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Diagnostic Reading Report

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Diagnostic Reading Report Julie E. Hawkins Texas A&M University RDNG 361 501 Misty D. Stiles, M.Ed. December 7, 2018

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Diagnostic Reading Report

Name: P.C. Grade: 3rd School: Spring Creek Elementary School District: College Station ISD

Date of Report: 12/07/2018 Dates of Testing: 10/3/2018 11/14/2018 Age at Testing: 9 years old Examiner: Julie Hawkins

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

P.C. is a third-grade student at Spring Creek Elementary School in College Station ISD. She has been 9 years old since September of 2018. P.C has attended Spring Creek Elementary School for the entirety of her school career. P.C. lives with her mother, father, 1 st grade sister, and twin 3-year old sisters. Her family is very involved in P.C.s school life and gives her the opportunity to participate in many different extracurricular activities. P.C. enjoys reading in her spare time. Her other hobbies include playing soccer, dancing, and making slime.

Assessments were conducted after school hours during a program called Kids Klub. Assessments were administered during the forty-five minutes that students were allotted to work on homework from school. The environment in Kids Klub in comparison to the school day is more relaxed, more fun, and less structured. These differences did not change the formality and seriousness of the assessments. In terms of assessment, seven sessions were conducted. The examiner did have extended interactions with the student however through the Kids Klub program and P.C. was observed nearly every weekday of the semester. During each session, typically two assessments were administered.

The assessments were organized in terms of concepts. Basic concepts were assessed first, with more difficult concepts being assessed later in the sessions. The order in which concepts were assessed are as follows: concepts of print/print awareness, letter knowledge, phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling, fluency, vocabulary, affective factors, and comprehension. Shorter assessments were completed back to back, and two at a time. These tests were organized in the same order that was taught about in the Reading 361 course.

P.C. has a positive attitude towards reading and was always willing to sit down and complete the assessments. Throughout the assessments, P.C. was cooperative and enthusiastic. P.C. is a caring and friendly student who greatly enjoys school and learning. P.C. gives off an impression of greatly understanding the material they learn and often understands a concept before other classmates. P.C. is always ready to participate in

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activities and assist her peers when available. P.C. is patient and is a strict follower of the rules.

TESTS ADMINISTERED

Screener Not Administered

A screener is a type of assessment that is administered to all students to give an

idea about their skill level. Screeners are often administered at certain times within the school year to get an overview of how they are doing. Screening tests

attempt to provide a broadly defined estimate of a student’s overall achievement

level in a given area. These tests, which are brief and fairly general, are typically administered individually and are used to identify students who are not meeting grade-level reading benchmarks. These tests also identify areas where more fine- grained assessments should be administered for particular students. Above all, the results indicate the next step to be taken in reading assessment: the administration

of diagnostic instruments(McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, pp. 24 - 25).

A screener is not a specific concept in itself but can rather assess students for

many different concepts. Screeners can test for any concept that is seen to be necessary. Screening tests should not be used to diagnose where a child is at, but instead provide an overview of a childs abilities and an idea of if the teacher

should assess the child further. Screeners are not concrete evidence that a student

is struggling in reading, but they are a measure that teachers can use to see which

students need further assessing.

Print Awareness Form 4.2 (McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, pp. 98 - 100)

Print awareness is the idea that students understand how books are printed and how to read them. This concept does not rely on students actually recognizing words or comprehending the text on a page, but rather how to go about reading a text. Some aspects of print awareness include knowing the front and back of the book, knowing the correct way to hold a book (upright with the spine on the left), knowing where to start reading on a page, knowing that you read from left to right, knowing that you read from top to bottom in terms of full lines, understanding punctuation marks, understanding the difference between lowercase and capital letters, or identifying a single letter or word in terms of structure. Without print awareness, students will not be able to read text in front

of them. This concept is the basis of all reading, and without an understanding of

this students would not be able to ever comprehend a text.

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Print awareness makes a great reader because you cannot be a great reader if you are trying to decode words while they are upside down, or if you are reading from right to left. Without the skill of print awareness, they would have no clear understanding of how a text is supposed to be read and therefore could derive many different meanings from it depending on how they decided to read it.

Form 4.2 was used to assess print awareness. Students are given a textbook to use alongside this assessment. As the student holds the book, the teacher asks questions that require the student to demonstrate concepts such as where the front and back of the book is, the correct way to hold a book (upright with the spine on the left), where to start reading on a page, reading left to right, reading from top to bottom in terms of full lines, understanding punctuation marks, understanding the difference between lowercase and capital letters, or identifying a single letter or word in terms of structure.

Letter Knowledge Form 4.3 (McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 101)

Letter knowledge or alphabetic recognition is the idea of seeing the symbol aand understanding that it is an A. This concept is what allows students to start understanding written language and start decoding words. While students can learn to recognize words as whole units, it is more effective for them to recognize the individual letters and then put them together to form words. This gives students the ability to decode new words that they encounter. There are two important reasons for teaching children letter names at an early age. First, fluent readers do not recognize words as whole units. Rather, they do so by identifying the component letters. This process occurs at an unconscious level, but research leaves no room for doubt. The second reason is that teachers must have some means of referring to the letters during instruction. Although it may be theoretically possible to learn the letters and not their names, this approach would hardly be practical. The best way to assess alphabetic knowledge is to present a child with letters, one at a time, and ask him or her to say the name of each. Several questions arise about how best to implement this procedure(McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 83).

Letter knowledge helps students become good readers because it is the first step in giving them the skills to decode words they do not know. Good readers do not only read words that they already know but can decode new words and use context clues to decipher their meanings.

Form 4.3 was used to assess letter knowledge. This test simply has all the letters, both capital and lowercase, laid out in a random pattern. The student is expected to say the letter name as they encounter the symbol.

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Phonological Awareness CORE Phoneme Deletion and Phonological Segmentation Tests (CORE, 2008, pp. 19 - 29)

Phonological awareness is a concept that includes the ability to recognize that words are made up of sounds and to manipulate those sounds. This skill is used with oral language. This is crucial to reading and spelling success as students try to spell and decode words. Students do not simply memorize the whole word, but rather individual letters. Therefore, when trying to read or spell a word, they must sound out each individual part. This is where phonological awareness is important. The ability to recognize sounds and manipulate them allows the student to sound out words. These skills include rhyming, counting syllables, counting words in a sentence, and alliteration (words that begin with the same sound). Phonological awareness is a broad term that has many different levels of understanding. A good reader needs to have phonological awareness skills, so they can sound out unfamiliar words they encounter in their reading.

The CORE Phoneme Deletion and Phonological Segmentation Tests were used to assess the students concept of phonological awareness. The CORE Phoneme Deletion Test was administered first. This assessment included four phoneme deletion tasks arranged in order of difficulty. The first task assesses the students ability to delete initial phonemes. For example, the examiner may say the word cat and ask the student to say car without the initial /k/ sound. The remaining tasks assess the students ability to delete final phonemes in blends, such as /t/ in the word seat; initial phonemes in blends, such as /s/ in the word slip; and phonemes embedded in blends, such as /l/ in play(CORE, 2008, p. 19). Then the CORE Phonological Segmentation Test was given. This test has students break sentences into words, break words into syllables, and break words into individual phonemes.

Phonemic Awareness CORE Phoneme Segmentation Test (CORE, 2008, pp. 30 -

33)

Phonemic awareness is a skill that is the most advanced part of phonological awareness. Phonemic awareness is a concept that also requires students to be aware of the sounds that make up the words that we speak. The smallest units of sound are known as phonemes. Phonemes are the building blocks of oral language and are sounds such as /d/ in dog or /sh/ in shut. These are the individual sounds in a word and there are 44 different ones in the English language. Phonemic awareness is the ability to recognize these individual sounds and manipulate them. Phonemic awareness is a lot like phonological awareness, but just involves more advanced skills and working with the individual sounds instead of just recognizing that words are made up of sounds. This skill is only related to oral

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language and not written language. Findings clearly show that (1) children can be taught to become phonemically aware, and (2) there is a strong causal link between phonemic awareness and later abilities in phonics and spellingIt is difficult to learn lettersound correspondences if you are unable to hear the component sounds of a spoken word. A certain level of phonemic awareness is a prerequisite to successful phonics and spelling instruction(McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 84).

Good readers need to utilize the skills of phonemic awareness, so that they can decode new words as they encounter them in reading. Acquiring phonemic awareness is important because it is the foundation for spelling and word recognition skills.

The CORE Phoneme Segmentation Test was administered to assess the skill of phonemic awareness. This measure for Grades 2-12 assesses the studentsability to break a work into its component phonemes, or sounds. For example, the word sat has three phonemes: /s/ /a/ /t/. The word shoe, although it has four letters, had only two phonemes: /sh/ /oo/(CORE, 2008, p. 30).

Phonics CORE Phonics Survey (CORE, 2008, pp. 41 - 52)

Phonics is a concept that refers to the ability to use letter-sound correspondences to correctly sound out words. This form of instruction helps students learn the relationships between spoken language and written letters. Phonics is the idea that the letter b represents the sound /b/ and is the first letter in words such as book, bag, and bear. Along with knowing letter-sound relationships, phonics involves skills such as knowing the sound made by common letter patterns such as sh and being able to use this knowledge to understand unfamiliar words. Phonics inventories are representations of what we know about the development of decoding skills. They are usually organized to test a set of skills in order from least to most difficult or to assess a particular skill across examples. They may begin at the beginning, with individual consonant sounds, then single-syllable short-vowel words, then words with consonant blends and digraphs, for example. Keep in mind that we must consider the results of any assessment in light of the number of examples it uses(McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 111).

Phonics is an important skill for good readers to have because it allows students to read words they do not already know. Phonics is what allows students to sound out words they encounter in reading. Many English words cannot be sounded out simply letter by letter since we have complex spelling. Therefore, phonics is important because it allows students to have an understanding of the sounds that are connected letters and letter patterns. Also, by using this process in reverse, students can spell words that they only have heard by breaking the word into

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sounds and then writing the letters/letter patterns associated with those sounds. Phonics helps improve student’s understanding of what they read.

The CORE Phonics Survey was given as an assessment on the concept of phonics. This assessment assesses, the phonics and phonics-related skills that have a high rate of application in beginning reading. Reach survey presents a number of lists of letters and words for the student to identify or decode. Pseudowords, or made- up words, are included since the student must use decoding skills to correctly pronounce these words and cannot have memorized them(CORE, 2008, p. 19).

Spelling Form 5.6 (McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, pp. 159 - 161)

Spelling is a concept that refers to how a word is made up of different letters. There are many different stages of spelling that include emergent spelling, letter name-alphabetic spelling, within word pattern spelling, syllables and affixes spelling, and derivational relations spelling. In terms of spelling, educators have known that the invented spelling of young children follows a clear developmental pattern. As children learn about written words, their attempts at spelling reflect this growing sophistication of their knowledge of orthographic patterns(McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 119). First students start to try to write though scribbles. They then move onto learning letters and using these letters to try and form words. They then begin to add beginning and ending sounds when trying to spell, so henmay be hn. Students then begin to learn about vowels. Once students understand the alphabetic principle, they begin to learn patterns that occur in written words. Next, they begin to learn how syllables fit together, such as the double consonant rule. Finally, students learn how to use semantic relationships between words, even if they are words that are pronounced or spelled differently than the common way.

Good readers need to have an understanding of spelling because it can help with the decoding of words. Although spelling is somewhat backwards of reading, the skills work together. By understanding spelling, students start to understand the relationships between sounds and letters. Gaining this knowledge helps students decode much easier and read with greater fluency.

Form 5.6 or the Words Their Way Elementary Spelling Inventory was used to assess spelling. This so called spelling testshould be administered so that students have not studied the words before testing. This assessment, can be used as early as first grade, particularly if a school system wants to use the same inventory across the elementary grades. The 25 words are ordered by difficulty to sample features from the letter namealphabetic stage to derivational relations stage. Call out enough words so that you have at least five or six misspelled words to analyze(McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 160). This test has students simply spell out words, then the spelling is assessed on factors such as the word

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being spelled correctly, as well as different feature points such as correctly writing the blend and inflected endings.

Fluency CORE Masi-R Oral Reading Fluency Measures (CORE, 2008, pp. 77 - 91)

Fluency is a skill that affects how students comprehend a text. Fluent reading should involve accurate and automatic word recognition, with appropriate prosody or inflection. Each component affects comprehension in its own way. To these three, some have suggested a fourth component: endurance, or stamina, the ability to read extended texts. The importance of reading with endurance grows as students move into the upper grades. Obviously, if children cannot read the text relatively accurately, their comprehension will suffer(McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 163).

Good readers must be fluent because they will not be able to comprehend text without being a fluent reader. The literature documenting the relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension is extensive and indicates a linking that is both causal and reciprocal. Oral reading fluency is a general outcome measure. It makes use of the complex and interactive tasks at the upper levels of reading skill sequences, tasks that depend on the use of many lower-level and prerequisite skills. Success on a general outcome measure suggests success on the prerequisites, making {oral reading fluency} a proxy for multiple reading skills and processes. When students read passages accurately and fluently, it can be assumed that they have mastered the lower-level skills, and processes that are required, but are not explicitly observed, during passage reading(CORE, 2008, p. 77).

The CORE Masi-R Oral Reading Fluency Measures was administered. The measures consist of Student and Teacher record versions of three oral reading fluency (ORF) curriculum-based measures (CBM) at each of Grades 1-6. These CBM measures are designed to sample a students oral reading fluency and may be used up to three times a year. The results of the screening can help determine if there is reason to further explore student educational needs or to adjust curriculum or instruction(CORE, 2008, p. 77). Students will read a passage aloud for a minute. In the minute, the teacher will assess how many words they are able to read, and how many mistakes are made.

Vocabulary CORE Vocabulary Screening (CORE, 2008, pp. 120 - 131)

Vocabulary is important in learning how to read since students must use words that they have heard to make sense of what they read. Vocabulary is important in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Students can use their different forms of vocabulary to help comprehend language. There are two forms of vocabulary,

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sight or high-frequency vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary. Sight words are those words that children recognize immediately, at sight, without the need for analysis. High-frequency words are those words that occur most frequently in English language texts. Because it is important for children to recognize the high- frequency words automatically, these words are taught until they become sight words. In contrast, when we refer to conceptual vocabulary, we are concerned with word meaning. Conceptual vocabulary is acquired across a lifetime. Our breadth of vocabulary knowledge continues to grow as we continue to learn more and more words(McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 180).

A good reader needs to have vocabulary knowledge because it plays a direct impact on how well the student comprehends the text they are attempting to read. Vocabulary is important to reading comprehension because our readers cannot understand what they read unless the understand the meaning of most of the words. Students cannot comprehend text unless they have vocabulary knowledge about the words that they are reading. Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to understanding grade-appropriate text. Even students who are good decoders will have difficultly comprehending what they read if they do not have adequate vocabulary knowledge(CORE, 2008, p. 120).

The CORE Vocabulary Screening Test was administered to the student. The CORE Vocabulary Screening measures how well students know the meaning of grade-level words they read silently. The task involves reading a word in a box and choosing which of three answer choices means about the same as the word in the box. It is a pure measure of reading vocabulary in that there is no need to comprehend text in order to complete the task and there is no context to provide clues to the meaning of the word(CORE, 2008, p. 120)

Affective Factors Form 10.1 (McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 250)

Affective factors are the basic forces that influence whether a child is intrinsically motivated to read. {The} four of the most important of these forces {include}: attitudes, interests, value, and self-concept{Attitude is a} set of acquired feelings about reading that consistently predispose an individual to engage in or avoid reading. {Interest refers to a} positive orientation toward reading about a particular topic. An individual interest is a relatively stable and enduring positive orientation toward reading about a particular topic; a situational interest is a context-specific, often momentary, positive orientation toward reading about a particular topic. {Value indicates an} individual’s beliefs about the extent to which reading is generally useful, enjoyable, or otherwise important. {Self-concept is an} individual’s overall self-perception as a reader, including one’s sense of competence and the role ascribed to reading as a part of one’s personal identity(McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 239).

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Good readers should be aware of affective factors because these factors play a role in a students interest in reading. Readers will not be as invested and will struggle more if they have a negative attitude towards reading or are reading about subjects, they have no interest in. Good readers need to be aware of their own personal affective factors so that they can be engaged in what they are reading.

Form 10.1 was used to assess the students affective factors. This assessment was a questionnaire that highlights how the student feels about reading. This test is a, good, get-acquainted activity {that} involves asking students to respond to incomplete sentences designed to elicit personal beliefs about reading as well as existing interests. These {are not} long and involved{as} a few statements can go a long way. These statements can be used as a written activity in a group setting (in which case, they also reveal information about writing development) or individually as an interview guide, in which you provide each sentence starter orally and jot down the student’s response” (McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, pp. 242 - 243). These questions include asking what they student likes to read about, their favorite part about reading, and what they think of reading outside of school.

Comprehension Teacher-Made Test

Comprehension is the understanding of the text that is read. Comprehension is not only understanding the meaning of the words on the page, but also understanding what the author is trying to say with the text. The ultimate goal or bottom lineof reading is comprehension. If a student is not understanding or comprehending the text that they are reading, there is no reason to read. Comprehension must be assessed since it is crucial to reading. There are two principal reasons for assessing comprehension. The first reason for assessing reading comprehension is to gauge the degree to which a student has comprehended a particular selection. Chapter tests and other postreading assessments often serve this function. The second reason is to estimate general level of proficiency. The result of this kind of assessment might be an estimate of the instructional reading level by means of an IRI or a normative judgment by means of an achievement test. Mastery tests of specific comprehension skills also correspond to this purpose(McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 198).

Good readers must be effective at comprehending text because comprehension is the overall goal of reading. The definition of a good reader comes down to someone who is able to comprehend a text and understand what the author is trying to convey with their words. If a student does not comprehend a text, they are not a good reader because although they can read the words, they are getting no meaning from it.

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A Teacher-Made Test was used to assess the students comprehension skills. This

test was made explicitly by the examiner for the student based off of an informational text. This test was administered orally, and the student was assessed

individually in a quiet place. The student was given a quick introduction of the book. Then the book was read aloud to the student. Finally, the examiner orally read the assessment to the student and recorded their responses. The questions on the test worked to assess different levels of comprehension.

RESULTS

Screener Not Administered

With P.C. a screener was not administered. Therefore, there are no quantitative or qualitative results.

Screeners are used to determine if students are on the level they need to be on and

if further testing is required. All students are given a screener to see where they

are at. The teacher must use these results to guide instruction for the students. If there are students in the intensive or strategic level for a concept, they should be given another screener to see if their results are consistent or if there was another factor that influenced their first score. For students who are still not at the benchmark level, they should be given diagnostic assessments to determine what

concepts they are struggling with.

Screeners are important because they give the instructor an idea of where the student is, and instruction can be adapted to meet the needs of this student. A screener is the first level of progression because it provides a board overview of the students abilities.

Print Awareness Form 4.2 (McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, pp. 98 - 100)

Quantitative: 16/16

Qualitative: P.C. had no struggles with this assessment. As P.C. is a 3 rd grade student, and this test is meant for students who are just learning how to read, she should have had no troubles on this test. P.C. answered quickly and confidently to every question. During this assessment there was no sign of hesitation, confusion,

or struggle.

As this was the first assessment administered to the student, and it is the first real concept they learn when learning how to read, this test does not progress and build on prior concepts.

Benchmark

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Letter Knowledge Form 4.3 (McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 101)

Quantitative: 54/54

Qualitative: P.C. had no struggles with this assessment and was able to clearly recognize all the letter. As P.C. is a 3 rd grade student, and this test is meant for students who are just learning how to read, she should have had no troubles on this test. P.C. answered quickly and confidently to every question. During this assessment there was no sign of hesitation, confusion, or struggle. P.C. was able to identify all letters of the alphabet even when they were capital and lowercase as well as some different fonts.

This test is a progression from print awareness because it is not requiring students to actually start reading but to apply meaning to the symbols on the page. The previous assessment only looked at if they understood how to go about reading while this assessment starts to see if they can read singular letters.

Benchmark

Phonological Awareness CORE Phoneme Deletion and Phonological Segmentation Test (CORE, 2008, pp. 19 - 29)

Quantitative:

Phoneme Deletion: 19/20 Parts A C: Benchmark, Part D: Strategic/Benchmark

Phonological Segmentation: 23/23

Qualitative: P.C. did well on the Phoneme Deletion Test. On parts A-C, P.C. answered every question correctly and confidently. There was no hesitation on these parts. When P.C. got to part D, they were sure of their answers except for on number 17. When asked to say twin without the /w/, P.C. took some time to figure it out. They were unsure and kept trying to quietly sound out the answer. When they answered in, she sounded confused and not confident in the answer. P.C. is between strategic and benchmark for this part because for ending grade 2, 4 5 correct counts as benchmark, then for ending grade 3, 4 counts as strategic. Since P.C. is near the beginning of 3 rd grade, I would tend to place them in the benchmark category, but a little extra practice could be helpful. On the Phonological Segmentation Test, P.C. had no struggles and answered every question with great confidence. Students should be at benchmark levels for this assessment at grade 1, so her performance was expected.

Benchmark

This assessment on phonological awareness is now building on the ability to simply recognize letters and now recognize the sounds that make up words. This concept is an important progression in learning how to read as students begin to break words into sounds and understand their parts.

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Phonemic Awareness CORE Phoneme Segmentation Test (CORE, 2008, pp. 30 -

33)

Quantitative: 13/15

Qualitative: This is the first assessment that P.C. began to struggle on. P.C. landed at the top of the strategic category with her score. P.C.s demeanor changed when this assessment was given. While she was still cooperative and trying hard, her answers slowed down, and she hesitated more with her answers. When answering, P.C. did not make as much eye contact and appeared to be thinking harder when responding. P.C. missed two words on this assessment. When give flewshe answered f-l-oo-w instead of f-l-oo, and when given glareshe answered g-l-ai-r instead of g-l-air. In both these cases, P.C. separated the extra phoneme on the end based on the spelling. She added an extra phoneme of the last letter of the word.

The tests of phonological awareness were simply working on breaking up words and syllables and touched on phonemes slightly. This test on phonemic awareness only focused on phonemes. This assessment is a progression from the one before it because it is now focusing on smaller and more difficult parts of words.

Strategic

Phonics CORE Phonics Survey (CORE, 2008, pp. 41 - 52)

Quantitative:

Alphabet Skills and Letter Sounds: 83/83

Benchmark

Letter Names Uppercase: 26/26

Letter Names Lowercase: 26/26

Consonant Sounds: 21/21

Long Vowel Sounds: 5/5

Short Vowel Sounds: 5/5

Reading and Decoding Skills: 128/129

Benchmark

Short Vowels in CVC Words: 15/15

Consonant Blends with Short Vowels: 15/15

Short Vowels, Digraphs, and -tch Trigraph: 15/15

R-Controlled Vowels: 15/15

Long Vowel Spellings: 15/15

Variant Vowels: 15/15

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Low Frequency Vowel and Consonant Spellings: 15/15

Multisyllabic Words: 23/24

Qualitative: P.C. did well on this assessment and answered quickly and confidently. By 3 rd grade, students should have all these skills mastered, and P.C. displayed this. One section P.C. should review is multisyllabic words, specifically those with a silent e. Even when she answered this word incorrectly, she did not hesitate and answered everything while being sure of her answers.

Phonics is a progression of phonemic awareness because now instead of only focusing on breaking up words into phonemes, students are expected to understand how phonemes work together and pronounce many different words with the phonemes slightly varying from word to word. Phonics requires students to progress from just understanding how words can be broken up to actually understanding the relationship between word parts.

Spelling Form 5.6 (McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, pp. 159 - 161)

Quantitative:

Benchmark

Words Spelled Correctly: 12/25

Feature Points: 42/62

Total: 54/87

Spelling Stage: Syllables and Affixes Early Inflected Endings

Qualitative: In 3 rd grade, students are expected to be in Within Word Pattern Syllables and Affixes. By the end of 3 rd grade, students should be in the Early Syllables and Affixes Stage. At the beginning/middle of the year, P.C. has already reached this stage. The first word that P.C. misspelled was in the Within Word Pattern Middle stage. P.C. only missed one feature point in this stage, and only showed signs of struggle once she reached syllables and affixes. When spelling, P.C. took her time and really carefully though over every word she wrote down. She did not hesitate too long, but she did not rush either.

Spelling is a progression from phonics because the student is now expected to use the idea of phonics when forming words on their own. So instead of seeing how the letters are put together and only having to pronounce it, they are now expected to be able to have enough understanding of how letters work together to spell them out without anything but auditory clues.

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Fluency CORE Masi-R Oral Reading Fluency (CORE, 2008, pp. 77 - 91)

Quantitative: 75 th Percentile

Accuracy: 98 words

Rate Correct: 152 words

Rate Incorrect: 3 words

Total Words in 1 Minute: 155 words

Qualitative: P.C. read the passage with decent fluency. First, she said dark instead of deep, but quickly self-corrected. Then instead of fingered she said figured with no real hesitation. P.C. hesitated when she got to the word

instrument, but correctly pronounced it within 3 seconds. Next, she said peeking instead of peering, and finally said batted instead of battered. Throughout the passage, P.C. was less confident than before and displayed good reading fluency. She seemed to be nervous by the fact that she was being timed. She was near the

90 th percentile. For Fall, she would have been in the 90 th percentile, but for

Winter, she was nine words off. Overall, P.C. displayed confidence when reading a passage, but some nervousness about the time limit, and when she did make an error, the words were often visually and contextually similar.

This fluency test is a progression from the prior tests because now instead of focusing on specific factors of reading and words, the student must put everything they have learned together to read quickly and accurately. If the student could not pass the prior assessments, they would greatly struggle when it came to fluency because they would often make mistakes, have to stop and carefully look at the words, and not be able to read as quickly.

Vocabulary CORE Vocabulary Screening (CORE, 2008, pp. 120 - 131)

Quantitative: Benchmark

Form 3A

Number Correct: 24

Number Incorrect: 6

Number of No Responses: 0

Form 3B

Number Correct: 26

Number Incorrect: a

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Number of No Responses: 0

Qualitative: While P.C. was still in the benchmark category, she began to

struggle more than on some of the other tests. This test was meant specifically for

3 rd grade and challenged her more than some of the easier assessments. P.C.

seemed to either know the answer instantly or really hesitate when answering. During this assessment, P.C. said ummmultiple times and made significantly less eye contact than she did on other assessments.

This vocabulary test is a progression from fluency, because the student is now being assessed on how well they can derive meaning from text instead of simply reading the text accurately. This requires them not only to read the words correctly, but they now must be able to connect the correct meaning to the words.

Affective Factors Form 10.1 (McKenna & Dougherty Stahl, 2015, p. 250)

Quantitative: Not Applicable

Qualitative: P.C. is very enthusiastic about reading and portrayed this in the assessment. This assessment helped to bring to light how P.C. feels about reading and what she enjoys to read about. During this assessment, P.C. elaborated greatly on her answers and seemed like she wanted to share these ideas and wasnt just simply answering questions for the purpose of the assessment. P.C. likes to read about dancing, wizards, soccer, other countries, and the ocean. P.C. stated that he and her friends all think reading is fun. P.C. reads every night before bed for twenty minutes and reading is clearly a priority at home. When P.C. gets older, she wants to be able to read large chapter books regularly. P.C. loves reading because she can learn new things and there are some interesting stories. P.C.s least favorite thing about reading is when she is required to read about topics that she has little interest in such as robots, football, or dinosaurs.

This test not much of a progression on the prior concepts. The one way this test is a progression is that students must be able to read well and derive meaning to know what they enjoy about reading. However, this assessment is less used to progress on concepts, but to get a solid foundation of what the student enjoys before working on their main goal which is comprehension.

Comprehension Teacher Made Test

Quantitative: 5/5

Qualitative: Since this was a test made by the examiner, there is no quantitative scale to compare it to percentile wise. When read the book on Día De Los Muertos, P.C. showed significant interest and was very focused on the

100%

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information. This story was chosen for P.C. as she has expressed that she enjoys learning about other countries and chose to wear a sugar skull costume for Halloween. Since P.C. was so focused on the story, she answered the questions that simply required her to recall information with no trouble. P.C. showed significant understanding when she was able to answer questions that were in the evaluate level on Blooms Taxonomy. P.C. was able to effectively reflect on the text while also drawing her own connections. She even was able to reach the create level through her understanding of the story.

This comprehensive assessment was the final assessment, because it requires a mastery of all concepts before it. The ultimate goal of reading is comprehension, and therefore is the ultimate progression of reading assessments.

SUMMARY

P.C. is a 9-year-old student in the 3 rd grade at Spring Creek Elementary School. P.C. truly enjoys reading and goes out of her way to read not only in school, but at home as well. P.C. has found value in reading through the school and her family making it a priority for her. P.C. shows determination and signs that she wants to succeed when being assessed.

Overall, P.C. is a great reader, and excels in most areas of reading. P.C. is completely aware of the different concepts of print and can name all the letters and their sounds. She has a clear grasp on individual phonemes in words and how to separate words into these smaller parts. When it comes to phonics, she is confident in all areas, but could use some review on multisyllabic words with a silent e.

The first assessment where P.C. started to show signs of struggle was on the Elementary Spelling Inventory. While she is on point or even a little ahead of where she is expected to be, she has room to grow and improve in terms of spelling. She has a full grasp up to Syllables and Affixes Early Inflected Endings. After this point she struggles with spelling. When assessing fluency, P.C. started to show signs of hesitation while reading. She scored well but seemed to be intimidated by the idea of being timed while reading. Due to this time constraint, she made simple errors.

P.C. struggled some with vocabulary and meanings but did wonderfully on the comprehension exam. These results show that P.C. does not struggle with comprehending passages and can use context clues to understand but does struggle with individual word meanings when she has no context clues to aid in her understanding.

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GOALS

Spelling:

The first goal for P.C. is to work on her spelling. She is right at where she needs to be for 3 rd grade in terms of spelling, but that does not mean that she cannot improve. As she is in Syllables and Affixes Early Inflected Endings, she should work towards being in the middle or late stage by the end of the year. This means she must focus on inflected endings and syllable junctures. This goal is important for P.C. so that she can stay on top of her spelling going into 4 th grade. By increasing her spelling skills, she will become a better reader and writer. Meeting this spelling goal will give P.C. a better understanding of letter sound connections and therefore help to increase her fluency when reading.

Fluency:

P.C. is currently in the 75 th percentile for her word count per minute. She can work to increase both her accuracy and her rate correct in a minute. P.C. should first work on increasing her accuracy to 99 or 100. If she can start to read more accurately, she will derive meaning better and therefore be able to read more words per minute. Then, she should strive to be in the 90 th percentile by the end of her 3 rd grade year. She is currently reading 152 words accurately per minute, and by the end of the year she should strive to be at 166 words per minute. This is a realistic goal if she can focus on accuracy. This goal is important because it will aid in her overall comprehension of the texts that she reads.

Vocabulary and Word Meaning:

The third goal for P.C. to accomplish this year is to widen her vocabulary. Although she was in the benchmark level, she was near the strategic level and can definitely expand her vocabulary. Right now, P.C. is answering 80 86% of the vocabulary words correctly. My goal for her is to be able to consistently get 90% of the word meanings correct. This goal is important because with an expanded vocabulary, she will comprehend the texts she reads better. If P.C.s vocabulary is expanded, she will not struggle as much with more advanced words in the text.

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INSTRUCTIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS

Print Awareness

If a student is struggling with the concept of print awareness, they more than likely have little to no experience with reading and books. An intervention that could be put into place for a student that needs more supports is simply having an adult or older child read aloud to them. Read aloud is very useful for learning about the concepts of print. When a student is read aloud to, they can see the way a book is held, see how the pages are flipped, and understand that you are able to derive meaning from these pages. When read aloud is occurring, the reader should use their finger to point to the words they are reading to help the student understand that there is a direct connection between the symbols and the words that are being said while also gaining an understanding of how to read from left to right. Once a student starts to grasp these concepts, the teacher should ask questions during read aloud such as Where should I start on this page?to give the student opportunities to show their knowledge.

Letter Knowledge

For students struggling with letter knowledge, they have not had enough exposure to print and simply need more practice with these symbols. Putting letters around the classroom on objects can help the student to make connections. For example, a Dcan be placed on the desk so that students can realize what a dlooks like. Hands-on activities are great to aid students in letter knowledge. One activity students can do is sitting in front of a tray with sand in it. Students will hear the letter name, and have a picture of the letter as well, then they have to trace the letter in the sand. As their recognition improves, start to take away the flashcards, and have them draw the letters just by the name. This would be effective because it provides the students with multiple opportunities to practice their letters. This is an activity that combines auditory, visual, and kinesthetic elements. Students will also enjoy drawing in the sand, making this information sink in more. This activity allows students to practice in a way that is more interesting than normally writing.

Phonological Awareness

For students who are struggling with phonological awareness, there are many activities that can be done to support their learning. One activity that can be fun for students while helping them practice their phonological awareness skills are bingo games. Print out bingo sheets with pictures on them. For rhyming, the

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teacher would call could a word like bell. The students then have to find a picture of a word on their sheet that rhymes with bell such as shell. This would help students because it would require them to have to figure out which words rhyme by only the sounds and not being able to look at the spelling of the words. They would have to be aware of the sounds that words make.

Phonemic Awareness

For a student who is struggling with phonemic awareness there are a multitude of different activities that can help them expand their knowledge. One fun activity is segmenting sounds with lights. While working one on one with a student they will have 5 lights they can press to turn on. Say a word out loud to the child. They will break the word into phonemes and turn a light on as they say the phoneme. This is a way to help them segment phonemes and count the number of phonemes in a word. This activity will work because it requires students to break words down and focus on the phonemes while also using engaging materials to clearly see what they are doing.

Phonics

For students who are struggling with phonics skills, there are different activities that can be implemented to support the growth of this skill. One activity is a bag and ball game. How this game works is all the students get in a circle. One student will start with a bag and another will start with a ball. When the music starts, students will pass the items around like hot potato. When the music stops the students will hold the items. The student with the bag will pull a piece of paper out of the bag. This piece of paper will have a letter or letters written on it. They will have to read out its sound, not the letter name. Then the person will the ball must guess the letter name. Once it is guessed, start passing the items again. This activity would be effective because it requires students to make connections between the letter names and the sounds that they make. This activity requires students to visually look at the letter and say its sound as well as work backwards and name the letter from its sound.

Spelling

When students are struggling with spelling, they should have practice spelling words that follow similar patterns. If students simply memorize a group of words, they are not learning, but if they have to spell different words all based on the same rules, they can learn how to spell. One fun game that could be used with students is Spelling Bee Basketball. Students will be divided into two or more

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teams. Each team will have a whiteboard and will take turns passing it around their group. The teacher will call out a word and the team must spell it. Remember to focus on words that follow patterns and not a list of words they already memorized. Whichever team spells the word correctly first earns a point. Then they have a chance to make a basket (paper ball into a trashcan) for an extra point. The game continues. Make sure that every student is getting a chance to spell on the whiteboard and that not just one or two students are spelling every time. This activity would work well because it adds an element of fun to normal spelling tests. Also, focusing on word patterns will help support student learning better than just having them memorize words.

Fluency

If students are struggling with fluency, performing readers theater can help them to improve this skill. In readers theater, students read a story or a script. They then re-read it and then act out the script. Re-reading the story helps the students to become more fluent and understand more aspects of the text. This is an engaging activity that requires the students to re-read the text and improve fluency. This activity will work because studies have shown that re-reading is crucial to fluency. However, students do not often want to re-read stories they have already read, it bores them. Readers theater is a way to almost trick students into re- reading, since there is now an engaging purpose behind it.

Vocabulary

For students who are struggling with vocabulary and word meanings, a game called Word Up can help to support their development of this skill. Have vocabulary words written on a word wall in the classroom, also copy these words onto index cards. Students will work in groups of 2 3 and compete against another group. This game is played like Heads Up. One player will start first and hold an index card up to their head without looking at the word on it. Their teammates must give the player clues about the word using its definition. Teammates cannot say what the word starts with, sounds like, or any form of the word. When they guess the word correctly, they pick up another card and keep playing until the timer goes off. The number of words they guessed correctly is their number of points for the round. Then it is the other teams turn. The game continues until they have run out of words. The team with the most points wins. This game will work great for learning vocabulary because it includes an engaging game that students love while stressing definitions.

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Affective Factors

If a student has a bad attitude about reading or no interest in reading, they need to complete activities to learn about the value of reading and be introduced to topics that interest them. Some ways to motivate students include making reading fun through games and activities like readers theater, sharing your own reading experiences, giving students access to many different topics and kinds of books, and giving students opportunities to explore books they enjoy. Making reading a priority in the classroom and displaying it as a valuable skill instead of a chore will help students want to read more. To help students in this case, there may not be specific activities but instead it comes down to the teacher providing multiple opportunities, being a good role model, and going out of their way to form a relationship with their students and learn about their feelings regarding reading. These activities will help because teachers have a lot of influence on their students’ attitudes. By giving them these opportunities and working with them, teachers can help students change their attitude on reading.

Comprehension

In terms of students who struggle with comprehension, teachers should work to teach them strategies to utilize when they read. One specific activity that can help students to work on their comprehension skills are story maps. Story maps are a way that students visually represent the story elements that they read about. Story maps can be simple and just focus on the basic plot, or they can be complex and focus on several elements. This works great with students because the story map can get more complex as their skills improve. This activity also will work for students because it requires students to pay more attention to the story and allows them the visually connect the elements instead of trying to make sense of everything in their head. Students can practice and get feedback on story maps so that they know where they struggle in terms of comprehending a text.

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References

CORE. (2008). Assessing Reading: Multiple Measures for Kindergarten through Twelfth Grade. Novato:

Arena Press.

McKenna, M. C., & Dougherty Stahl, K. A. (2015). Assessment for Reading Instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.