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APPENDIKS B

NERACA ENERGI

Kapasitas Produksi = 2,490,000 ton/tahun


Waktu operasi = 300 hari/tahun (24 jam/hari)
Basis perhitungan = 1 jam operasi
Produk yang dihasilkan = 8300 ton/hari
= 345,833.33 kg/jam
Satuan perhitungan = kilo joule (kJ)
Temperatur referensi = 25 ᵒ C = 298 K

» Data heat capacity :

Tabel B.1 Fl.Smidth Heat Capacities


Komponen a b c
CO2 0.196 118 -43
H2O(g) 0.443 39 28
N2 0.244 22 0
O2 0.218 30 0
Udara 0.237 23 0
Raw meal 0.206 101 -37
Clinker 0.186 54 0
Batu bara 0.262 390 0
Cp (kkal/kg.C) = a + (b x t x 10-6) + (c x t2 x 10-9)

Tabel B.2 Heat Capacities Smith Van Ness


Senyawa a b c d
NO2 4.982 0.001195 0 -79200
SO2 5.699 0.000801 0 -101500
H2O(l) 8.712 0.00125 -0.00000018 0
Cp (kJ/kg.K) = R x (a + b x T + c x T2 + d x T-2)
R = 8.314 J mol-1 K-1

Tabel B.3 Heat Capacities webbook.nist.gov


Senyawa a b c d e
K2O(298-700K) 245.01 -567.05 778.72 -346.26 -4.653361
K2O(700-2000K) 72.55 41.39 -0.73 0.22 0.066026
Na2O(298-1023K) 25.58 177.71 -166.34 57.61 0.338149
Na2O(1023-1243K) -125.77 302.07 -140.64 21.32 38.2831
Na2O(1243-1405K) 2240.95 -3209.97 1803.69 -359.07 -386.248

B-1
So3(298-1200K) 24.02503 119.4607 -94.38686 26.96237 -0.117517
So3(1200-6000K) 81.99008 0.0622236 -0.12244 0.008294 -6.703688
Cp (J/mol.K) = a + b x T + c x T2 + d x T3 + e / T2

Tabel B.4 Heat Capacities H.Allaboun


(CaO)4.Al2O3.Fe2O3 3,25 + 1,504 x 10-4 - 7,52 x 100 x T-2
(CaO)3.Al2O3 0,93 + 4,88 x 10-4 - 7,68 x 104 x T-2
(CaO)2.SiO2 0,784 + 2,68 x 10-4 x T
(CaO)3.SiO2 0,916 + 1,58 x 10-4 - 1,87 x 104 x T-2

Tabel B.5 Heat Capacities Perry


CaCO3 19,68 + 0,01189 x T - 307600 x T-2
CaO 10 + 0,00484 x T - 108000 x T-2
Al2O3 22,08 + 0,008971 x T - 522500 x T-2
SiO2 10,87 + 0,008712 x T - 241200 x T-2
MgO 10,86 + 0,001197 x T - 208700 x T-2
Fe2O3 24,72 + 0,01604 x T - 423400 x T-2

»
Data Berat Molekul (BM) :
Tabel B.6 Data Berat Molekul
Komponen BM Komponen BM
CaCO3 100 MgO 40.3
CaO 56 K2O 55
CO2 44 SO3 80
Al2O3 102 Na2O 62
Fe2O3 160 H2O 18
SiO2 60 NO2 46
(CaO)4.Al2O3.Fe2O3 486 SO2 64
(CaO)3.Al2O3 270
(CaO)2.SiO2 172
(CaO)3.SiO2 228
»
Data heat of formation pada 25 oC ( ΔHf298 ) :
Tabel B.7 Heat of Formation H.Allaboun
ΔHf298
Komponen
(kJ/mol)
CaCO3 -1207
CaO -635
CO2 -393

B-2
Al2O3 -1669
Fe2O3 -822
SiO2 -908
(CaO)4.Al2O3.Fe2O3 Qloss -5080
(CaO)3.Al2O3 -3561
(CaO)2.SiO2 -2308
(CaO)3.SiO2 -2931
H raw mix
H raw meal

H gas dari 6
1. Raw Mill (C-130)
preheater 45
30

Raw Mill

120
350

Gambar B.1 Blok Diagram Sistem Raw Mill


» Neraca energi penguapan air :
Panas latent penguapan air pada 30ᵒ C
λ = 2430.5 kJ/kg
Hl = m x λ
= 19,609 x 2,430.51
= 47,659,231.72 kJ

» Panas sensibel raw material masuk


Temperatur raw material = 30 ᵒ C
Temperatur reference = 25 ᵒ C
Hs = m x Cp x ΔT
Tabel B.8 Perhitungan Panas Sensibel Raw Mix
<5>
Komponen Cp ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m (kg)
CaCO3 0.720 274,088.03 0.834 5 1,143,189.84
CaO 0.007 2,644.12 0.769 5 10,166.14
Fe2O3 0.016 5,923.37 0.653 5 19,342.89
SiO2 0.139 52,888.43 0.759 5 200,750.60
Al2O3 0.049 18,833.92 0.784 5 73,833.59
MgO 0.006 2,311.15 0.929 5 10,739.90
K2O 0.000 189.51 0.898 5 850.71
Na2O 0.000 67.63 1.120 5 378.75
SO3 0.001 458.37 0.638 5 1,462.13
H2O(l) 0.061 23,218.88 4.191 5 486,593.79

B-3
Total 1.000 380,623.41 1,947,308.35

» Panas sensibel gas dari preheater


Temperatur gas = 350 ᵒ C
Temperatur reference = 25 ᵒ C
Hs = m x Cp x ΔT
Tabel B.9 Perhitungan Panas Sensibel Gas dari Preheater
<45> Cp
Komponen ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m (kg) (kJ/kg.K)
CO2 0.4466 164,120.59 0.9708 325 51,782,908.43
H2O(g) 0.0473 17,393.45 1.9250 325 10,881,623.50
NO2 0.0016 601.66 0.9982 325 195,182.74
O2 0.0037 1,362.07 0.9560 325 423,214.26
SO2 0.0004 160.92 0.7712 325 40,333.96
N2 0.5003 183,822.74 1.0531 325 62,915,406.44
Total 1 367,461.43 126,238,669.34

Panas sensibel produk


Temperatur produk = 120 ᵒ C
» Temperatur reference = 25 ᵒ C
Hs = m x Cp x ΔT
Tabel B.10 Perhitungan Panas Sensibel Produk
<6> Cp
Komponen ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m (kg) (kJ/kg.K)
CaCO3 0.75922 274,088.03 0.935729 95 24,364,842.86
CaO 0.00732 2,644.12 0.837107 95 210,273.92
Fe2O3 0.01641 5,923.37 0.739701 95 416,244.23
SiO2 0.14650 52,888.43 0.888027 95 4,461,806.07
Al2O3 0.05217 18,833.92 0.911723 95 1,631,275.04
MgO 0.00640 2,311.15 1.036175 95 227,501.67
K2O 0.00052 189.51 0.971192 95 17,485.05
Na2O 0.00019 67.63 1.216465 95 7,815.36
SO3 0.00127 458.37 0.716001 95 31,178.11
H2O(l) 0.01000 3,610.15 4.2381 95 1,453,520.54
Sub Total 1.00000 361,014.67 32,821,942.86
<6> Cp
Komponen ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m (kg) (kJ/kg.K)
CO2 0.42401 164,120.59 0.8767 95 13,669,305.88
H2O(g) 0.09560 37,002.19 1.8748 95 6,590,234.71
NO2 0.00155 601.66 0.8927 95 51,027.61
O2 0.00352 1,362.07 0.9272 95 119,973.16
SO2 0.00042 160.92 0.6959 95 10,639.05
N2 0.47491 183,822.74 1.0319 95 18,020,944.41
Sub Total 1.00000 387,070.17 38,462,124.81

B-4
Total 71,284,067.67

Q loss = (H input - (Hs produk + Hl penguapan air))


= 128,185,977.69 - 118,943,299.39
» = 9,242,678.29 kJ

Tabel B.11 Neraca Energi Raw Mill


Hmasuk Hkeluar
Hs <5> 1,947,308.35 Hs <6> 71,284,067.67
Hs <45> 126,238,669.34 Hl 47,659,231.72
Q loss 9,242,678.29
Total 128,185,977.69 Total 128,185,977.69

B-5
2. Suspension Preheater (B-210)
Qloss
<21> <16>

<12>
Suspension <18>
<17> Preheater
<52>
Gambar B.2 Blok Diagram Sistem Suspension Preheater
» Neraca energi masuk dari Blending Silo :
Temperatur feed = 50 °C = 323.15 K
Temperatur reference = 25 °C = 298.15 K
Hs = m x Cp x ΔT

Tabel B.12 Panas Sensibel Raw Meal


<12>
Komponen Cp (kJ/kg.K) ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m
CaCO3 0.7592 274,084.88 0.861 25 5,899,163.25
CaO 0.0073 2,644.09 0.787 25 52,004.39
Fe2O3 0.0164 5,923.30 0.676 25 100,095.58
SiO2 0.1465 52,887.82 0.793 25 1,048,833.56
Al2O3 0.0522 18,833.71 0.819 25 385,800.68
MgO 0.0064 2,311.12 0.960 25 55,476.54
K2O 0.0005 189.51 0.924 25 4,376.94
Na2O 0.0002 67.63 1.142 25 1,931.05
SO3 0.0013 458.36 0.657 25 7,528.12
H2O(l) 0.0100 3,610.11 4.202 25 379,229.66
Total 1.0000 361,010.52 7,934,439.78

» Panas sensibel udara tersier


Temperatur udara tersier = 1000 °C
Temperatur reference = 25.00 °C
Hs = m x Cp x ΔT

Tabel B.13 Panas Sensibel Udara Tersier


<21>
Komponen Cp (kJ/kg.K) ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m
O2 0.23 40,394 1.037630854 975 40,866,014.20
N2 0.77 132,963 1.112942771 975 144,280,648.92
Total 1.00 173,357 185,146,663.12

B-6
» Panas sensibel batu bara
Temperatur batu bara = 50 °C
Temperatur reference = 25 °C
Hs = m x Cp x ΔT

Tabel B.14 Panas Sensibel Batu Bara


<52>
Komponen Cp (kJ/kg.K) ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m
C 0.6584 13,606.79 0.8365 25.00 284,562.38
H 0.0469 969.26 14.3966 25.00 174,425.07
N 0.0066 136.40 1.0255 25.00 1,748.45
O 0.1852 3,827.43 0.9184 25.00 43,938.23
S 0.0029 59.93 0.7450 25.00 1,116.30
H2O 0.1000 2,066.64 4.2019 25.00 217,094.25
Sub Total 1.0000 20,666.45 722,884.68
<52>
Komponen Cp (kJ/kg.K) ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m
O2 0.233 1,203.87 0.9184 25.00 27,640.48
N2 0.767 3,962.74 1.0255 25.00 101,594.52
Sub Total 1.000 5,166.61 129,235.00
Total 852,119.68

» Neraca energi pembakaran batu bara


Massa batu bara = 20,666.45 kg
Heating value = 800.00 kkal/kg
Hbatubara = 20,666.45 x 800.00
= 16,533,159.62 kkal = 69,221,032.68 kJ

» Panas sensibel gas dari kiln


Temperatur gas dari kiln = 1000 °C
Temperatur reference = 25 °C
Hs = m x Cp x ΔT

Tabel B.15 Panas Sensibel Gas dari Kiln


<17>
Komponen Cp (kJ/kg.K) ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m
CO2 0.313 45,320.78 1.1339 975 50,102,852.97
H2O 0.050 7,193.30 2.1338 975 14,965,605.54
NO2 0.002 298.78 1.1666 975 339,837.51
O2 0.005 676.39 1.0376 975 684,292.01
N2 0.630 91,283.79 1.1129 975 99,053,797.24
SO2 0.001 79.91 0.8647 975 67,369.28
Total 1.000 144,852.95 165,213,754.55

B-7
» Panas sensibel produk keluar preheater
Temperatur produk keluar preheater = 800 °C
Temperatur reference = 25 °C
Hs = m x Cp x ΔT

Tabel B.16 Panas Sensibel Produk


<18>
Komponen Cp (kJ/kg.K) ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m
CaCO3 0.1101 27,408.49 1.346 775 28,593,342.24
CaO 0.5657 140,782.87 1.128 775 123,094,689.24
Fe2O3 0.0238 5,923.30 1.087 775 4,989,666.15
SiO2 0.2125 52,887.82 1.175 775 48,167,838.93
Al2O3 0.0757 18,833.71 1.282 775 18,712,319.28
MgO 0.0093 2,311.12 1.242 775 2,224,658.32
K2O 0.0008 189.51 1.239 775 181,960.36
Na2O 0.0003 67.63 1.549 775 81,172.20
SO3 0.0018 458.36 0.959 775 340,772.67
H2O(l) 0.0000 0.00 4.548 775 0.00
Total 1.0000 248,862.80 226,386,419.39

» Panas sensibel gas keluar preheater


Temperatur gas keluar preheater = 350 °C
Temperatur reference = 25 °C
Hs = m x Cp x ΔT

Tabel B.17 Panas Sensibel Gas Keluar Preheater


<16>
Komponen Cp (kJ/kg.K) ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m
CO2 0.4466 203,749.95 0.9708 325 64,286,664.72
H2O(g) 0.0473 21,593.36 1.9250 325 13,509,153.94
NO2 0.0016 746.94 0.9982 325 242,312.53
SO2 0.0004 199.78 0.7712 325 50,073.20
O2 0.0037 1,690.96 0.9560 325 525,405.66
N2 0.5003 228,209.48 1.0531 325 78,107,270.57
Total 1.0000 456,190.48 156,720,880.62

» Panas latent penguapan air pada 50 oC


λ = 2,382.77 kJ/kg
Hl = m x λ
= 5,676.75 x 2,382.77
= 13,526,389.91 kJ

» Neraca energi reaksi kalsinasi :


Suhu reaktan = 500 °C = 773 K

B-8
Suhu produk = 900 °C = 1173 K
CaCO3 → CaO + CO2
m: 2,740.85 47.22
r: 2,466.76 2,466.76 2,466.76
s: 274.08 2,513.98 2,466.76

ΔHr (25°C)
CaCO3 = -1,207 kJ/mol x 2,466.76 kmol
= -2,977,384,009.87 kJ
CaO = -635 kJ/mol x 2,466.76 kmol
= -1,566,395,067.33 kJ
CO2 = -393 kJ/mol x 2,466.76 kmol
= -969,438,207.03 kJ
Total ΔHr (25°C) = 441,550,735.52 kJ

Qloss = (H input - (Hs Produk + Hs Gas keluar preheater + ΔHr kalsinasi


+ Hl penguapan air ))
= 428,368,009.81 - 838,184,425.43
= (409,816,415.62) kJ

» Neraca Energi Preheater :

Tabel B.18 Neraca Energi Preheater


Komponen Hmasuk (kJ) Komponen Hkeluar (kJ)
Hs <12> 7,934,439.78 Hs <18> 226,386,419.39
Hs <17> 165,213,754.55 Hs <16> 156,720,880.62
Hs <21> 185,146,663.12 ΔHr kalsinasi 441,550,735.52
Hs <52> 852,119.68 Hl 13,526,389.91
H batu bara 69,221,032.68 Qloss -409,816,415.62
Total 428,368,009.81 Total 428,368,009.81

B-9
3. Rotary Kiln (B-220)
<17> Ke Kalsiner
Dari SP Preheater<18>
Udara sekunder <20>
Rotary Kiln <19>
<22>
Udara primer Clinker ke Cooler
Batu Bara<51>
Gambar A.8 Blok Diagram Sistem Rotary Kiln
» Neraca energi masuk dari Preheater :
Suhu bahan masuk = 800 °C = 1073 K
Suhu bahan keluar = 1350 °C = 1623 K
Suhu reference = 25 °C = 298 K
Tabel B.19 Panas Sensibel Feed
<18> Cp ΔT
Komponen (kJ/kg. Hs (kJ)
x m K) (K)
CaCO3 0.1101 27,408.49 1.346 775 28,593,342.24
CaO 0.5657 140,782.87 1.128 775 123,094,689.24
Fe2O3 0.0238 5,923.30 1.087 775 4,989,666.15
SiO2 0.2125 52,887.82 1.175 775 48,167,838.93
Al2O3 0.0757 18,833.71 1.282 775 18,712,319.28
MgO 0.0093 2,311.12 1.242 775 2,224,658.32
K2O 0.0008 189.51 1.239 775 181,960.36
Na2O 0.0003 67.63 1.549 775 81,172.20
SO3 0.0018 458.36 0.959 775 340,772.67
H2O(l) 0.0000 0.00 4.548 775 0.00
Total 1.0000 248,862.80 226,386,419.39
» Neraca energi reaksi di Kiln :
Panas Kalsinasi Lanjut (Setelah kalsinasi di Preheater)

CaCO3 → CaO + CO2


m: 274.08 2514
r: 274.08 274.08 274.08
s: - 2788 274.08

- Hr (25°C)
CaCO3 = -1,207 kJ/mo x 274.08
= -330,820,445.54 kJ
CaO = -635 kJ/mo x 274.08
= -174,043,896.37 kJ
CO2 = -393 kJ/mo x 274.08
= -107,715,356.34 kJ
Total Hr (25°C) = 49,061,192.84 kJ

B-10
- Hreaksi kals. = Hr (25°C)
= 49,061,192.84 kJ

Panas enthalpy reaksi pembentukan klinker :


Reaksi I :
4CaO + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 → C4AF
m : 2,788.06 184.64 37.02
r: 148.08 37.02 37.02 37.02
s: 2,639.98 147.62 - 37.02

- Hr (25°C)
CaO = -635 kJ/mox 148.08
= -94,032,377.63 kJ
Al2O3 = -1,669 kJ/mox 37.02
= -61,787,416.64 kJ
Fe2O3 = -822 kJ/mox 37.02
= -30,430,950.56 kJ
C4AF = -5,080 kJ/mox 37.02
= -188,064,755.27 kJ
Total Hr (25°C) = -1,814,010.43 kJ

Reaksi II :
3CaO + Al2O3 → C3A
m: 2,639.98 147.62
r: 442.87 147.62 147.62
s: 2,197.11 - 147.62

- Hr (25oC)
CaO = -635 kJ/mo x 442.87
= -281,222,871.83 kJ
Al2O3 = -1,669 kJ/mo x 147.62
= -246,383,712.91 kJ
C3 A = -3561 kJ/mo x 147.62
= -525,687,478.52 kJ
Total Hr (25°C) = 1,919,106.21 kJ

Reaksi III :
2CaO + SiO2 → C2S
m: 2,197.11 881.46
r: 1,762.93 881.46 ###
s: 434.18 - ###

B-11
- Hr (25oC)
CaO = -635 kJ/mox 1,762.93
= -1119458911.8537 kJ
SiO2 = -908 kJ/mox 881.46
= -800,369,048.79 kJ

C2 S = -2308 kJ/mol x ###


= -2034418243 kJ
Total Hr (25oC) = ### kJ

Reaksi IV :
CaO + C2S → C3S
m: 434.18 881.46
r: 434.18 434.18 434.18
s: - 447.28 434.18

- Hr (25oC)
CaO = -635 kJ/mox 434.18
= -275,706,872.58 kJ
C2S = -2,308 kJ/mox 434.18
= -1,002,096,790.42 kJ
C3S = -2,931 kJ/mox 434.18
= -1,272,593,454.38 kJ
Total Hr (25oC) = 5,210,208.62 kJ
Total energi reaksi klinkerisasi = -109,274,977.92

Neraca Energi Pembakaran Batu Bara :


Massa batu bara= 13,777.63 kg
Heating value = 800 kkal/kg
Hbatubara = 13,777.63 x 800
= 11,022,106.41 kkal = 46147355 kmol

Temperatur batu bara = 50 °C


Temperatur reference = 25 °C
Tabel B.20 Panas Sensibel Batu Bara
<51> Cp
Komponen (kJ/kg. ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m K)
C 0.6584 9,071.19 0.837 25 189,708.25
H 0.0469 646.17 14.397 25 116,283.38
N 0.0066 90.93 1.025 25 1,165.64
O 0.1852 2,551.62 0.918 25 29,292.16
S 0.0029 39.96 0.745 25 744.20

B-12
H2O(l) 0.1000 1,377.76 4.202 25 144,729.50
Sub Total 1.0000 13,777.63 481,923.12
<51> Cp
Komponen (kJ/kg. ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m K)
O2 0.233 802.58 0.918 25 18,426.99
N2 0.767 2,641.83 1.025 25 67,729.68
Sub Total 1.000 3,444.41 86,156.67
Total 568,079.79

Temperatur udara sekunder = 1,100 °C


Temperatur reference = 25 °C
Tabel B.21 Panas Sensibel Udara Sekunder
<20> Cp
Komponen (kJ/kg. ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m K)
O2 0.23 49,659.67 1.05018 1,075 56,063,116.00
N2 0.77 163,463.09 1.12215 1,075 197,186,933.79
Total 1.00 213,122.76 253,250,049.79

Temperatur udara primer= 30 °C


Temperatur reference = 25 °C
Tabel B.22 Panas Sensibel Udara Primer
Cp
Komponen <22> (kJ/kg. ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m K)
O2 0.23 - 22,730.47 0.916 5 (104,091.52)
N2 0.77 - 74,821.12 1.024 5 (382,955.57)
Total - 97,551.59 (487,047.09)

Temperatur gas dari kiln = 1000 °C


Temperatur reference = 25 °C
Tabel B.23 Panas Sensibel Gas dari Kiln
Cp
Komponen <17> (kJ/kg. ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m K)
CO2 0.313 45,320.78 1.134 975 50,102,852.97
H2O 0.050 7,193.30 2.134 975 14,965,605.54
NO2 0.002 298.78 1.167 975 339,837.51
O2 0.005 676.39 1.038 975 684,292.01
N2 0.630 91,283.79 1.113 975 99,053,797.24
SO2 0.001 79.91 0.865 975 67,369.28
Total 1.0000 144,852.95 165,213,754.55

Temperatur klinker = 1350 °C


Temperatur reference = 25 °C

B-13
Tabel B.24 Panas Sensibel Klinker Keluar

<19> Cp
Komponen ΔT Hs (kJ)
(kJ/kg.K)
x m
3CaO.Al2O3 0.1683 39,858.36 1.6929 1,325 89,408,461.68
4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 0.076 17,992.02 3.4938 1,325 83,291,063.00
2CaO.SiO2 0.3249 76,932.10 1.2190 1,325 124,259,235
3CaO.SiO2 0.418 98,993.96 1.1654 1,325 152,856,763
Na2O 0.0019 458.36 1.6223 1,325 985,253.93
K2O 0.0008 189.51 1.4763 1,325 370,708.60
SO3 0.0003 67.63 1.0021 1,325 89,794.54
MgO 0.0098 2,311.12 1.3210 1,325 4,045,183.64
Total 236803 236,803.07 455,306,463
Qloss = (H input - (∆H Produk + ∆H Gas buang Kiln ))
= 635,621,758.04 - 669,581,410.71
= -33,959,652.67 kJ

Tabel B.25 Neraca Energi Rotary Kiln


Komponen Hmasuk (kJ) Komponen Hkeluar (kJ)
Hs <18> 226,386,419.39 Hs <17> 165,213,754.55
Hs <20> 253,250,049.79 Hs <19> 455,306,463.33
Hs <22> -487,047.09 ∆Hr kalsi 49,061,192.84
∆Hr klinkerisasi 109,274,977.92 Q loss -33,959,652.67
Hs <51> 1,050,002.91
Hbatubara 46,147,355.12
Total 635,621,758.04 Total 635,621,758.04

4. Cooler (B-230)
Ke cyclone
Udara tersier <23> Udara sekunder
<21> <20> Qloss
Clinker dari kiln
<19> Cooler <29>
Udara <28> Ke Roller crusher
Gambar A.4 Blok Diagram Sistem Cooler

» Neraca energi masuk dari klin :


Suhu bahan masuk = 1350 °C = 1623 K
Suhu reference = 25 °C = 298 K
Tabel B.26 Panas Sensibel Klinker Masuk

<19> Cp
Komponen ΔT Hs (kJ)
(kJ/kg.K)
x m
3CaO.Al2O3 0.1683 39,858.36 1.6929 1,325 89,408,461.68

B-14
4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 0.0760 17,992.02 3.4938 1,325 83,291,063.00
2CaO.SiO2 0.3249 76,932.10 1.2190 1,325 124,259,235
3CaO.SiO2 0.4180 98,993.96 1.1654 1,325 152,856,763
Na2O 0.0019 458.36 1.6223 1,325 985,254
K2O 0.0008 189.51 1.4763 1,325 370,709
SO3 0.0003 67.63 1.0021 1,325 89,795
MgO 0.0098 2,311.12 1.3210 1,325 4,045,184
Total 236,803.07 455,306,463

» Neraca energi udara masuk :


Suhu udara masuk = 30 °C = 303 K
Suhu reference = 25 °C = 298 K
Tabel B.27 Panas Sensibel Udara Masuk
<28> Cp Hs (kJ)
Komponen (kJ/kg.K ΔT
x m )
O2 0.23 165,532.24 0.916 5 758,035.52
N2 0.77 544,876.96 1.024 5 2,788,834
Total 710,409.20 3,546,869

Neraca energi keluar :


» Neraca energi udara tersier
Temperatur udara tersier= 1000 °C = 1273 K
Temperatur reference = 25 °C = 298 K
Tabel B.28 Panas Sensibel Udara Tersier
Cp
<21>
Komponen (kJ/kg. ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m K)
O2 0.23 40,394 1.03763 975 40,866,014.20
N2 0.77 132,963 1.11294 975 144,280,648.92
Total 173,356.8 185,146,663.12

» Neraca energi udara sekunder


Temperatur udara sekunder = 1,100 °C
Temperatur reference = 25 °C

Tabel B.29 Panas Sensibel Udara Sekunder


<20> Cp
Komponen (kJ/kg. ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m K)
O2 0.23 49,659.67 1.05018 1,075 56,063,116.00
N2 0.77 163,463.09 1.12215 1,075 197,186,933.79
Total 213,122.76 253,250,049.79
» Neraca energi debu klinker ke cyclone
Temperatur debu klinker = 180 °C
Temperatur reference = 25 °C

B-15
Tabel B.30 Panas Sensibel Debu Klinker ke Cyclone
<23> Cp
Komponen ΔT Hs(kJ)
x m (kJ/kg.K)
3CaO.Al2O3 0.1683 3,985.84 0.78 155 480,115.91
4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 0.0760 1,799.20 3.31 155 924,333.29
2CaO.SiO2 0.3249 7,693.21 0.91 155 1,079,694.7
3CaO.SiO2 0.4180 9,899.40 0.90 155 1,375,643.6
Na2O 0.0019 45.84 1.27 155 9,047.6
K2O 0.0008 18.95 0.99 155 2,908.6
SO3 0.0003 6.76 0.76 155 795.5
Hs (kJ)
MgO 0.0098 231.11 1.08 155 38,627.1
Sub Total 1.0000 23,690.30 480,115.91
<23> Cp 924,333.29
Komponen (kJ/kg. ΔT Hs(kJ)
x m K) ###
O2 0.2330 75,478.76 0.93 155 10,935,303.22 ###
N2 0.7670 248,450.92 1.04 155 39,952,608.37 9,047.62
Sub Total 1.0000 323,929.69 50,887,911.59 2,908.56
Total 54,760,450.79 795.51
38,627.14
» Neraca energi klinker keluar cooler ###
Temperatur klinker keluar = 150 °C
Hs (kJ)
Temperatur reference = 25 °C
Tabel B.31 Panas Sensibel Klinker Keluar Cooler ###
<27> Cp ###
Komponen (kJ/kg. ΔT Hs(kJ)
x m K) ###
3CaO.Al2O3 0.1683 35,872.52 0.7076 125 3,172,839.18 ###
4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 0.0760 16,192.82 3.3094 125 6,698,649.60
2CaO.SiO2 0.3249 69,238.89 0.8974 125 7,766,908.97
3CaO.SiO2 0.4180 89,094.57 0.8784 125 9,782,817.97
Na2O 0.0019 412.52 1.2459 125 64,243.87
K2O 0.0008 170.56 0.9816 125 20,928.54
SO3 0.0003 60.86 0.7383 125 5,616.72
Hs (kJ)
MgO 0.0098 2,080.01 1.0591 125 275,360.95
Total 1.0000 213,132.58 27,512,004.85 3,172,839.18
6,698,649.60
Tabel B.32 Neraca Energi Cooler 7,766,908.97
Komponen Hmasuk (kJ) Komponen Hkeluar (kJ) 9,782,817.97
Hs <19> 455,306,463.33 Hs <21> 185,146,663.12 64,243.87
Hs <28> 3,546,869.22 Hs <20> 253,250,049.79 20,928.54
Hs <23> 54,760,450.79 5,616.72
Hs <29> 27,512,004.85 275,360.95
Q loss -61,815,836.01 ###

B-16
Total 458,853,332.55 Total 458,853,332.55

B-17
B-18
B-19
B-20
B-21
B-22
Hs (kJ)
480,115.91
924,333.29
###
###
9,047.62
2,908.56
795.51
38,627.14
###

Hs (kJ)
###
###
###
###

Hs (kJ)
3,172,839.18
6,698,649.60
7,766,908.97
9,782,817.97
64,243.87
20,928.54
5,616.72
275,360.95
###

B-23
B-24
5. Coal Mill (C-420) Qloss
30 80
H raw coal
43 46
H uap H2O
Coal Mill
46 H pulverized coal
H gas dari 44
preheater 80
350

Gambar B.5 Blok Diagram Sistem Coal Mill


» Neraca energi penguapan air :
Panas latent penguapan air pada 30 oC
λ = 2430.51 kJ/kg
Hl = m x λ
= 6,892 x 2,430.51
= 16,751,713.26 kJ

» Panas sensibel raw coal masuk


Temperatur raw coal = 30
Temperatur reference = 25
Hs = m x Cp x ΔT
Tabel B.33 Panas Sensibel Batu Bara
<43>
Kompone Cp (kJ/kg.K) ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m
C 0.5487 22,689.33 0.7651 5.00 86,795.88
H 0.0391 1,616.24 14.3627 5.00 58,033.84
N 0.0055 227.44 1.0237 5.00 582.06
O 0.1543 6,382.24 0.9159 5.00 14,613.35
S 0.0024 99.94 0.7283 5.00 363.92
H2O(l) 0.2500 10,338.39 4.1914 5.00 216,659.78
Total 1.0000 41,353.58 377,048.84
» Panas sensibel gas dari preheater
Temperatur gas = 350
Temperatur reference = 25
Hs = m x Cp x ΔT
Tabel B.34 Panas Sensibel Gas dari Preheater
<44> Cp
Komponen ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m (kg) (kJ/kg.K)
CO2 0.4466 39,629.37 0.9708 325 12,503,756.29
H2O(g) 0.0473 4,199.91 1.9250 325 2,627,530.44
NO2 0.0016 145.28 0.9982 325 47,129.79
SO2 0.0004 38.86 0.9560 325 12,073.22
O2 0.0037 328.89 0.7712 325 82,435.89

B-17
N2 0.5003 44,386.74 1.0531 325 15,191,864.13
Total 1.0000 88,729.05 30,464,789.75

» Panas sensibel produk


Temperatur produk = 80
Temperatur reference = 25
Hs = m x Cp x ΔT
Tabel B.35 Panas Sensibel Produk
<46> Cp
Komponen ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m (kg) (kJ/kg.K)
C 0.65840 22,689.33 0.927402 55 1,157,317.14
H 0.04690 1,616.24 14.44744 55 642,138.00
N 0.00660 227.44 1.028259 55 6,431.48
O 0.18520 6,382.24 0.922153 55 161,848.35
S 0.00290 99.94 0.770138 55 4,233.12
H2O(l) 0.10000 3,446.13 4.2175 55 799,373.67
Sub Total 1.00000 34,461.31 2,771,341.76
<46> Cp
Komponen ΔT Hs (kJ)
x m (kg) (kJ/kg.K)
CO2 0.41444 39,629.37 0.8584 55 1,871,000.31
H2O(g) 0.11600 11,092.17 1.8673 55 1,139,191.04
NO2 0.00152 145.28 0.8619 55 6,887.27
SO2 0.00041 38.86 0.9222 55 1,970.73
O2 0.00344 328.89 0.6714 55 12,144.24
N2 0.46419 44,386.74 1.0283 55 2,510,258.11
Sub Total 1.00000 95,621.31 5,541,451.71
Total 8,312,793.47
Q loss= (H input - (Hs produk + Hl penguapan air))
= 30,841,838.59 - 25,064,506.73
= 5,777,331.86 kJ

Tabel B.35 Panas Sensibel Produk


Hmasuk Hkeluar
Hs <43> 377,048.84 Hs <46> 8,312,793.47
Hs <44> 30,464,789.75 Hl 16,751,713.26
Q loss 5,777,331.86
Total 30,841,838.59 Total 30,841,838.59

B-18