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WeBWorK assignment Set2 is due : 11/01/2010 at ter in F(x, y) as the solution of the differential equation here

06:00am EET. = C.

(This is early Thursday morning, so it needs to be done Correct Answers:

Wednesday night!) Remember to get this done early!

• 2*xˆ3+(-3)*y

• -3*x+(-4)*yˆ2

This assignment covers sections 2.4, 2.5, 2.6,and 3.1, 3.2 • A*((2/4) xˆ{4}+-3x y + (-4/3)yˆ3)+C

1. (1 pt) Use the ”mixed partials” check to see if the follow-

ing differential equation is exact.

If it is exact find a function F(x,y) whose differential, dF(x, y)

4. (1 pt) Another model for a growth function for a limited

is the left hand side of the differential equation.

pupulation is given by the Gompertz function, which is a solu-

That is, level curves F(x, y) = C are solutions to the differen-

tion of the differential equation

tial equation

(1ex sin(y) − 2y)dx + (−2x + 1ex cos(y))dy = 0 dP

K

= c ln P

First: dt P

My (x, y) = , and Nx (x, y) = .

If the equation is not exact, enter not exact, otherwise enter where c is a constant and K is the carrying capacity.

in F(x, y) here

Correct Answers:

(a) Solve this differential equation for c = 0.2, K = 1000, and

• 1*eˆx*cos(y)+-2 initial population P0 = 200.

• -2+1*eˆx*cos(y) P(t) = .

• (1eˆx sin(y) + -2x y )

2. (1 pt) The differential equation (b) Compute the limiting value of the size of the population.

lim P(t) = .

y − 3y4 = y6 + 3x y0 t→∞

can be written in differential form:

P= .

M(x, y) dx + N(x, y) dy = 0 Correct Answers:

where • 1000/eˆ(1.6094379124341*eˆ(- 0.2*t))

M(x, y) = , and N(x, y) = . • 1000

This becomes exact if we multiply by the integrating factor • 367.879441171442

µ = y4 . The solution of the resulting differential equation is

= C.

Correct Answers:

5. (1 pt) A population P obeys the logistic model. It satisfies

• y + -3yˆ4 the equation

• -yˆ{6}-3x dP 9

• -yˆ3/3+x/yˆ3+-3 x = P(11 − P) for P > 0.

dt 1100

3. (1 pt) Use the ”mixed partials” check to see if the follow- (a) The population is increasing when <P<

ing differential equation is exact.

(b) The population is decreasing when P >

If it is exact find a function F(x, y) whose differential, dF(x, y)

gives the differential equation. That is, level curves F(x, y) = C (c) Assume that P(0) = 3. Find P(64).

are solutions to the differential equation: P(64) =

dy −2x3 + 3y

= Correct Answers:

dx −3x − 4y2

First rewrite as • 0

• 11

M(x, y) dx + N(x, y) dy = 0 • 11

where M(x, y) = , • 10.9083376287422

and N(x, y) = .

1

6. (1 pt) Any population, P, for which we can ignore immi-

gration, satisfies

dP

= Birth rate − Death rate. P = ba is called the threshold population because for popula-

dt

For organisms which need a partner for reproduction but rely tions greater than ba , the population will increase without bound.

on a chance encounter for meeting a mate, the birth rate is pro- For populations less than ba , the population will go to zero, i.e.

portional to the square of the population. Thus, the population to extinction. The value ba is an unstable equilibrium, and P = 0

of such a type of organism satisfies a differential equation of the is a stable equilibrium.

form Correct Answers:

dP

= aP2 − bP with a, b > 0. • (0,1.74796)

dt

• (1.74796,infinity)

This problem investigates the solutions to such an equation.

• infinity

(a) Sketch a graph of dP/dt against P. Note when dP/dt is

• b/a

positive and negative. • 0

dP/dt < 0 when P is in

dP/dt > 0 when P is in

(Your answers may involve a and b. Give your answers as an 7. (1 pt) Solve the following differential equation:

interval or list of intervals: thus, if dP/dt is less than zero for P

between 1 and 3 and P greater than 4, enter (1,3),(4,infinity).)

(b) Use this graph to sketch the shape of solution curves with y00 − 3y0 − 10y = 0; y = 1, y0 = 10 at x = 0

various initial values: use your answers in part (a), and where

Answer: y(x) = .

dP/dt is increasing and decreasing to decide what the shape of

Correct Answers:

the curves has to be. Based on your solution curves, why is

P = b/a called the threshold population? • (12/7)*exp(5*x) - (5/7)*exp(-2*x)

If P(0) > b/a, what happens to P in the long run?

P→

If P(0) = b/a, what happens to P in the long run? 8. (1 pt) Solve the initial value problem. y00 + 7y0 + 12y =

P→ 0, y(0) = 1, y0 (0) = 0.

If P(0) < b/a, what happens to P in the long run? y(t) =

P→ SOLUTION

SOLUTION The characteristic equation is

(a) A graph of dP/dt vs P is shown below.

r2 + 7r + 12 = 0,

Thus, dP/dt is negative when 0 < P < b/a and positive when y(t) = Ae−4t + Be−3t .

b/a < P < ∞ (we ignore P < 0, because this doesn’t make sense

for a population). The initial condition y(0) = 1 gives

(b)

We can see from the graph above that P is a decreasing func- A+B = 1

tion when P < ab . Similarly, when P > ba , the sign of dP/dt is

positive, so P is an increasing function. Thus solution curves and y0 (0) = 0 gives

starting above ab are increasing, and those starting below ab are

decreasing. −4A − 3B = 0

We can also see that for P > ba , the slope, dP

dt , increases with so that A = −3 and B = 4 and

P, so the graph of P against t is concave up. For 0 < P < ba , the

value of P decreases with time. As P decreases, the slope dP dt de- y(t) = −3e−4t + 4e−3t .

b b b

creases for 2a < P < a , and increases toward 0 for 0 < P < 2a .

Thus solution curves starting just below the threshold value of Correct Answers:

b b b

a are concave down for 2a < P < a and concave up and as- • -3*eˆ(-4*t) + 4*eˆ(-3*t)

b

ymptotic to the t-axis for 0 < P < 2a . Thus, solution curves are

similar to those shown in the graph below

2

9. (1 pt) A Bernoulli differential equation is one of the form

dy Correct Answers:

+ P(x)y = Q(x)yn .

dx

• (1/2 - -1/3) *exp((3/2 - 9/4)*t) + (1/2 + -1/3) *exp((3/2 +

• (0 - 2/9) *exp((3/2 - 9/4)*t) + (0 + 2/9) *exp((3/2 + 9/4)*

Observe that, if n = 0 or 1, the Bernoulli equation is linear.

• exp(--48/16 *t)

For other values of n, the substitution u = y1−n transforms the

Bernoulli equation into the linear equation

du

+ (1 − n)P(x)u = (1 − n)Q(x).

dx 12. (1 pt) Determine which of the following pairs of func-

tions are linearly independent.

? 1. f (t) = eλt cos(µt) , g(t) = eλt sin(µt) , µ 6= 0

0 8 y3

y − y = 3, ? 2. f (θ) = cos(3θ) , g(θ) = 4 cos3 (θ) − 4 cos(θ)

x x

? 3. f (θ) = cos(3θ) , g(θ) = 4 cos3 (θ) − 8 cos(θ)

and find the solution that satisfies y(1) = 1. ? 4. f (x) = x3 , g(x) = |x|3

Correct Answers:

• ( (- 2)/(14*xˆ{2}) + 1.14285714285714/xˆ{16} )ˆ(- 1/2) • LINEARLY INDEPENDENT

• LINEARLY INDEPENDENT

10. (1 pt) Find y as a function of t if • LINEARLY DEPENDENT

• LINEARLY INDEPENDENT

y00 − 9y = 0,

y(0) = 6, y(1) = 3.

y(t) = 13. (1 pt) Match the second order linear equations with the

Remark: The initial conditions involve values at two points. Wronskian of (one of) their fundamental solution sets.

Correct Answers:

• (6*exp(-3)-3)/(exp(-3)-exp(3))*exp(3*t)+ (-6*exp(3)+3)/(exp(-3)-exp(3))*exp(-3*t)

11. (1 pt) Find the function y1 of t which is the solution of 1. y00 − ln(t)y0 + 6y = 0

2. y00 + 1t y0 + 6y = 0

16y00 − 48y0 − 45y = 0 3. y00 − 4y0 + 6y = 0

with initial conditions y1 (0) = 1, y01 (0) = 0. 4. y00 + 2y0 + 6y = 0

y1 = 5. y00 − cos(t)y0 + 6y = 0

16y00 − 48y0 − 45y = 0

A. W (t) = 2e−2t

with initial conditions y2 (0) = 0, y02 (0) = 1. B. W (t) = et ln(t)−t

y2 = C. W (t) = e4t

D. W (t) = esin(t)

Find the Wronskian E. W (t) = 2t

• B

W (t) = • E

• C

Remark: You can find W by direct computation and use Abel’s • A

theorem as a check. You should find that W is not zero and so • D

y1 and y2 form a fundamental set of solutions of

16y00 − 48y0 − 45y = 0.

3

Correct Answers:

14. (1 pt) The graph of the function f (x) is

• -2.5

• UNSTABLE

• -1.5

• STABLE

• 0.5

• UNSTABLE

• 1.5

• STABLE

1)3 (x − 0.5)2 (x − 2.5).

List the constant (or equilibrium) solutions to this differen-

tial equation in increasing order and indicate whether or not

these equations are stable, semi-stable, or unstable. (It helps

to sketch the graph. (Use dfield to plot the directional field.)

?

(the hori- ?

zontal axis is x.) ?

Consider the differential equation x0 (t) = f (x(t)). ?

Correct Answers:

List the constant (or equilibrium) solutions to this differential • -3

equation in increasing order and indicate whether or not these • UNSTABLE

equations are stable, semi-stable, or unstable. • -1

? • STABLE

? • 0.5

• SEMI-STABLE

? • 2.5

? • UNSTABLE

c Team, Department of Mathematics, University of Rochester

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