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Gksu Altunta MAT 219 3 Fall 2010 If the equation is not exact, enter not exact, otherwise en-

WeBWorK assignment Set2 is due : 11/01/2010 at ter in F(x, y) as the solution of the differential equation here
06:00am EET. = C.
(This is early Thursday morning, so it needs to be done Correct Answers:
Wednesday night!) Remember to get this done early!
• 2*xˆ3+(-3)*y
• -3*x+(-4)*yˆ2
This assignment covers sections 2.4, 2.5, 2.6,and 3.1, 3.2 • A*((2/4) xˆ{4}+-3x y + (-4/3)yˆ3)+C
1. (1 pt) Use the ”mixed partials” check to see if the follow-
ing differential equation is exact.
If it is exact find a function F(x,y) whose differential, dF(x, y)
4. (1 pt) Another model for a growth function for a limited
is the left hand side of the differential equation.
pupulation is given by the Gompertz function, which is a solu-
That is, level curves F(x, y) = C are solutions to the differen-
tion of the differential equation
tial equation
(1ex sin(y) − 2y)dx + (−2x + 1ex cos(y))dy = 0 dP
 
K
= c ln P
First: dt P
My (x, y) = , and Nx (x, y) = .
If the equation is not exact, enter not exact, otherwise enter where c is a constant and K is the carrying capacity.
in F(x, y) here
(a) Solve this differential equation for c = 0.2, K = 1000, and
• 1*eˆx*cos(y)+-2 initial population P0 = 200.
• -2+1*eˆx*cos(y) P(t) = .
• (1eˆx sin(y) + -2x y )

2. (1 pt) The differential equation (b) Compute the limiting value of the size of the population.
  lim P(t) = .
y − 3y4 = y6 + 3x y0 t→∞

(c) At what value of P does P grow fastest?

can be written in differential form:
P= .
M(x, y) dx + N(x, y) dy = 0 Correct Answers:
where • 1000/eˆ(1.6094379124341*eˆ(- 0.2*t))
M(x, y) = , and N(x, y) = . • 1000
This becomes exact if we multiply by the integrating factor • 367.879441171442
µ = y4 . The solution of the resulting differential equation is
= C.
5. (1 pt) A population P obeys the logistic model. It satisfies
• y + -3yˆ4 the equation
• -yˆ{6}-3x dP 9
• -yˆ3/3+x/yˆ3+-3 x = P(11 − P) for P > 0.
dt 1100
3. (1 pt) Use the ”mixed partials” check to see if the follow- (a) The population is increasing when <P<
ing differential equation is exact.
(b) The population is decreasing when P >
If it is exact find a function F(x, y) whose differential, dF(x, y)
gives the differential equation. That is, level curves F(x, y) = C (c) Assume that P(0) = 3. Find P(64).
are solutions to the differential equation: P(64) =
dy −2x3 + 3y
dx −3x − 4y2
First rewrite as • 0
• 11
M(x, y) dx + N(x, y) dy = 0 • 11
where M(x, y) = , • 10.9083376287422
and N(x, y) = .

1
6. (1 pt) Any population, P, for which we can ignore immi-
gration, satisfies
dP
= Birth rate − Death rate. P = ba is called the threshold population because for popula-
dt
For organisms which need a partner for reproduction but rely tions greater than ba , the population will increase without bound.
on a chance encounter for meeting a mate, the birth rate is pro- For populations less than ba , the population will go to zero, i.e.
portional to the square of the population. Thus, the population to extinction. The value ba is an unstable equilibrium, and P = 0
of such a type of organism satisfies a differential equation of the is a stable equilibrium.
dP
= aP2 − bP with a, b > 0. • (0,1.74796)
dt
• (1.74796,infinity)
This problem investigates the solutions to such an equation.
• infinity
(a) Sketch a graph of dP/dt against P. Note when dP/dt is
• b/a
positive and negative. • 0
dP/dt < 0 when P is in
dP/dt > 0 when P is in
interval or list of intervals: thus, if dP/dt is less than zero for P
between 1 and 3 and P greater than 4, enter (1,3),(4,infinity).)
(b) Use this graph to sketch the shape of solution curves with y00 − 3y0 − 10y = 0; y = 1, y0 = 10 at x = 0
dP/dt is increasing and decreasing to decide what the shape of
the curves has to be. Based on your solution curves, why is
P = b/a called the threshold population? • (12/7)*exp(5*x) - (5/7)*exp(-2*x)
If P(0) > b/a, what happens to P in the long run?
P→
If P(0) = b/a, what happens to P in the long run? 8. (1 pt) Solve the initial value problem. y00 + 7y0 + 12y =
P→ 0, y(0) = 1, y0 (0) = 0.
If P(0) < b/a, what happens to P in the long run? y(t) =
P→ SOLUTION
SOLUTION The characteristic equation is
(a) A graph of dP/dt vs P is shown below.
r2 + 7r + 12 = 0,

which has the solutions r = −3 and r = −4, so that

Thus, dP/dt is negative when 0 < P < b/a and positive when y(t) = Ae−4t + Be−3t .
b/a < P < ∞ (we ignore P < 0, because this doesn’t make sense
for a population). The initial condition y(0) = 1 gives
(b)
We can see from the graph above that P is a decreasing func- A+B = 1
tion when P < ab . Similarly, when P > ba , the sign of dP/dt is
positive, so P is an increasing function. Thus solution curves and y0 (0) = 0 gives
starting above ab are increasing, and those starting below ab are
decreasing. −4A − 3B = 0
We can also see that for P > ba , the slope, dP
dt , increases with so that A = −3 and B = 4 and
P, so the graph of P against t is concave up. For 0 < P < ba , the
value of P decreases with time. As P decreases, the slope dP dt de- y(t) = −3e−4t + 4e−3t .
b b b
creases for 2a < P < a , and increases toward 0 for 0 < P < 2a .
Thus solution curves starting just below the threshold value of Correct Answers:
b b b
a are concave down for 2a < P < a and concave up and as- • -3*eˆ(-4*t) + 4*eˆ(-3*t)
b
ymptotic to the t-axis for 0 < P < 2a . Thus, solution curves are
similar to those shown in the graph below
2
9. (1 pt) A Bernoulli differential equation is one of the form
+ P(x)y = Q(x)yn .
dx
• (1/2 - -1/3) *exp((3/2 - 9/4)*t) + (1/2 + -1/3) *exp((3/2 +
• (0 - 2/9) *exp((3/2 - 9/4)*t) + (0 + 2/9) *exp((3/2 + 9/4)*
Observe that, if n = 0 or 1, the Bernoulli equation is linear.
• exp(--48/16 *t)
For other values of n, the substitution u = y1−n transforms the
Bernoulli equation into the linear equation
du
+ (1 − n)P(x)u = (1 − n)Q(x).
dx 12. (1 pt) Determine which of the following pairs of func-
tions are linearly independent.

Use an appropriate substitution to solve the equation

? 1. f (t) = eλt cos(µt) , g(t) = eλt sin(µt) , µ 6= 0
0 8 y3
y − y = 3, ? 2. f (θ) = cos(3θ) , g(θ) = 4 cos3 (θ) − 4 cos(θ)
x x
? 3. f (θ) = cos(3θ) , g(θ) = 4 cos3 (θ) − 8 cos(θ)
and find the solution that satisfies y(1) = 1. ? 4. f (x) = x3 , g(x) = |x|3

• ( (- 2)/(14*xˆ{2}) + 1.14285714285714/xˆ{16} )ˆ(- 1/2) • LINEARLY INDEPENDENT
• LINEARLY INDEPENDENT
10. (1 pt) Find y as a function of t if • LINEARLY DEPENDENT
• LINEARLY INDEPENDENT
y00 − 9y = 0,
y(0) = 6, y(1) = 3.
y(t) = 13. (1 pt) Match the second order linear equations with the
Remark: The initial conditions involve values at two points. Wronskian of (one of) their fundamental solution sets.
• (6*exp(-3)-3)/(exp(-3)-exp(3))*exp(3*t)+ (-6*exp(3)+3)/(exp(-3)-exp(3))*exp(-3*t)

11. (1 pt) Find the function y1 of t which is the solution of 1. y00 − ln(t)y0 + 6y = 0
2. y00 + 1t y0 + 6y = 0
16y00 − 48y0 − 45y = 0 3. y00 − 4y0 + 6y = 0
with initial conditions y1 (0) = 1, y01 (0) = 0. 4. y00 + 2y0 + 6y = 0
y1 = 5. y00 − cos(t)y0 + 6y = 0

Find the function y2 of t which is the solution of

16y00 − 48y0 − 45y = 0
A. W (t) = 2e−2t
with initial conditions y2 (0) = 0, y02 (0) = 1. B. W (t) = et ln(t)−t
y2 = C. W (t) = e4t
D. W (t) = esin(t)
Find the Wronskian E. W (t) = 2t

W (t) = W (y1 , y2 ). Correct Answers:

• B
W (t) = • E
• C
Remark: You can find W by direct computation and use Abel’s • A
theorem as a check. You should find that W is not zero and so • D
y1 and y2 form a fundamental set of solutions of
16y00 − 48y0 − 45y = 0.
3
14. (1 pt) The graph of the function f (x) is
• -2.5
• UNSTABLE
• -1.5
• STABLE
• 0.5
• UNSTABLE
• 1.5
• STABLE

15. (1 pt) Given the differential equation x0 = (x + 3) ∗ (x +

1)3 (x − 0.5)2 (x − 2.5).
List the constant (or equilibrium) solutions to this differen-
tial equation in increasing order and indicate whether or not
these equations are stable, semi-stable, or unstable. (It helps
to sketch the graph. (Use dfield to plot the directional field.)
?
(the hori- ?
zontal axis is x.) ?
Consider the differential equation x0 (t) = f (x(t)). ?