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WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE.

 Biography.
There are very few documented facts in Shakespeare's life. What can be said
is that he was baptized in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, on April 26,
1564 and died on April 23, 1616, according to the Julian calendar, shortly
before turning 52 years old.
It was the third of the eight children who had John Shakespeare, a
prosperous merchant who came to reach a prominent position in the
municipality, and Mary Arden, who descended from a family of ancestry.
He was born when his family lived on Henley Street in Stratford; the exact day
is not known, since then only the act of baptism was made, on April 26 in this
case, so presumably it would be born a few days before and not more than
a week, as was usual; the tradition has been set as the date of his birth on
April 23, the feast of St. George, perhaps by analogy with the day of his
death, another April 23, 1616, but this dating is not supported by any
document.
Shakespeare's father, who was at the height of his prosperity when William
was born, fell shortly thereafter in disgrace. Accused of illegal wool trade, he
lost his prominent position in the municipal government. It has also been
pointed out that perhaps he had to see in his prosecution a possible affinity
with the Catholic faith, by both sides of the family.
William Shakespeare probably took his first studies at the local elementary
school, the Stratford Grammar School, in the center of his hometown, which
should have brought him an intensive education in Latin grammar and
literature. Although the quality of grammatical schools in the Elizabethan
period was quite irregular, there are indications that Stratford was quite
good. Shakespeare's attendance at this school is mere conjecture, based on
the fact that he was legally entitled to free education for being the son of a
senior local government official. However, there is no document that proves
it, since the parish archives have been lost. At that time it was directed by
John Cotton, a teacher with a broad humanistic and Catholic background;
a Grammar School, taught from ages eight to fifteen and education focused
on learning Latin; at higher levels, the use of English was forbidden to promote
fluency in the Latin language; the study of Aesop's work, translated into Latin,
by Ovid and by Virgil, was prevalent, the authors of which Shakespeare
knew.
On November 28, 1582, when he was 18 years old, Shakespeare married
Anne Hathaway, 26, from Temple Grafton, a town near Stratford. Two
neighbors of Anne, Fulk Sandalls and John Richardson, testified that there
were no impediments to the ceremony. It seems that there was a rush to
arrange the wedding, perhaps because Anne was three months pregnant.
After his marriage, there are hardly any traces of William Shakespeare in

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historical records, until he makes his appearance on the London stage. On
May 26, 1583, the first-born daughter of the couple, Susanna, was baptized
in Stratford.
A son, Hamnet, and another daughter, Judith, born twins, were also baptized
shortly after. Judging by the will of the playwright, who is somewhat dismissive
of Anne Hathaway, the marriage was not well matched.
The last years of the 1580s are known as the 'lost years' of the playwright, since
there is no evidence to show where he was, or why he decided to move from
Stratford to London. According to a legend that is currently little credible, he
was caught hunting deer in the park of Sir Thomas Lucy, the local judge, and
was forced to flee. According to another hypothesis, he could have joined
the theater company Lord Chamberlain's Men as he passed through
Stratford. A seventeenth-century biographer, John Aubrey, collects the
testimony of the son of one of the writer's companions, according to whom
Shakespeare would have spent some time as a rural teacher.
Shakespeare is considered the most important writer in the English language
and one of the most celebrated in world literature.
According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Shakespeare is generally
recognized as the greatest writer of all time, a unique figure in the history of
literature. The fame of other poets, such as Homero and Dante Alighieri, or of
novelists such as León Tolstoy or Charles Dickens, has transcended national
barriers, but none of them has reached the reputation of Shakespeare,
whose works today are read and represent more frequently and in more
countries than ever. The prophecy of one of his great contemporaries, Ben
Jonson, has therefore been fulfilled: Shakespeare does not belong to a single
era but to eternity. "
Shakespeare was a poet and playwright already revered in his time, but his
reputation did not reach the highest levels until the nineteenth century. The
romantics, in particular, hailed his genius, and the Victorians worshiped
Shakespeare with a devotion that George Bernard Shaw called "bardolatry."
In the twentieth century, his works were adapted and rediscovered on many
occasions by all kinds of artistic, intellectual and dramatic art movements.
Shakespearian comedies and tragedies have been translated into the main
languages, and are constantly being studied and represented in diverse
cultural and political contexts around the world. On the other hand, many of
the quotations and aphorisms that dot his works have become part of
everyday use, both in English and in other languages. And personally, with
the passage of time, there has been much speculation about his life,
questioning his sexuality, his religious affiliation, and even the authorship of his
works.

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On November 28, 1582, when he was 18 years old, Shakespeare married
Anne Hathaway, 26, from Temple Grafton, a town near Stratford. Two
neighbors of Anne, Fulk Sandalls and John Richardson, testified that there
were no impediments to the ceremony. It seems that there was a rush to
arrange the wedding, perhaps because Anne was three months pregnant.
After his marriage, there are hardly any traces of William Shakespeare in
historical records, until he makes his appearance on the London stage. On
May 26, 1583, the first-born daughter of the couple, Susanna, was baptized
in Stratford. A son, Hamnet, and another daughter, Judith, born twins, were
also baptized shortly after. Judging by the will of the playwright, who is
somewhat dismissive of Anne Hathaway, the marriage was not well
matched.

 London and its passage through the theater.

Around 1592 Shakespeare was already in London working as a playwright,


and was well-known enough to deserve a disdainful description of Robert
Greene, who portrayed him as "an upstart rook, embellished with our
feathers, who with his tiger heart wrapped in fur as a comedian he thinks he
can impress with a white verse as the best of you », and he also says that« he
considers himself the only shake-scenes of the country »(in the original,
Greene uses the word shake-scene, alluding to the reputation of the author
as to his surname, in a game of paronomasia).

In 1596, only eleven years old, Hamnet died, the only son of the writer, who
was buried in Stratford on August 11 of that same year. Some critics have
argued that the death of his son may have inspired Shakespeare's
composition of Hamlet (c. 1601), rewriting an older work that, unfortunately,
has not survived.

Toward 1598 Shakespeare had moved his residence to the parish of St.
Helen, in Bishopsgate. His name tops the list of actors in the play (Every Man
in His Humor), by Ben Jonson.
Soon he would become an actor, writer, and, finally, co-owner of the theater
company known as Lord Chamberlain's Men, which received his name, like
others of the time, from his aristocratic patron, the Lord Chamberlain.
 Last years.

In the last weeks of Shakespeare's life, the man who was going to marry his
daughter Judith-a tavern keeper named Thomas Quiney-was accused of
promiscuity before the local ecclesiastical tribunal. A woman named
Margaret Wheeler had given birth to a child, and claimed that Quiney was
the father. Both the woman and her son died shortly after. This affected,

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however, the reputation of the writer's future son-in-law, and Shakespeare
revised his will to safeguard his daughter's inheritance from the legal
problems Quiney might have.

Shakespeare died on April 23, 1616. He was married to Anne until his death,
and he was survived by two daughters, Susannah and Judith. The first was
married to Dr. John Hall. However, neither the children of Susannah nor those
of Judith had offspring, so that there is currently no living descendant of the
writer. It was rumored, however, that Shakespeare was the true father of his
godson, the poet and dramatist William Davenant.

It has always tended to associate the death of Shakespeare with drinking, he


died, according to the most widespread comments, as a result of a strong
fever, product of his drunken state.
The remains of Shakespeare were buried in the presbytery of the Church of
the Holy Trinity (Holy Trinity Church) of Stratford. The honor of being buried in
the presbytery, near the main altar of the church, was not due to his prestige
as a dramatist, but to the purchase of a church tithe for 440 pounds (a
considerable sum at the time). The funeral monument of Shakespeare,
erected by his family on the wall near his grave, shows him in an attitude of
writing, and each year, in commemoration of his birth, a new bird feather is
placed in his hand.

It was customary at that time, when there was need of space for new graves,
to empty the old ones, and to transfer their contents to a nearby ossuary.
Perhaps fearing that his remains might be exhumed, according to the
Encyclopedia Britannica, Shakespeare himself would have composed the
following epitaph for his tombstone:
Good friend, for Jesus, abstain
to dig the dust enclosed here.
Blessed be the man who respects these stones,
and cursed he who removes my bones.

A legend affirms that the unpublished works of Shakespeare lie with him in his
tomb. No one has dared to verify the veracity of the legend, perhaps out of
fear of the curse of the aforementioned epitaph.

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LITERARY GENRE.
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 Dramatic.

The subgenres in which it is divided are tragedy and comedy.

The dramatic genre is fundamentally linked to the theather, represents some


conflict in the life of human beings and is presented through dialogue and
gestures of the characters. Act in a theatrical area with a set period of time,
in this the figure of the narrator does not appear.

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ROMEO AND JULIET.
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It is one of the most popular works of the English author and, together with
Hamlet and Macbeth, the one that has been represented the most times.

The exact date on which Shakespeare began to write it is not known,


although it refers to an earthquake that supposedly, it would have happened
eleven years before the events that are narrated. Italy was shaken in 1580 by
an earthquake, it is assumed that Shakespeare could have begun to draft
the first drafts by 1591.

The first edition of Romeo and Juliet is from 1597 and was published by John
Danter in fourth format.

Romeo and Juliet ", tells the dramatic love story of two young people. Romeo
attends a costume party and falls madly in love with Juliet. But after a while
they tell Romeo that Juliet is dead, when he goes to see her in his coffin he
takes poison and dies at the moment, Julieta awakens from the temporary
dream and when she sees Romeo dead, she sticks a dagger in her chest.

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Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet, two of the author's great creations, make
Shakespeare an exceptional spokesman for the species, for his
comprehensive understanding of human creatures and for the poetic
loftiness with which they develop their tragic or joyful existences.

Hamlet, his most famous tragedy, does not link us to beings of flesh and bone
only, but to exemplary characters because of the vigor of his class and the
colossal significance of his admirable texture.

Hamlet, probably written between 1599 and 1601, takes place in Denmark
and tells how Prince Hamlet carries out his revenge on his uncle Claudius,
who murdered his father, the king, marrying his mother, Gertrudis, and
wearing the crown of Denmark . The work is drawn vividly around the
madness (both real and feigned) and it is perceived the course in the spirit
of the prince of deep pain to the excessive anger. In addition it explores the
subjects of the treason, the revenge, the incest and the moral corruption.

Hamlet comes to be seen not only as a psychological tragedy, but as a


profound drama of religious connotations that explores the mysteries of
human existence.

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Macbeth published in 1623, is one of the best-known tragedies of playwright
William Shakespeare. It is a book that revolves around betrayal and excessive
ambition. .The plot arises from the meeting of Macbeth and Banquo (Two
soldiers awarded for their actions in the war) After a battle General Macbeth
and General Banquo run into strange witches who predict the future: They
tell Macbeth that he will first become Lord of Glamis, then Lord of Cawdor,
and finally announcing that he will one day be King of Scotland. They also
announce to Banquo that their descendants will be kings. With this idea in
mind, Macbeth becomes obsessed and tells his wife. shortly after Macbeth
was promoted to Glamis and then became a cawdor , both decide that it is
necessary to happen to the action they plan to get rid of King Ducan and
pave the way for Macbeth to reign Scotland.
At night, the guards get drunk, and Macbeth murders the king. His wife, with
the knife still hot in his hands, leaves him among the drowsy guards. At dawn,
when the crime was discovered, Macbeth accused the guards and before
listening to his testimony, he got rid of them.

From this moment, the character of Macbeth begins to travel a spiral that
ends up consuming it. Part of the consequences of Macbeth's criminal
ambition is that he kills his best friend (Banquo) out of fear that his children will
take his place, and wins many enemies for his actions.

This book is also conceived as a tragedy of order in the compilation of the


work of William Shakespeare ,The main thematic axis of this book is the
criminal ambition that consumes you (the clearest example is Macbeth), that
awakens guilt (Lady Macbeth suffers insomnia and sleepwalking due to the
crime committed), ), stoke the thirst for revenge (by the king's sons and the
nobles of the country) and cause crimes to be committed and families to be
destroyed .

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