effect on children, resulting in a large number of children smokers. That’s
why in spite of the existing smoking-banning rules, the number of smokers in China is
actually on the increase.
儿童辍学原因
There are at least three reasons why so many children have dropped out of schools.
Firstly, quite a few families, especially in the poor, remote countryside, can not afford their
children to go to school (are too poor to support their children to go to school). Secondly,
with the swift development of the market economy, some parents as well as their children
pay more attention to money instead of schooling (education). They believe (In their eyes,
To their minds) money is the most important (valuable) thing in the world (money is more
important than anything else, nothing else is as important as money). Thirdly, owing to lack
of fund, some schools are in terrible conditions. Teachers are badly needed there. In some
isolated areas there are even no schools available at all. Therefore we can conclude that it is
several social and economic factors that result in more and more children leaving (dropping
out of) school at an early age.

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4、方案讨论段
如何治理污染
( 假 设 上 段 写 原 因 ) The above discussion naturally leads us to the following
possible solutions to the problem. First of all, new laws should be passed to strictly control
the amount of pollutants factories may release into the water and air. Besides, the existing
laws should be enforced to severely punish those who dare to break the laws. Next, families
are to be encouraged to use man-made gas instead of coal to cook their food in order to
further reduce the air pollution. Furthermore, vehicles have to be equipped with pollution-
reducing devices. Finally, the public should be well educated on the importance of
preserving the environment, which, in a sense, is the most important measure in fighting
against pollution.
减少辍学现象的措施
(接上段原因讨论)How can we effectively stop such a bad tendency? (We can take the
following steps to improve the situation. / There are at least four measures that we can take
to solve the problem. / The above analysis of the reasons for the problem enables us to come
up with the following solutions to the problem.) First and foremost, we must do (try) our
best (utmost) to educate the public on the importance of education. China needs a lot of
well-educated people for he realization of the four modernizations, and schools are the very
places where these people are produced. Without knowledge, how can we realize our great
goal? Next, we have to raise more money from the society to help children from poor
families to continue their schooling. Besides, governments at all levels should give more
fund to support the elementary (compulsory, obligatory) education. In addition, we had
better pass new laws to more severely punish those who employ (hire) children as laborers
(workers). Only by taking the above-mentioned measures, can we possibly (hopefully,
effectively, considerably) reduce the number of dropouts (solve the problem, improve the
situation, resolve the problem).

5、利弊比较段
水对人类的利和弊
It is evident (clear, plain, obvious, apparent) that life is inseparable from water. We
can’t imagine what will happen to us if we do not take in water for a single day in summer.
In fact, water makes up a large part of our weight. It helps us survive just as it does plants
and animals. Besides water also plays a vital role in growing crops, breeding animals,
cleaning everything and cooling some metals. But, as everything has two aspects, water is
no exception. Sometimes water can be harmful or even destructive. For example, you will
have trouble doing outdoor jobs if it rains for days. Plants, such as wheat and cotton, will
suffer a lot if it rains too much. And a flood does much harm to all forms of life.
电视广告的优缺点
TV ads (commercials) have both advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, by
watching TV ads, people can see the products on the screen more clearly. Since TV ads can
be seen and heard, they are likely to be more convincing than other forms of ads. Thus,
people can compare similar products or services before they make their final decision. On
the other hand, however, TV ads tend to give people a false idea of the value of the product
or the service. As a result, some people may buy something unnecessary, or something
inferior. So the wise attitude towards TV ads is watching them carefully while not believing
everything they tell us.
摩托车和自行车各自的长短处
Let’s make a comparison between a motorcycle and a bicycle. Each has its merits and
shortcomings. A motorcycle is much more expensive than a bicycle. Besides it is more
difficult to repair once something is wrong with it. But as we all know, a motorcycle is by
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far faster than a bike and it carries a heavier load. On the other hand, a bike is cheaper in
price, easier in maintenance, and safer in riding. In addition, it costs nothing to ride a bike.
Instead, riding a bike is actually a good sport, which does good to one’s health.

6、图表评述段
妇女平均生育率与文化水平成负相关
The graph demonstrates (shows, indicates, tells us, reveals) that the average births per
woman throughout her birth-bearing years are closely related to their literacy levels. A
woman of illiteracy has 5.86 children whereas (while, and) a woman with college education
has only 2.05 children, the former being nearly (almost, about, approximately) 3 times the
latter. From the figures in the graph, we can safely conclude that the higher a woman’s
educational level is, the lower her average births will be.
改革开放以来人们度假情况的巨大变化
The table describes the great changes how people spent their holidays in the past 20
years. First, in 1977, 70% of people spent their holidays at home, but the figure dropped to
30% in 1996, only half (less than half) that of 1977. It seemed that people became more
active in exploring entertainment in the outside world. Second, the people going to seaside
decreased from 34% to only 20% in 1996. The possible reason for it, in my opinion, was
pollution of sea water and sea shores, Third, the number of the people who went travelling
increased very fast. In 1988, it was 35%, more than doubling the number in 1977, and in
1996, it rose to 42%. The obvious reason for this trend is the increase of people'’ income.
Lastly, compared with 1977, many more people went out camping in 1996, the former being
17% whereas the latter 32%, which shows that the real beauty of nature was rediscovered
and people were eager to be closer to nature.
城市交通事故统计表
From the chart we can see that in the second half of the year 1996, traffic accidents in
our city are on the increase. The result, needless to say, is that more and more people have
been injured or even killed. From July to December, injuries resulting from traffic accidents
have increased well over twice, and death nearly five times. Based on the figures in the
chart, we can easily see that more accidents are likely to happen in winter. Such a sharp
increase indicates the lack of control and attention, which resulted in a serious threat to
people’s lives. Therefore, it is urgent that the authorities concerned (should) take immediate
measures to bring traffic under control.
1.Topic: The Relationship between Man and Nature
Outline: 1. Man’s dependence on nature
2. The harm done to nature by man
3. My viewpoint on the issue
It is self-evident that man depends on nature for survival and development. Nature
provides man with food to eat, shelter to live in, clothes to wear, water to drink, even the air
to breathe. Without these basics of life, how could man exist? Let alone develop.
But, with the development of human society, man has done much harm to nature. For
example, pollution of various kinds has become very serious in many parts of the world.
The air is no longer clean, the water in seas, rivers and lakes is dirty, much land is taken up
by solid wastes, and acid rain sometimes pours down from the sky. As a result of man’s
pollution, many plants and animals disappear form the earth each year. Moreover, natural
resources become scare in some parts of the world owing to man’s excessive exploitation.
Besides, some rare animals are endangered because of man’s greedy hunting. In a word,
man has, in fact, become No 1 enemy of nature.
All this deserves our close attention. For the sake of man’s continuing development, man
must change his attitude towards nature. This planet is our only home. Instead of destroying
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it, we have to protect our environment. Without a harmonious relationship with nature, man
will not only harm nature, but also destroy himself in the long run.
2.Outline: My Hometown Has Taken On a New Look
My hometown is Dalian, a coastal city located at the tip of the liaodong Peninsula. In the
recent few years, great changes have taken place here through the practice of the reform and
open-door policy.
Everywhere you can see tall buildings, green grass, beautiful gardens, newly-planted trees
, and colorful shopping centers. Many roads have been widened and fashionable street lights
set up. The newly established International Conference and Exhibition Center proudly
stands at the Xinhai Bay, demonstrating you the visitors form all parts of the country and
abroad as well that Dalian is becoming an international city.
Tourists as well as citizens of Dalian are surprised to see the Dalian has become taller,
greener, brighter, cleaner and more beautiful. May Dalian-my lovely hometown, be built
into the Northern Hong Kong in the near future.

3. Topic: A Comparison between Travelling by Train and by Plane


Travelling by train and by plane each has its advantages and disadvantages.
Travelling by plane is faster than by train, but it costs much more. Besides it is more
likely to be affected by bad weather, such as thick fog, heavy snow, strong storm, etc. If you
are in a hurry and you want to get to your destination in the shortest time, it is, of course,
more convenient and much faster to travel by plane.
On the other hand, compared with a plane, a train is slower and often more crowded. But
as every body knows a train’s ticket is much cheaper than a plane’s. It is also believed that
travelling by train is safer and less likely to be affected by weather. Besides, one can easily
get on or get off a train at any station, which is another obvious advantage over a plane. The
last but not the least important advantage of travelling by train is that one can enjoy the
scenery along the track, which is hardly possible for a plane passenger. So you can see
everything in the world has two sides, and this issue is no exception.
4. Topic: The Telephone: A Blessing or a Nuisance?
Everyone says that the telephone has brought us much convenience. Indeed, since it was
invented, the telephone has greatly facilitated people’s life. Nowadays no matter where you
are, you can always hear your families’ or friend’s voices. And if you have an urgent
message to send, all you have to do is to reach for a telephone. After all, sound travels much
faster than written words. That’s why modern houses are usually equipped with telephone.
In a sense, the telephone has become an essential part of our modern life.
But just as everything has two aspects, so the telephone has its own disadvantages.
Imagine you are taking a bath when the phone rings, what will you do? And the phone may
ring at any time of the day, early in the morning or late at night. In those moments you
probably think the telephone is really a nuisance. What’s more, don’t forget the fact that
making telephone calls costs money. If you make too many calls, the telephone bill will
give you an unpleasant surprise at the end of the month.
5. Topic: More Private Cars or Not?
Outline: 1. Advantages of more private cars
2. Disadvantage
3. My opinion about the issue
In the last few years, with the increase of people’s income, some people have already
bought cars. Others are planning to buy their own cars. Needless to say, owning a private
car can help a person or a family in many ways, such as saving time, being convenient,
becoming more mobile, and so on. Besides, to develop the car industry will bring about
prosperity in many related industries, which will certainly do much good to our country as a
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whole.
But we have to take negative effects of the matter into consideration. With more and more
cars travelling on roads, the air pollution will become more and more serious. In addition,
there will be more traffic jams and accidents. Consider that China has a population of 1.2
billion. Even a small percentage, say, 10 % , of the population owning private cars could
mean an increase of over 120,000,000 cars, which will congest the already overcrowded
roads even worse.
Therefore, in my opinion, the government should carefully consider the matter and take
effective measures before the possible bad consequences occur. A wise choice, as I see it, is
to develop public traffic service instead of developing private cars.
6. On “ the Project Hope”
For various reasons, there are still many children now in our country who can’t go to
school to receive education. Most of them simply cannot afford the cost of education and
badly need help. Meanwhile, the government at all levels are unable to invest enough in
education at present. It is in this difficult situation that “ the Project Hope” is put into
practice. The purpose of the project is to raise money from the whole society to support
poor children to continue their schooling.
Obviously, this project is of vital importance. It provides chances for dropouts to go back
to school, which not only benefits the children themselves but also contributes much to the
development of our country in the long run. As we all know, a country’s development is
based on education. Schools are the very places where educated people are produced.
Without knowledge, how can our great goal of the four modernizations be realized in the
next century? Just as the name of the project indicates, by enabling poor children to return
to school today, we are actually sowing the seeds of “ hope” for tomorrow.

7. Preserving Natural Resources


Many social problems deserve our attention. The shortage of many natural resources is
one of them. Nowadays in many parts of the world, fresh water is scarce, forest is
disappearing, many minerals are being used up and even clean air is hard to find. All this
results in a threat to man’s survival and development.
What are the factors that cause the present plight? First, the world’s population has been
increasing too fast during the past few decades, which puts great pressure on the supply of
natural resources. Second, excessive exploitation of natural resources is another important
reason for the problem. Third, pollution of all kinds, the side effect of the development of
modern science and technology, destroys a large part of the already scarce resources, such
as land, fresh water, forests, etc.
The above discussion about the reasons for the problem enables us to come up with the
following solutions to the problem. Firstly, education on the necessity and urgency of
preserving natural resources should be carried out worldwide. Secondly, laws and
regulations already in effect should be enforced to further reduce the abuse of natural
resources. Thirdly, all necessary measures must be taken to reduce all sorts of pollution.
Lastly, birth control has to be carried on firmly so that the population growth rate can
effectively be brought under control. Only the combination of all the above-mentioned
measures can we hopefully resolve the problem in the near future.

8.Does Luck Play a Role in One’s Success?


The cited quotation implies the issue whether luck, or chance, plays a role in one’s success.
While we must admit that hard work is the first and foremost important factor in achieving
success , we shouldn’t deny the role played by luck or chance.
Let’s first discuss two well-known instances of the role of luck. One is Fleming’s
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discovery of penicillin. If this scientist had not noticed the accidental occurrence in his lab
and made a further study of it , how could he possibly manage to isolate that substance ,
which turned out to be a most powerful agent against bacteria? The other example is Stevie,
a famous American blind singer. If he had not luckily been spotted for his special talent and
then introduced to a large recording company, how could he demonstrate to the whole world
that blindness is not necessarily disabled? It is obvious that luck plays an important role in
their successes.
Why do we think that chance may lead to success? To begin with, everyone doesn’t have
golden opportunities alike. Only those lucky people can have such blessings. Next, chance
means, in a way, a way leading to success. Once you seize it and make the most of it,
success will be more likely to wave to you. Finally, of course, chance alone is not sufficient
to ensure success. It must be joined to persistent effort. That is to say, chance can only
benefit the prepared mind. Hence we can safely draw the conclusion that luck is an
objective factor in making one’s success. But it is hard work that finally allows one to make
the best use of his luck-if it comes.

9. Topic : On Advertising
Outline: 1. Positive roles of advertisements
2. Negative side of ads
3. My viewpoint on ads
Advertising plays a positive role in the modern society. On the one hand, ads inform
consumers of various kinds of goods or services, so that people can compare similar goods
or services before they make final decisions. In theirs respect, ads are helpful and
convenient to us. On the other hand, ads save manufacturers much time and promote their
production. In the final analysis, they are beneficial to the development of our economy.
But everything in the world has two sides. Advertising is no exception. Sometimes
producers or ads designers try to deceive customers. Besides, they tend to beautify their
good or services. So we should be careful when receiving information from ads. In other
words, not everything ads tell us is true.
Balancing the above two sides of the issue, I believe the positive side is greater than the
negative one. Therefore, our correct attitude twoard ads should be making good use of ads
while analyzing the information they offer us.

10.Topic: How to Reduce Fake and Inferior Goods


Outline: 1. 市场上假冒伪劣产品屡禁不止
2. 如何禁止此类产品
With the fast development of the market economy, some side-effects are strongly felt.
Selling fake or inferior goods is one of them. At present, one can easily find various kinds
of such goods on the market, such as fake wine, fake cigarettes, inferior shoes, inferior
clothes, sour milk, even poisonous food. Some companies and shops do all sorts of evil
things to make as much profit as possible, showing no concern on the people’s safety and
interest.
The above-mentioned problems naturally deserve our close attention. We must take the
following measures to stop such a bad tendency. Firstly, Laws and regulations already in
effect have to be enforced and those who break laws must be severely punished. Secondly,
governments at all levels should organize more inspections to expose those dirty dealings.
Thirdly, the public should be further educated on the importance of self-protection, which,
in a sense, is the most important measures in fighting against fake and inferior goods. Only
by adopting all these measures can we effectively reduce fake and inferior goods

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11.Topic: On My English Study
Outline:1. 我在英语学习中遇到的主要困难
2. 我是怎样克服这些困难的
3. 我的体会
It is more than ten years since I began to learn English. During these years, I have met
with a lot of difficulties. Among them the greatest difficulties are the following two: One is
that I dare not speak English, and the other is that I can not write English compositions.
How have I overcome these difficulties? About a year ago, I happened to watch a TV
program about “Crazy English”, which encouraged us to speak English loudly, quickly and
exactly. I made up my mind to seize every chance to speak English. I tried to use the
sentence patterns, phrases or expressions that I had learnt. Believe it or not, I have, little by
little, overcome my shyness,. Now I am glad to say that I am able to express myself in
English for two or three minutes without long pauses. As to writing, an English professor
advised me that good writing always comes form good reading. I followed her advice and
tried my best to memorize quite a few good paragraphs or short passages. In so doing I have
got to realize how to organize my composition, how to use set sentence patterns and how to
express my ideas in written English.
Now I am so happy that I have made good progress, both in spoken English and in
Written English. Of course, I know this is only a beginning, and there is still a long way for
me t go before I can really master English. But I firmly believe that “ The longer you walk
each day, the nearer your goal will be.”

12. Recreations
Outline: 1. The importance of recreations
2. Different kinds of recreations
3. Your comments
Recreations are an important part of people’s life. For example, after hours of attentive
study, students feel like having a football game to relax their nerves. Workers, too, find it
very satisfying to sit in front of a TV set for an hour or two when they come back from a
day’s tiring work. Besides, recreations serve as a pleasing way for the retired people to pass
their time. Everywhere you go, you will find that during their spare time, people are
engaged in recreational activities of one kind or another.
Generally speaking, there are two kinds of recreation: physical activities and intellectual
activities. Physical activities, on the one hand, keep one fit and develop team spirit.
Basketball is an example. On the other hand, intellectual activities such as playing chess
and reading novels can train one’s brains and provide temporary escape from one’s troubles.
In my opinion, there should be a balance between the two forms of activities. This is
because physical activities are necessary for good health while intellectual activities are
beneficial to one’s mind. Therefore, in order to make his life enjoyable, one should go in for
both kinds of pastimes.
13. Four Seasons
There are four seasons in a year. They are spring, summer, autumn and winter. Every
season has three months and each month has about thirty days.
The first season is spring. In spring time we have warm weather and sunny days. There
are many beautiful flowers in the gardens and in the fields. The birds begin to sing their
songs. Everything comes to life again.
The second season we call summer. In summer the weather is very hot and it rains a lot.
All trees are beautiful with their green leaves. The sky is very clear and blue, and the
sunshine is much stronger than that in other seasons, so many people to the seaside or the
mountains to avoid the heat.
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Autumn is the third season of the year. In autumn, the weather becomes cooler day by day.
It is the best season we have. So many people like it very much, especially the farmers.
They are very busy with their harvest.
The last season is winter. It comes with frost and snow. The weather grows colder and
colder, and much snow falls. But winter is not very long with us, for spring comes again.
Talking of the four seasons, we might as well memorize a little poem. It reads:
Spring is gay with flower and song,
Summer is hot and the days are long,
Autumn is rich with fruit and grain,
Winter brings snow and the New Year again.

14. Is Competition a Good or a Bad Thing?


Outline: I. 现代社会竞争加剧
II. 竞争的好处
III. 竞争的同时,不应偏废和作
With the fact development of the modern society, competition of various forms becomes
more and more furious. Presently, no matter where you are and what you do, you can hardly
avoid competition. People compete with one another for better jobs, higher pays,
comfortable hustling conditions, desirable prized, quicker promotions, chances to go
abroad, opportunities to higher degrees, etc. In a word, competition exists everywhere in our
modern society.
Competition does have positive effect on the development of the society. Take sports for
example. Without tense competition, how could the levels of various sports be raised so
fast? On the part of competitors, competition can bring them many benefits, such as fame,
profit, prizes or chances. On the other hand, the whole society can benefit a lot through
competition. The reason is simple: Competition encourages every member of the society to
do his best, and thus greatly helps the society to advance.
But we should look at things with an all-round viewpoint. When we stress the advantages
of competition, we ought not to neglect the importance of cooperation. Competition plus
cooperation is what we really need.

15. Directions:Some people think that animals should not be cut off from their natural
environments and put into zoos. Others take it for granted. What do you think about the
issue? Take a stand and give specific reasons to support your position. Offer a proper title of
your own.
Zoos Shouldn’t Be Eliminated
Different people have different views about the same issue. The question whether animals
should be cut off from their natural environments and put into zoos is just a case in point.
Some people hold an affirmative attitude twoard the matter whereas others maintain a
negative one. I prefer the former to the latter.
What are the reasons for my stand? To begin with, a zoo is an attraction for all visitors,
old and young, for people can not only enjoy themselves by seeing all kinds of animals, but
learn a lot about them, which would, otherwise, be almost impossible in the wile. In other
words, animals exhibited in zoos are both entertainment and educational means to human
beings. Next, animals in zoos are usually taken good care of by people. They are not ill-
treated. Besides, animals of various kinds in zoos offer good chances for zoologists to make
a better study of them, which, in turn, benefits animals in the long run. The last but not the
least important reason is that certain endangered animals can be better protected in zoos.
Take giant pandas for an instance. Isn’t it mainly owing to the zoologists’ motherly care of
these lovely animals that pandas’ number has been increasing in the past two decades or so?
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In conclusion, keeping animals in zoos is, in the final analysis, beneficial not only to
human beings, but also to animals themselves. That’s why I insist that zoos not be
eliminated.

16.The Importance of Confidence


Outline: I.做什么事都应有信心
II. 没有信心的情况及原因
III. 结论
Whatever we do, we should do it with confidence. If one had no confidence, there is little
possibility that he would ever achieve anything/ this truth seems to be self-evident.
In reality, however, we do see many people who have lost confidence. Some of them say
that they lack the ability to do something. Others complain that their difficulties are too
great to overcome. For some, this might be true. But for many, this only shows that they
have lost heart. The reasons for their problem are mainly two: One is not having a correct
estimate of themselves, and the other is overestimating the difficulties.
Therefore, we should never underestimate our own ability but should believe in the
proverb: “Where there is a will, there is a way.” Confidence is a must for success.

17. Topic: Why Is It Difficult to Give up Smoking?


Outline: I. Smoking is a bad habit.
II. Different causes for heavy smokers
III. My viewpoint
Everyone knows that smoking is harmful. It is harmful not only the smoker himself, but
also to the people around, i.e. the so-called “passive smokers”. If you examine the lung of a
heavy smoker under x rays, you can see the whole lung covered with dark smog. Smoking
leads to many diseases, which is a proven fact.
However, there are still many people who find it difficult to quit this bad habit even if
they have tried many times. Just as English proverb says, “Old habits die hard,” many
factors make this addiction so stubborn. First, they are used to smoking a cigarette when
they are tired. Second, they can not resist the temptation of a cigar when others smoke.
Third, cigarette advertisements play a bad role. Lastly, they like the “gracefulness” that
smoking offers them.
Above all, smoking habit is more of a psychological nature than of a physical one. Hence,
to my mind, once you have overcome the negative psychology, you can certainly give up
smoking.

18. On Book Knowledge


Outline: I. 书本知识的重要性
II. 书本知识的局限性
III. 对待书本知识的正确态度
What is book knowledge? In the final analysis, books are summaries of what people
have acquired in their struggle with nature and the society. In this sense, it is right to say
that a student’s main task should be mastering book knowledge. After all, nobody can
experience all kinds of struggles of all times, owing to limitation of a person’s life.
But we should always bear in mind that books can never cover all the things and
happenings in the world. Although we admit books are the main sources of knowledge, we
should also see that book knowledge alone is not enough. What is more important, in a
sense, is to apply book knowledge into practice. That is to say, to learn from practice, to
develop ability to cope with practical problems is more important than book knowledge
itself.
第 16 页
Once we are aware of the importance and the limitation of book learning, we can easily
see that we should do our best to learn book, knowledge, and at the same time shouldn’t
confine our study to books. So my conclusion is that practical experience is equally
important as, if not more important than, book knowledge.

19. My Ideas about Opportunity


Outline: I.机遇的含义
II.机遇与个人努力的关系
III.结论
You may often hear people say, “ I have no opportunity.” Or “If I had the opportunity, I
would...”. But what is opportunity? Many people think it is simply a luck falling from the
Heaven. That is not true. Opportunity is different from sheer luck. It is a favorable chance
for a qualified person to best demonstrate his or her ability. For example, after years’ effort
you are promoted to an important position, it is a good opportunity.
However, why are you promoted? Because you have good quality or high ability. So we
should say it is your effort that basically determines your promotion. Besides, an
opportunity does not mean success. There are many people who achieve little or nothing, or
even fail, although they have better chances than others. Therefore, we can see good
chances mean different results to different people. The more you are prepared for an
opportunity, the more likely you are to get it. On the other hand, if you don’t deserve it, you
will lose it, even if it has knocked at your door.
Hence we can conclude opportunity only benefits the prepared mind.

20. Topic: Population Control


The world’s population continues to grow, but a new study shows that the situation may
be changing. A rapid drop in the world’s birth rate had taken place during the last 10 years.
Families are generally smaller than they were a few years ago. It is happening in both
developing and industrial nations.
Researchers said they found a number of reasons. For this. More men and women are
waiting longer to get married and are using birth control methods to prevent or delay
pregnancy. More women are going to school or working instead of having children. More
governments, too, support family planning programs to reduce population growth.
China is one the nations that have already cut down its rate of population growth by about
one half since 1970. The government urges each family to have no more than one child.
And it hopes to reach zero population growth, the number of birth equaling the number of
death, by the year 2,000.
21. Different Attitudes twoards Work
Different people hold different attitudes twoard work. The reason lies in their different
objectives about work. Work not only provides material things, but also happiness. In other
words, we work to make a living and to live a full life as well.
Those who have a positive attitude twoards work always work hard. They feel proud of
what they have accomplished. Something inside drive them to work creatively and
efficiently. Without work they would feel uncomfortable physically and mentally.
On the other hand, those who have a negative attitude twoard work usually idle their time
while working. They think of work as a heavy burden, or something unpleasant. Because of
this, they are often late for or absent from work. Even if they go to work, they never put
their heart into work. But in this competitive society, if one doesn’t work hard, he will find
hard to get a new job once he loses his present one.

22. The Importance of Self-study


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Nearly all children and many young men go to school. Teachers pass knowledge to them.
Schooling, as a form of education, prepares us for entering the society. But self-study is
perhaps far more important than schooling, it runs from cradle to tomb, it covers a wider
range of subjects; it suits our needs more directly. In self-study, we learn both from books
and from other people.
This discovery of new knowledge is most important to mankind because it carries the
society forward. It is mainly self-study that enables us to do so. One may well ask: Who
taught Edison to make over one thousand inventions? Wasn’t it self-study?
In our modern times, though educational facilities are much better than before, self-study
remains as important as before. This is because there is so much new knowledge for us to
learn. If we want to succeed in our work, we have to insist on self-study. In a sense, self-
study appears to be more important than ever before.

23. Factors to Success


There is no doubt that every one wishes to be successful in life. Some realize their goals,
while others fail. What factors, then, cause the different results?
The main factors leading to success, in my opinion, are as follows. First, one has to be
diligent. Diligence can help one to overcome difficulties, remove ignorance and enlighten
one’s mind. Second, one had to be devoted. Whatever job he is doing, he must love it and
try his best to do it well. Third, one had to be strong-minded. Without a strong will, he is
likely to give up when he meets with some difficulties.
To conclude, all great men achieve success through diligence, devotion and perseverance.

24. English Today


English has now become an international language. It is spoken almost everywhere in the
world. Everybody knows it is one of the five working languages in the United Nations. And
it is used more and more widely in various ways, such as in politics, in business, in
scientific and technological exchange, in transportation, and so on.
Nowadays, international businessmen all speak English. For business purpose, they have
use English to write letters, to make telephone calls, to make speeches and to travel round
the world. We can hardly imagine how a successful businessman does his business without
speaking English.
Most important academic journals are also printed in English. Both in natural sciences and
in social science, English is widely used in academic exchange. With the help of the
language, scholars and researchers can be informed of the latest development in their
respective fields. In a sense, being able to read English has become a must for all educated
people throughout the world.

25. On the value of Friendship


Friendship is very important in one’s life. Without it, life is a lonely journey even if
one is well off. Friendship can be comfort and help in times of sorrow or failure. It can also
add to joy in times of happiness or success.
Since friendship is so important, we should try our best to make friends wherever we go.
In a sense, to have one more friend is to have one more effort. The more friends we make,
the more successful we shall be.
But, of course, we have to carefully choose. Some people stay with us only when we are
not in trouble, but they become strangers when things are bad for us. Such people can never
be true friends. There is an English proverb, which says, “A friend in need is a friend
indeed.” Only by making true friends can we really enjoy friendship.

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26. Talking About Good Health
There can be no doubt that good health is the most precious thing in the world. When you
have it, you seldom think about it. But once you lose it, you will think about it all the time.
Many people who have recovered from serious illnesses get to realize that nothing else in
the world is as important as good health.
It is well known that good health is the foundation of one’s success. If one is in bad
health, it is hardly possible for him to pursue his career effectively. On the other hand, if he
is in good health, he can do everything he wants to and overcome any difficulty that lies
ahead of him.
Since good health is so important to us all, we ought to do everything necessary to keep
fit. Among others, the following factors deserve out special attention: proper diet, regular
physical exercises, enough fresh air, good sleep and no touch of smoking and drinking.
Only in this way can we stay in good health and enjoy our life.

27. The Importance of the Reform and Open-door Policy


We Chinese people all believe that it is absolutely necessary to carry on the reform and the
open-door policy in China. This is mainly because the most important and urgent task:
today is to develop the national economy and improve the people’s living level. In order to
realize our goal, we have to reform the old economic system so that we can liberate the
productive force. We must also open our door to the whole world so that we can learn all
useful things from other countries, especially from the developed countries.
The great changes which have taken place since 1978 have proved the correctness of the
reform and the open policy. During the past 20 years, China’s national economy has been
developing at an average rate of nearly 10 percent, which is about four times that of the
world. As a result, the people’s living standard has been improved considerably. Now,
China’s GNP per person is about 800 U.S. dollar, which was hard to imagine two decades
ago.
Our party has again and again announced that the reform and the open policy will never
be changed. Since the facts have shown it is a successful path. I don’t see any reason for a
change. All the Chinese people have the faith that so long as we insist on this wise policy,
we can certainly make greater achievements in the future and build our motherland into a
powerful socialist nation.

29. Environmental Protection


Today the quality of our natural environment has become an important issue. The world
population has already reached 5.2 billion and is still rising rapidly. As a result, the world
has become more and more crowded. Still worse, we are suing up some natural resources
and at the same time polluting our environment with all kinds of wastes and chemicals. If
we continue to do this, life on earth cannot survive in the near future. This issue has already
aroused many people’s deep concern.
Some progress has been made in environmental protection. Governments of many
countries have passed laws to protect the air, forests, land, rivers and lakes, sea resources
and to stop environmental pollution.
But further measures should be taken to solve environmental problems. Among other
measures, I think, people must be further educated on the importance of the environment
protection, which is the basic step in fighting against various kinds of pollution, meanwhile,
population control has to be more strictly carried out. Otherwise, there could be little hope
for us to live in a better and cleaner place in the future.

30. On College Students’ Doing Part-time Jobs


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Nowadays with the fast development of the market economy, more and more college
students do part-time jobs. Some of them serve as tutors, others work in companies,
factories or shops in their spare time. Still others sell goods from door to door. This trend is
becoming more and more popular and has aroused people’s interest.
They have good reason to do so. First, by doing part-time jobs, college students get to k
now this society better. They learn to get along with different people, to solve practical
problems, to make money by themselves, and to apply their knowledge into practice. All
this can not be obtained from books. Second, in the practice of doing jobs, they can realize
it is not easy to make money, which will help them better understand their parents. Third,
once they have earned some money, they can spend it on useful things, thus relieving their
parents’ burden. Of course, everything in the world has two side, and this issue is no
exception. Since their main task is to study, they won’t have enough time and energy to
study or rest if they spend too much time doing part-time jobs. Besides, to some students,
much money doesn’t necessarily mean a good thing. A few of them might spend it freely
and thus form a bad habit.
Balancing the two sides of the issue, I think the correct attitude twoard the matter should
be to encourage college students to do part-time jobs, and at the same time to help them
plan their time carefully. In so doing, they can both study well and do part-time job well.

31. Why to Work?


Some people believe they live to work. In other words, the purpose of life is to work.
They spare no effort to do work well and feel happy about their work achievements. Once
they lose their work or retired, they feel lonely and unhappy.
Others think they work to live. That is to say, the purpose of work is to make a living.
They have to work, no matter they are willing or unwilling to do so. Without work, how
could get money to support themselves and their families?
In my opinion, the reasons for work are of two aspects. On the one hand, work provides
us with material things such as food, clothes, shelter, all sorts of services, etc. On the other
hand, work also satisfies our spiritual needs. Those who have a positive attitude toward
work always feel proud of what they have accomplished. Something inside themselves
drives them to work creatively and efficiently. So we can conclude that work is the center of
life. Only by doing work can we live happily both physically and mentally.

32. On Sustainable Development of National Economy


More and more people come to realize the importance of the sustainable development of
national economy. It will not only benefit us but also our children and grandchildren. In the
final analysis, without continuous development, our great goal of the four modernizations
won’t be able to come true.
But, many factors affect sustainable development and therefore deserve our attention.
Among others, pollution of various sorts, shortage of some natural resources a, fast-
increasing population and low educational level are the major negative factors. They
prevent us from developing economy continuously.
To ensure continuous development, we must take the following measures. First, the
government should work out a long-term plan to direct economic development. Second, the
existing laws should be enforced and new laws passed to further protect our environment, to
control population growth, to use less natural resource, and to raise people’s educational
level. Third, the public must be better educated on the importance and urgency of the
continuous development, which, in a sense, is the most important measure in keeping up
sustainable development.

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33. More Class or More Research
There is something in arguing that post-graduates should attend more classes. After all,
required courses make it possible for graduates to lay a more solid foundation for their
future career and hence shouldn’t be neglected.
But everything in the world has two sides and this issue is no exception. Too many classes
will occupy too much time and therefore weaken their research work.
I prefer the latter viewpoint. The reasons are as follows. Firstly, doing more research
enables graduates to develop their independent research work ability, which is the most
practical and important need of all graduates. Secondly, in doing such work they will find
out what they lack and what is needed, so that they can adjust themselves to the needs of the
society. Finally, graduates can make a contribution to the nation while they are still at
school. In short, as the mane implies, post-graduates should concentrate on research instead
of classes.

34.The Computer Age


1. 我们正处于电脑时代。
2. 电脑有许多优越性。
3. 然而,电脑永远也不能替代人脑。
The Computer Age
We are now in the computer age. Computers have been made smaller, cheaper and
easier to use. As a result, their popularity has been increasing as more people buy computers
for their homes and businesses. With the popularity of the internet, people all over the world
can exchange all kinds of information. Computers are really a wonder in modern
technology.
Computers have many advantages. Computers are relieving us of more and more
routine tasks in businesses and in our personal lives. They are especially useful in automatic
control, data processing and solving complicated problems. Computers are able to work
very accurately and at very high speed.
However, computers can never replace human brains. As our efficient servants,
computers need detailed instructions from human beings. They are not a substitute for
fundamental thinking and reasoning skills. Our tasks are far too numerous and far too
complicated for them to take over completely. Computers are at most an extension of
human brains. ( 160 words )

35 People Should Be Rewarded According to Ability


1. 在我们的社会,传统上认为人们的酬劳应根据他们的年龄和工作经验的确定
2. 然而,年青人有许多方面胜过年长的
3. 我的观点
In our society, it is traditionally believed that people should be rewarded according to
their age and experience. Ability counts for less. Employers pay the smallest sum consistent
with keeping a young employee in a job. No matter how brilliant a young person is, he goes
to the very end of the queue and stays there waiting for his abilities to be acknowledged and
rewarded in due course. It may be twenty or thirty years later when he will be considered
old enough to be rewarded properly.
However, young people have a lot of advantages over aged people. They are
ambitious. Many are equipped with fine education and some have made great success
during their late twenties or early thirties. They show their great abilities in many aspects.
So if they are given the jobs that really matter, or they are given opportunities to make
decisions about how society is to be run. No doubt, they will promote prosperity and
ultimately lead to a better society.
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In my view, people should be rewarded according to ability instead of age and
experience. If young people are more able, more determined, harder working than old
people, why should they be deprived of good jobs and high salaries? Employers should
recognize ability and reward it justly. Only in this way can our society develop steadily.
(222 words)

36Title: Attitude Towards Life


Outline:
1. Different attitudes towards life
2. The advantages and disadvantages of these different attitudes
3. Your suggestions
Attitude Towards Life
Nowadays the terms “market economy”, “competition”, “laid-off workers” have
already begun to creep into the popular vocabulary. It seems that more people are having to
learn how to adjust their attitudes towards life. However, people’s attitudes towards life
differ. Some argue that people should look back before they make their minds to do
something, while others maintain that people should look forward no matter what happen to
them.
In the minds of those whose attitudes are “looking back”, success is equated with
the experience which they have gained in the past. Therefore, whenever they fail at
something, they will study the situation carefully to find out why they failed. On the
contrary, those who maintain that they will look forward will not feel upset when they fail.
They will study the situation carefully and then make up their minds to try it again.
As has been mentioned above, a conclusion can be drawn that “looking back” can
gain experiences and avoid making the same mistakes, while “looking forward” can get
implications from failure and set up confidence. In my opinion, I will convert these two
attitudes into one: look back when I am flushed with success, and look forward when I am
behind the eight-ball. (205 words)

37.Computer Network
Nowadays, we have noticed the fact that the network has brought us lots of benefits. At
a little time and cost, we can exchange information very quickly with those who live far
away. We can pursue the degree through virtual universities. With the help of Internet we
can go shopping or even work at home. Network is changing out lifestyle greatly.
As everything has two sides, network has its disadvantages. Network is very fragile
and can be easily attacked by hackers. Even a tiny virus can cause the network total
stagnation, and the result would be very serious.
In my opinion, network does more good than harm. With the development of high-tech
and the progress of the society all the shortcomings will be overcome very soon. I believe
that computer network will continue to have a great influence on our society with
information superhighway paving new ways for the future.

38.Prospect of Net Economy


As we are approaching to the next century, human society is beginning its move from the
industrial economy into the knowledge-based economy. In more specific terms, the
application of information to the economy is best exemplified in the Net economy. Now it is
generally regarded that there are two aspects of the Net economy. One is the networking
between individual businesses. Simultaneous consultation of doctors from all over the
world on the Internet is a good example for this aspect.
It is estimated that the Net economy will have a great impact on the industry of the
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future. The powerful influence of E-Commerce will change the face of trade dramatically.
As a result the business is rapidly being rationalized, production figures go up while costs
come down.
As has been mentioned above, the Net economy will bring the world into a brand new
era. But we should keep a clear mind when we push the economy ahead rapidly. In my
opinion, the government should formulate laws and regulations to guide the development of
the Net economy, and should establish reasonable network industrial mechanisms. In
addition, the governments should exploit and sponsor the most promising projects to
improve the implementation of the network. Only taking the above measures can the Net
economy develop rapidly and healthily.

39. Information Age


Adding to social changes today is an enormous stockpile of information. The individual
now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding the very
piece of information relevant to his or her specific problems is complicated, time-
consuming and sometimes even overwhelming.
Coupled with the growing quantity of information is the development of technologies
which enable the storage and delivery of more information with greater speed to more
locations than has ever been possible before. Computer technology make it possible to store
vast amounts of data in readable files, and to program computers to locate specific
information. Satellites have extended the power of communications to report events at the
instant of occurrence. Technology has facilitated the sharing of information and the
storage and delivery of information, thus making information available to more people.
In this digital world, diverse information exchanges and the public need for information
are a matter of the greatest importance. People need accurate, reliable up-to-date
information to solve the day-to –day problems; by so doing, they can quickly respond to
critical problems of their business, social communication and family life. At best, those who
succeed in the competitive world will survive.
In this sense, “Knowledge is power” may well be the truest saying while “Knowledge is
development” is the mere access to information age that is the most demanding for all
people.
本文第一段主旨和主题句表明:社会的变化来信息;个人的活动也在信息之中。第
二段举例说明科技是信息发展之动力。第三段为实例说明,社会活动成为信息时代,
人们的成败与否全在于信息的把握。第四段表达作者的独到见解:信息时代,与其说
“知识就是力量”,不如说“知识就是发展”。

40.Science and Life


There have been great changes nowadays in people’s life. Many factors may account
for the changes, but undoubtedly the most important factor is the development of science
and technology.
No one has ever wondered that the development of science and technology would
bring us so much convenience. TV enables us to know what happens all over the world
without going out, telephone shorts the distance between people and computer can solve
various kinds of difficult problems. In the future, it is possible for people to sit in their own
homes and carry out all kinds of activities through electronic networks.
In one word, without the modern science and technology, our life will not be so
convenient. As the saying goes, “Knowledge is power”. Therefore, we have good reasons
to believe that science will play a more significant role in changing people’s life. With the
help of science, the future will be a better place.

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41.On Self-Education
Education is the harmonious development of all our faculties. It begins in the nursery,
and goes on at school, but does not end there. It continues through life, whether we will or
not. The only question is what we learn in after years is wisely chosen or picked up
haphazard.” Every person,” says a famous Harvard professor, “has two kinds of education,
one which he receives from others, and one more important, which he gives himself.”
What we teach ourselves must indeed always be more useful than what we learn of
others. Those who have not distinguished themselves at school need not on that account be
discouraged. The greatest mind does not necessarily ripen the quickest. If you have not
taken pains, then you should be ashamed; but if you have done you best, you have only to
persevere; for many of those who have never been able to distinguish themselves at school,
have been very successful in the future. We are told that Wellington and Napoleon were
both dull boys, and the same is said to have been the case with Sir Isacc Newton, Albert
Einstein, and many other eminent men.
Now we’d better remember: study as if you were to live for ever, but live as if you were
to die tomorrow.

42.Health and Life


[1](主旨句)Are you expecting success in your study life or work?[2](主题句)If
you answer is a positive one, you must possess a health body.
[3](扩展句)As the saying goes, one doesn’t know what happiness is until one loses it;
one doesn’t know what health is until he falls ill. [4](实例说明)In such competitive times,
health is often neglected because if the tense rhythm of modern society. Some persons
assume that they are in pretty sound health and they do not have to spend times and energy
to prevent themselves from health problems.[5](观点推导)But whether you sense it or not,
such bad habits as working over time, drinking excessively and burning midnight oil, will
catch up with you someday.
[6](过渡句)There may be different suggestions for keeping fit.[7](扩展句)Usually
there points are going in common. [8] ( 实 例 说 明 ) First, live a regular life and keep a
balanced diet. Second, arrange some time for outside exercises, for sports and fresh air will
surly do you good. And at last, hold an active and optimistic attitude toward daily life and
keep your moods bright.[9](结束句)All in all, a normal life is unimaginable without the
guarantee of health. It’s my wish that everyone leads a healthy life.

43.Title: On Brain Drain


1. The current situation
2. Different opinions of brain drain
3. Your suggestion
Nowadays, as the revolution and the open policy as well as the market economy have
been carried out for almost 20 years, more and more people can go abroad. I think this
phenomenon so called brain drain will eventually be an advantage to our country’s
development.
As is well known that in developed countries, there are more advanced technologies,
excellent working and living conditions. Moreover, you can broaden your views, knowledge
and experiences. Of course, high salaries also attract a lot of people who want to strike it
rich overnight.
Many argue that this trend will take away many elite and prospective engineers.
However, I see a different sight in the future, not pessimistic but optimistic. We all know
that in the 60s and 70s Taiwan had sent many young students abroad, who absorbed and
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mastered the first dose of information and technologies. After their graduations, they
resided there, but this trend didn’t exist too long when Taiwan government endeavored to
shorten the deficiency compared with developed countries. At the same time, we all know
that in other countries, no matter how capable you are, you will always be downplayed by
local people, especially when they know that you are from a developing country. So with
these educated people’s return and their mastered knowledge, Taiwan got a great
achievement in lesser years than other equal countries. Now we just stand on the crossroad,
whether we should encourage more young people to study abroad or we limit them although
we know that limitation will do nothing in the end.
“Brain drain” really rings a bell to our leaders and they also begin to take some
efficient steps, for example, a lot of relevant policies come out, which don’t simply limit
this trend, on the contrary, they concentrate on the working conditions’ improvement and
incomes’ increase. I think that in the near future, with the stability, a peaceful life, law and
order, education friendly and understanding people in our country, “brain drain” will turn to
“brain gain” at last. (340 words)

有关申奥(背景知识)
China, one of the most influential countries in the world, is willing to do its best to
promote the Olympic sport. Beijing, the capital city of China, is applying to host the
Olympic Games on behalf of China as a whole.
There are several factors for Beijing to be qualified as a host city of the Olympic. First
of all, China is a country with one fifth of the world population. Secondly, Beijing is a city
with a history of 3000 years and unique culture. Beijing is also a modern city with nearly
one hundred universities and well-established scientific and educational systems. Thirdly,
the Chinese central government and the people of the whole nation support Beijing to bid
for the Olympic Games. Fourthly, the government attaches great importance to and fully
supports Beijing’s bid for the 2008 Olympic Games and will provide favorable conditions
for the bid in all aspects. People all over the country have expressed their enthusiastic
support to Beijing’s bid in various ways.
Therefore, Beijing has good opportunities in the Olympic bid because it is in line with
the requirements of securing and promoting the global and fair Olympic movement.

44.Physical Exercise
Physical exercise is one the means of helping us with good health and happy mind.
More and more people have realized the importance of physical exercise. Therefore,
we should arrange time for physical exercise no matter how busy we are.
There are many sorts of physical exercises which meet the needs of different people.
Some people love the fierce sports and like to share training pleasure with others. So they
play a tennis and football. While other people are fond of individual sports. So they run or
do breathing exercises. In a word, so long as they can strengthen our health and delight our
mood, they are beneficial sports.
As far as I am concerned, I am keen on running. After half an hour of running every
morning, I can always throw myself into work with good health and happy mind.

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