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to each other, to various publics, who participate more actively to affect not just

content, but the ways in which these channels of exchange are used and defined.
So-called “end-users” can become creative users themselves.
Artists’ initiatives such as Project Space and DiscLab also present us alternative
support systems that provide the environment for facilitating production and the
circulation or distribution of art. Rather than becoming fully dependent on the
state and private businesses, these initiatives are largely independent. They band
together and reach out to communities from which they draw their knowledge,
ideas and materials. The stereotype of the artist working alone in his studio is
no longer applicable in such collaborations. Artists are reaching out to their
audiences, who have become—especially in interactive works—very much a part
of the creative process.
We have also seen how artists are able to collaborate by benefitting from
technology, which has become not only a tool for research, but also as platform
for disseminating their art and building and sustaining networks with their
communities and beyond—from face-to-face encounters on to virtual networks
and spaces.
We also note that in the aforementioned performances, the shift from one
space to another figures in the way art may be received. Note the transformation,
from the communal and private spaces of Boac, Marinduque to the proscenium
stage in France and the Cultural Center of the Philippines. We see this too in how
encountering art shifts from personal listening device to a shared platform in
the case of Digital Tagalog, and from the streets of the Lucban to cyberspace in
the case of Pahiyas-timed Lucban Assembly/Systems of Irrigation project. Such
relocations lead us to ask questions about the experience of witnessing the dance
and the installations.

How do the meaning and our experience of the artwork change with the shifts from town to
stage, with altered space, lights, and pace; or from the streets, to installations and electronic
documentation?

Responding to this question, could we now begin to appreciate how the


fusion of local and contemporary can make us realize that the two are not separate
but are actually two sides of one and the same coin?
This fusion is evident in another example, where the “local” can also refer
to language, staging and techniques, and the ways by which they can be used
in adapting and translating foreign material. The playwright Rody Vera adapted
from a play for children by the Indian writer Rabindranath Tagore entitled The
Post Office by retitling it Ang Post Office. First staged at the PETA (Philippine
Educational Theater Association) Center, this adaptation of a tragic 1910 tale of a
dying Indian boy coming to know of the world through the people he encounters
in the course of a day was restaged at TXS, Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro.
Finding parallels in Philippine contemporary society, the local staging made
references to local culture: characters playing taho (a semi-liquid soya variant) and
sampaguita vendors. Music from the Kilyawan Children’s Choir rendering a fusion
of Bengali and indigenous Filipino sound pegs, Ellen Ramos’s digital animation,

126 Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions


and a spartan bamboo set, among others, were also introduced as new elements
in this production.

Figure 10.3. Promotional material for the PETA production of Rabindranath Tagore’s The Post Office,
adaptation by Rody Vera

In other adaptations and reinventions, local materials could also refer to folk
stories. Take the case of the staging of Fugtong: The Black Dog by the community
theatre group, Aanak di Kabiligan (Children of the Mountains) which was organized
through the efforts of the Cordillera Green Network. The production revolves
around a folk story about a family ostracized for keeping a black dog commonly
perceived as bringing bad omens. On one level, we can interpret the narrative as
being all about how the different is seen as dangerous or threatening. On another
level, while the story was introduced by a brief English annotation of the plot, the
narrative itself unfolded in multiple languages as the performers from Ifugao, Mt.
Province, Kalinga, and Benguet spoke in Kalinga, Kankaney, Ilocano, and Ibaloi. It
was a deliberate means to keep the atmospheric feel of the story taking place in
the Cordilleras.
Fugtong was directed by theater artist, Rey Angelo Aurelio who is also behind
another community theatre production featuring Smokey Mountain-based youths
rapping, dancing, and acting in Bakata: Battle of the Street Poets, which was
also staged at the Tiu Theater in May 2015. The young people Aurelio works with
come from informal settler communities struggling to deal with problems such
as unsustained education opportunities, unemployed or underemployed parents,
and lack of secure housing, among others. Working with these youths is one way
by which artists may creatively respond to these conditions through immersion
and sharing their know-how about performance, movement, projection, etc.
Teaching these children how to express themselves may not bring big solutions to
their complex problems, but at the very least, they could build a stronger sense of
identity as they learn to process and express their emotions and thoughts. Apart

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127
from checking the publicity poster below, find footage on Bakata here: https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=RVRJe7pwCk0.

Figure 10.4. Fugtong as staged at the Tiu Theater, Makati, June 2014 Photo courtesy of the
Philippine Daily Inquirer

How does the intersection of the creative and socially-engaged provide us with a more
grounded or rooted sense of ourselves? How can it challenge our thinking to expand how
and what we think about what may be unfamiliar or difficult to understand initially?

Let us not forget that what we have been discussing so far are works performed
live before a group of people. In that case, the experience of encountering
artists’ bodies physically moving through a space shared by audiences brings an
altogether different dimension to the reception of the work. The experience of
light, sound, motion would not only be felt up close but would be subject to much
more immediate feedback like applause, silence, transfixed gazes, perked up ears,
and so on. We are of course only encountering these now in a mediated version,
that is through uploaded video and photographs appearing in this book.
To further play up how the bodily senses figure in how we receive and make
sense of art, we take another work, this time something Lani Maestro produced
as a commissioned project called Limen (2014) in France. Here, she carefully
considered where the work was to be placed, how people might relate with it,
and what sort of past or backstory the site had. The space is known as the Bata
compound and was primarily an industrial site. Much like in most mechanized
factories, workers performed rigidly defined and repetitive, mind-numbing tasks.
In response to the above considerations, Maestro decided to build a see-through
bridge that poetically took people out to a liminal point, as the title suggests—the

128 Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions


verge or edge of a garden. Limen marked off a place the artist construed as “anti-
thesis to industrial space”, something that alluded to a “landscape of everyday life”
as the artist writes in her Artist Notes for her 2014 public commission in Bataville,
France. Limen was also meant to metaphorically allow the visitor’s body to fuse
or extend toward the outlying green space visible through the tunnel structure
that did not have walls nor clear beginning or end points. The bridge was also
suspended from a low height so that whoever came might sit on it and not be
fearful of falling off.

It is in regard to works such as this in which the viewer or beholder is made to decide on how
he/she can physically interact with the work. Would it suffice for him or her to merely take
the bridge in from a distance? Or would he/she venture on to the bridge and take a chance
upon experiencing it in a more sensate way—with feet touching the boards, holding on to
the supports, also able to take in the garden in more detail because he/she positioned his/
her body in closer vantage of the work?

Given this potential of a bodily experience, and even if unaware of the


backstory of the bridge to a garden providing a rest place for workers, beholders
of the work then could still take away a physical memory. With many installations
such as this, the viewer-beholder’s decision to engage is precisely what enables
art to take on more layers of meaning, and thus makes him/her a participant in
making the art experience richer and performative.

Figure 10.5. Maestro, Limen (2014)

The “local” is dynamic, fluid, and constantly changing. It involves an


integration of various media: dance, music, the visual, digital, and electronic
arts; of various geographies: local, transnational, national; and of various spaces:
the “actual” as staged, to the virtual as eternally documented or mediatized.
Sometimes, artists work alone, but oftentimes, especially in performances, they
TMLSS

UNIT III: SYNCING


129
have to work in collaboration with other artists and non-artists alike. Their work
often requires interaction with their local and global audience, and some of them
have to research and immerse in the communities from which they draw material
and form from. These could include hometowns, adopted homes to which they
migrated and settled in, or where they briefly stay as visitors or transients. The
image of the artist working alone in his or her studio is no longer the only way we
could imagine art being done; instead, we have researchers, community workers,
quasi-ethnographers who use “local” materials and techniques that fuse the
established, and the ever-changing present.

Field Work and Studio Visit


With your group, visit the studio or archive of an artist/collective who make
use of indigenous material in his/her/their practice (e.g. Baguio Arts Guild/AXIS,
Pampanga Arts Guild, and other artist groups you may find working nearby).
D-I-Y Cultural mapping can help you track these groups. If possible, request the artists
to give you a hands-on experience of their various activities—from the making of
art to its dissemination and documentation. What local materials can you identify
from this fieldwork? Observe how the artists are integrating these local materials
in their projects.

1. How has your idea of what is local changed or not changed after going out to
do field work?
2. What have you learned about your community and yourself? How much of
that self can remain constant and how much can remain open to change?
PIN IT How do you keep a sense of community at the same time build a sense of self
that assumes varied roles in an environment that constantly shifts?
3. In the face of so much information, and the many ways by which this
information reach us, how does one keep from just merely going with the
flow or becoming blindly subject to what is trending? How would a student
today nurture his/her self-identity?

If it is possible, extend your studio visits to an apprenticeship or “on-the-job


training.” Have your teacher assist you in getting a formal agreement drawn up to
outline this work you will be doing for school credit. Try not to limit yourself to the
usual suspects like big firms and macro enterprises. Go for the smaller but more
intimate, more grounded and maybe even more flexible players than the industrial
LEVEL UP
giants.
If the teaching of this unit coincides with the Cinemarehiyon season and/or
the Cinematheque is near enough to the school, you may also attend public fora

130 Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions


or film screenings to encounter the work of local filmmakers. If a local festival is
afoot, you could also write on how the local or global/local-foreign intersections
are crossed or breached in the undertaking of such aspects as street dancing,
the dressing up of performers, the kind of music that gets played, the choice of
activities that get incorporated into the official or local government unit-organized
events which are alternately touted as authentic and vibrant, etc.
Other examples that can be discussed and viewed are: digital images of
works of artists such as the Talaandig, Saudi Ahmad, Junyee, organization, such
as collective Cavity, you could also looek up Kolown street artist’s work on Colon
St., a Cebu-based the Paete taka-makers.; Parts Bagani’s paintings exhibited in
UP, Brenda Fajardo’s 1995 Labaw Donggon series, Norman Tiotuico’s 2013 site-
specific work Kapaniualan;Washed Out video installation by Kiri Dalena; sample
workshop output of Kidlat Tahimik’s ongoing Hapao local traditions project; Teng
Mangansakan’s film Qiyamah/Ferdie Balanag’s 2014 film Agbalbalitok) the Gold
Prospector), Adjani Arumpac’s War is a Tender Thing, among many others.

Atienza, Glecy.  2001.  Ang Dinamiko ng improbasisasyon sa dulaang politikal sa


Filipinas 1970-1992, Unpublished dissertation, University of the Philippines
College of Arts and Letters. 
Corpus, Rina. 2007. Defiant Daughters Dancing: Three Independent Women
TL; DR Dance, University of the Philippines Press.
Datuin, Flaudette.  2002. Land, Locality and Communion:  The International Baguio
Arts Festival. Pananaw:  Philippine Journal of Visual Arts 4:34-40.  Hong
Kong:  National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 
Mirano, Elena.  1989.  Subli: isang sayaw sa apat na tinig, Manila:  Cultural Center
of the Philippines.
Pison, Ruth.  2011. Carving out a Space for Contemporary Dance in the South: 
Agnes Locsin’s Continuing Legacy.  Humanities Diliman Vol 21 No 1, Manila: 
University of the Philippines.
Ramirez, Eileen Legaspi.  2011.  For the Record:  Agency and the Crafting of
Discourse around Performance Art from the Philippines.  Unpublished M.A.
thesis, University of the Philippines College of Arts and Letters.
Tenzer, Michael.  Jose Maceda and the Paradoxes of Modern Composition in
Southeast Asia. Ethnomusicology Vol. 47, No. 1 (Winter, 2003), pp. 93-120.
Tolentino, Roland. 1999.  Ang Palabas, Tanghal at Performatibo: Isang teoretikal
at praktikal na pananaw pandula at pang-araw-araw.  Ani25:  91-99, Manila: 
Cultural Center of the Philippines.

UNIT III: SYNCING


131
LESSON 11: ART PRODUCTION

At the end of this lesson, you are expected to:


• produce a presentation that involves the integration of techniques and
materials in spaces outside and inside the gallery or museum; and
• apply your skills in research, collaboration, problem solving, technology and
QUEST organization through actual production.

FLAG

CHAT ROOM storyboard


production schedule

In the previous lessons, you have brainstormed on your concept, written


a storyline and learned from the artists by visiting their studios. This lesson
synthesizes the concepts of the previous units through an actual production.

THREAD FAQ How will we translate the concept and storyline into actual production?
1. Choose the most appropriate art form that is most applicable for your
Creation Story storyline and concept. Possible forms include: video, live
theater, photo essay, installation, performance art, or a combination,
among others.
2. Assign roles for overall director, performers (dancers, musicians, actors),
set and costume designers, photographers or cinematographers,
editors, etc.
3. Prepare a storyboard. You may use the attached templates, or avail of
one of your own. If you are making a video, it will be helpful to also
include the estimated duration for each sequence.
4. Draw up a production schedule, which will include (whatever is
applicable), rehearsals, creating production designs, shooting, etc. The
will organize a festival to present each group’s project
5. Accomplish the attached rubric for self-assessment and peer review.

132 Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions


Relevant concepts and acquired skills from previous units are consolidated
and enhanced by planning for a video or a contemporary art project in which
production design is based on available materials and performance practices in
their community.

TMLSS

Creation Story: Storyline and Concept

D-I-Y

UNIT III: SYNCING


133
Name in Print: ........................................................................................................
Group Topic: ……....................................................................................................
Unit 4-1
Self-Assessment and Peer Review
PIN IT
How much and how well did you and your group mates contribute and participate in
the storyboard?
Yourself (Name): .......................................................................... Rating*: .....................................
Comments:** ......................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................

Group Mate # 1 (Name): ................................................................. Rating*: ...............................


Comments:** ......................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................

Group Mate # 2 (Name): ............................................................... Rating*: .................................


Comments:** ......................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................

Group Mate # 4 (Name): .............................................................. Rating*: ..................................


Comments:** ......................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
* For the individual rating, choose from the following:
qExcellent qVery Good qGood qSatisfactory qPass qConditional qFail qIncomplete
** For the comments, refer to the suggested guidelines below. Add your own criteria if necessary:

134 Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions


q Contributed idea or work in the storyboard? If yes, please specify.
q Attended group meetings regularly and arrived on time?
q Demonstrated willingness to collaborate, interact, and share information with others?
q Honest but respectful of others?
q Assumed a clear role and related responsibilities?
q Motivated others to do their best?

Search examples of videos that are made by artists in your communities and
can immediately be found in artists’ studios, archives, or blogs, in Internet video
streaming sites, etc. If these are not available, check out for screening and initial
discussion such examples as Mababangong Bangungot/Digital Tagalog opening
LEVEL UP
interaction, Video of Roberto Villanueva performance-installation at Asia-Pacific
Triennale Out of the Shadows, or the performance of Santiago Bose-Villanueva in
SF Bay Area.

Lloyd, Karen J. “4:3 (TV) Vertical Film Template.” Karen J Lloyd’s Storyboard Blog.
Accessed 18 Feb 2013. http://storyboardblog.com.
“Pedagogical Benefits.” The University of Queensland Australia. Accessed 24 July
TL; DR 2015. http://uq.edu.au/tediteach/video-teach-learn/ped-benefits.html.
Squier, Joseph. “Writing with Video : Grading Rubric.”Writing with Video. Accessed 25
Mar 2013. http://writingwithvideo.net/readingsReferences/module03Rubric.
pdf.

UNIT III: SYNCING


135
Index
A B
A Modern Filipina, 28 backstrap loom, 17
A Portrait of the Artist as Filipino, 70 Bagong Lipunan, 35
Abdulmari Imao, 47 Bagong Pagsilang, 34
abstract expressionist style, 34 bahay na bato, 26
abstraction, 34 Bakata: Battle of the Street Poets, 127
Academia, de Dibujo, 26 balitao, 22
Alfonso Ossorio, 34 banog-banog, 16
Alice Reyes, 69 Bar Girls, (1947) 32
American colonial period, 28 Basi Revolt, 24
Ang Post Office, 126 Bayanihan Dance Company, 77
Angry Christ, 34 Benedicto Cabrera, 66
Angud, a forest once (2007), 49 Bienvenido Lumbera, 69
Anino Shadowplay Collective, 75 Black Artists of Asia, 75
anthropomorphic, 16 bodabil, see Vaudeville
appropriation, 52 Bombing of the Intendencia, 32
araguio,24 Bonifacio Monument, 30
arakyo, see araguio Botong Francisco, see Carlos Francisco
arayu, 118–119 Boxer Codex, 18
architect, 90 Brenda Fajardo, 40
Art Association of the Philippines brindis, 27
(AAP), 33 Brown Brother’s Burden (1970), 52
Art Deco, 30 Brown Madonna, 30
Art Nouveau, 30 bulul, 16, 45–46
artifact, 92 burial jars, 17
Artist Residencies, 76 burnay, 17
artists: burraq, 20
modern, 4
national, 4 C
atonal melody, 22 cañao, 14
Atrocites in Paco, 31 canopy, see luhul
Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas, 30 Cargadores (1951), 34
Carlos Francisco, 30, 69

136 Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions


Carlos Palanca Annual Awards, 81 Doomed Family, 32
Carlos Palanca Foundation, 81 drama simbolico, 28
Carroza, 33 dramatic arts, 90
Casa San Miguel, 76
Chabet-Albano axis, 37 E
Chapel of St. Joseph the Worker, 33 ecology, 115
Christianization, 61 Eduardo Castrillo, 40
Church of the Holy Sacrifice, 33, 68 Environmental arts, 91
Church of the Risen Lord, 33 España y Filipinas, 27
cire perdue, 18 estampas, 25
Coconut Palace, 35 ethnic classical instruments, 16
color, 103 Executive Order 30, 35
combined arts, 91
composition in space, 107 F
conceptual performance, 95 Fabian de la Rosa, 29
consumerist system, 37 Filipina DH, 7
contemporary, 2 Filipinescas Dance Troupe, 77
art, 2, 3, 5, 10, 11 Filipino Komiks, 82
characteristics, 9, 10 Filipino Struggles Through History, 30, 92
context: filmmaker, 90
artist’s background, 47 flux artist, 36
economy, 51 Folk art, see Lowland Christian art
everyday life, 49 folk dances, 24
history, 51 folk decoration, 24
mode of reception, 52 Francisco Coching, 70
nature, 48 Francisco Mañosa, 36
politics, 51 Frugal Meal, 5
society, 51 Fugtong: The Black Dog, 127
Cultural Center of the Philippines, 35
cultural overview, 8 G
Cutting Onions Always Makes Me Cry Gadgets II (1949), 32
(1988), 47 GAMABA, 57
Genesis (1968), 32
D Genghis Khan (1950), 69
dagmay, 105 Green Papaya Art Projects, 39
Dalagang Bukid (1919), 51 Guillermo Tolentino, 29, 66
dancer, 90
developmental art, 37 H
Digital Tagalog, 124 hagabi, 16
Divine unity, 19 Heaven, Earth, and Hell, 24
Doctrina Christiana, 25 heroism, 113, 115

Index
137
Hodobu, 31 lithography, 25
hue, 103 local, 123
lost wax, 18
I Lowland Christian art, 21
identity, 113 Lowland Christians, 21
Ifugao fale, 36 luhul, 20
ilustrado, 25
inamong, 16 M
indigenous, see pre-conquest madrasa, 19
infrastructure projects, 61 Magpupukot (1975), 6
interactive, 94 Manlilikha ng Bayan, 57
Islam, 19 man-manok, 16
Islamic colonial, 19 Manuel Conde, 69
Islamic faith, 19 Manunggul jar, 17
Itak sa Puso ni Mang Juan (1978), 38 map, 25
medium, 89
J mihrab, 20
Japanese Information Bureau, see Militarization, 61
Hodobu mimetic representation, 34
Japanese occupation, 31 mining projects, 61
Jose Maceda, 36 mixed media, 10
Julie Lluch, 48 mode of production, 47
Modern Art, 2, 4, 5, 30–31
K moro, 23
Ka’bah, 20 moro-moro, see komedya
kadaliwas, 16 movement, 108–109
Kaisahan, 39 mumbaki, 46
kanyaw, see canao Museo San Ysidro de Pulilan, 78
Kashawing ritual, 16 musical arts, 91
kendi, 19 musical culture, 16
Kidlat Tahimik, 11 musician, 90
kinabua, 16 Muslim architecture, 20
Kinupot (1978), 39
komedya, 23 N
kundiman, 22 narrative arts, 91
National Artist Awards, 36, 65–66
L National Arts Center, 35
Leandro Locsin, 35, 68 National Commission for Culture and
Limen (2014), 128 the Arts, 57, 79
line, 102 National Museum of the Philippines, 78
lingua franca, 28 native dance forms, 16

138 Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions


Nature’s Bounty, 30 pre-colonial writing system, 23
Nelfa Querubin-Tompkin, 49 pre-colonial, see pre-colonial
Neo-Angono Public Art Festival, 80 pre-conquest, 15
Neoclassic: Princess Piramisuli, 19
art, 5 printed literature, 23
style, 5 printmaker, 90
Neoclassic architecture, 29 process-based, 10
Neoclassicism, 5 process-oriented, 11
Neo-Realism, 32 Project Space Pilipinas, 80
Neo-realists, 7
niche, see mihrab Q
Non-objective art, 34 Qibla wall, 20
Non-representational art, 34
Noong Unang Panahon, 70 R
reception, 52–53
O repetitive melody, 22
Oblation, 30, 66 representational element, 104
okir, 16 representational paintings, 105
reprographic art, 25
P retablo, 21
Pabasa, see Pasyon Rey Angelo Aurelio, 127
painter, 90 Rice Planting, 31
Pamilya Pintura, 39 Roberto Chabet, 36
Pangalay, 16, 102 Roberto Feleo, 40
panolong, 20 Ruins of the Manila Cathedral, 32
Passion play, see senakulo rural-pastoral style, 7
pasyon, 22
pedal loom, 17 S
PETA Kalinangan Ensemble, 77 Sakili, 19
Philippine Art Gallery, 33 salakot, 36
Philippine High School for the Arts, 76 Salingpusa, 39
photographer, 90 Salvador Bernal, 70
pictorial arts, 91 Santiago Bose, 40
Pieta, 40 sarsuwela, see zarzuela
plateria technique, 22 Sayyid Abbubakar, 19
plaza complex, 21 sculptor, 90
Portrait of the Quiason Family, 25 Sedition Law, 28
Postwar Republic, 28 senakulo, 23
practical arts, 91 shapes:
pre-colonial Filipino, 15 three-dimensional, 105
pre-colonial rituals, 23 two-dimensional, 105

Index
139
simplified forms, 34 traditional Ivatan house, 49
simulacrum, 96 Treaty of Paris, 28
Sipat Lawin Ensemble, 75 Tromp l’oeil, 22
site-specific work, 94 Tuba Drinkers, 32
social realism, 7, 38
Southern Tagalog Exposure, 75 U
Spanish colonial period, 21 ummah, 19
Spoliarium, 27 UP Kontra Gapi, 78
Street Musicians (1952), 34 urna, 25
Study of an Aeta, 32
Stylistic Overview, 8 V
subject, 113 value, 103, 105
Sungduan, 79 vanua, 118
support systems, 75 Variations of Sabel (2015), 66
vaudeville, 28
T Via Crucis, 22
tabungaw hats, 57 Victorio Edades, 30
Tagbanwa, 16 Virgenes christianas expuestas al
Talaandig artists, 48 populacho, 27
Tales of the Manuvu (1985), 69 viriña, 25
Talip dance, 16
tataya, 117 W
tattoos, 18 weaving:
Tawhid, 19 basket, 18
technique, 91 mat, 18
Teofilo Garcia, 56 textile, 17
texture, 102, 105 traditional, 17
The Beggars (1952), 32 western ballet, 24
The Builders, 30 writer, 90
The Contrast, (1940), 7, 32
theater, 90 Z
themes, 113 zarzuela, 23
Thirteen Moderns, 30
time-based artifact, 92
tinikling, 16, 49
T’nalak, 48, 105
tone, 103
torogan, 20
Tos del pais, 25
tourism, 60
traditional art, 10, 57

140 Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions