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13

CHAPTER

DYNAMICS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Phillip J. Cornwell Kinetics of Particles:

Lecture Notes:

Energy and Momentum

Brian P. Self

California Polytechnic State University Methods

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Contents

Introduction Sample Problem 13.6

Work of a Force Sample Problem 13.7

Principle of Work & Energy Sample Problem 13.9

Applications of the Principle of Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Work & Energy Impulsive Motion

Power and Efficiency Sample Problem 13.10

Sample Problem 13.1 Sample Problem 13.11

Sample Problem 13.2 Sample Problem 13.12

Sample Problem 13.3 Impact

Sample Problem 13.4 Direct Central Impact

Sample Problem 13.5 Oblique Central Impact

Potential Energy Problems Involving Energy and

Conservative Forces Momentum

Conservation of Energy Sample Problem 13.14

Motion Under a Conservative Sample Problem 13.15

Central Force Sample Problems 13.16

Sample Problem 13.17

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 2

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Energy and Momentum Methods

The pogo stick allows the boy

to change between kinetic Accidents are often analyzed

energy, potential energy from by using momentum methods.

gravity, and potential energy

in the spring.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Introduction

• Previously, problems dealing with the motion of

particles were solved through the fundamental

equation of motion,

F ma.

• The current chapter introduces two additional

methods of analysis.

mass, velocity and displacement.

relates force, mass, velocity, and time.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Introduction

Approaches to Kinetics Problems

Accelerations Displacements Time

Law (last chapter) Momentum

t2

F maG

T1 U12 T2 mv1 F dt mv2

t1

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Work of a Force

• Differential vector dr is the particle displacement.

dU F dr

F ds cos

Fx dx Fy dy Fz dz

sign but not direction.

1 J joule 1 N 1 m 1ft lb 1.356 J

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Work of a Force

• Work of a force during a finite displacement,

A2

U12 F d r

A1

s2 s2

F cos ds Ft ds

s1 s1

A2

Fx dx Fy dy Fz dz

A1

curve of Ft plotted against s.

displacement ds

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Work of a Force

rectilinear motion?

a) U12 F x

b) U12 F cos x

c) U12 F sin x

d) U12 0

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Work of a Force

dU Fx dx Fy dy Fz dz

W dy

y2

U12 W dy

y1

W y 2 y1 W y

weight W and vertical displacement y.

• In the figure above, when is the work done by the weight positive?

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Work of a Force

• Magnitude of the force exerted by a spring is

proportional to deflection,

F kx

k spring constant N/m or lb/in.

• Work of the force exerted by spring,

dU F dx kx dx

x2

U12 kx dx 12 kx12 12 kx22

x1

when x2 < x1, i.e., when the spring is returning to

its undeformed position.

negative of area under curve of F plotted against x,

U12 12 F1 F2 x

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Work of a Force

Displacement is

the work positive or negative? in the opposite

direction of the

Positive Negative force

the work positive or negative?

Positive Negative

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 11

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Work of a Force

occupies fixed position O while particle m follows path

shown),

Mm

dU Fdr G 2 dr

r

r2

Mm Mm Mm

U12 G dr G G

r1 r2 r2 r1

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

block slides from B to A?

YES NO

the block slides from B to A? Positive or

Negative work?

YES NO

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 13

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Work of a Force

• Reaction at frictionless surface when body

in contact moves along surface,

• Reaction at a roller moving along its track, and

• Weight of a body when its center of gravity

moves horizontally.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Particle Kinetic Energy: Principle of Work & Energy

• Consider a particle of mass m acted upon by force F

dv

Ft mat m

dt

dv ds dv

m mv

ds dt ds

F t ds mv dv

• Integrating from A1 to A2 ,

s2 v2

2 2

Ft ds m v dv 12 mv2 12 mv1

s1 v1

• The work of the force F is equal to the change in

kinetic energy of the particle.

• Units of work and kinetic energy are the same:

2

m

m

T 12 mv 2 kg kg 2 m N m J

s s

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 15

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Applications of the Principle of Work and Energy

• Force P acts normal to path and does no

work.

T1 U12 T2

1W 2

• The bob is released 0 Wl v2

2 g

from rest at position A1.

Determine the velocity v2 2 gl

of the pendulum bob at

• Velocity is found without determining

A2 using work & kinetic

expression for acceleration and integrating.

energy.

• All quantities are scalars and can be added

directly.

the problem.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Applications of the Principle of Work and Energy

• Principle of work and energy cannot be

applied to directly determine the acceleration

of the pendulum bob.

supplementing the method of work and energy

with an application of Newton’s second law.

Fn m an

W v22

P W

g l

W 2 gl

P W 3W

v2 2 gl g l

If you designed the rope to hold twice the weight of the bob, what would happen?

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 17

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Power and Efficiency

• Power rate at which work is done.

dU F dr

dt dt

F v

Units for power are

J m ft lb

1 W (watt) 1 1 N or 1 hp 550 746 W

s s s

• efficiency

output work

input work

power output

power input

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.1

SOLUTION:

• Evaluate the change in kinetic energy.

• Determine the distance required for the

work to equal the kinetic energy change.

driven down a 5o incline at a speed of

60 mi/h when the brakes are applied

causing a constant total breaking force

of 1500 lb.

Determine the distance traveled by the

automobile as it comes to a stop.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.1

SOLUTION:

• Evaluate the change in kinetic energy.

mi 5280 ft h

v1 60 88 ft s

h mi 3600 s

T1 12 mv12 12 4000 32.2 882 481000 ft lb

v2 0 T2 0

• Determine the distance required for the work

to equal the kinetic energy change.

U12 1500 lb x 4000 lb sin 5x

1151 lb x

T1 U12 T2

481000 ft lb 1151 lb x 0

x 418 ft

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 20

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.2

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of work and

energy separately to blocks A and B.

the work of the cable forces cancel.

Solve for the velocity.

Two blocks are joined by an inextensible

cable as shown. If the system is released

from rest, determine the velocity of block

A after it has moved 2 m. Assume that the

coefficient of friction between block A

and the plane is k = 0.25 and that the

pulley is weightless and frictionless.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.2

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of work and energy separately

to blocks A and B.

W A 200 kg 9.81 m s 2 1962 N

FA k N A k W A 0.251962 N 490 N

T1 U12 T2 :

0 FC 2 m FA 2 m 12 m A v 2

WB 300 kg 9.81 m s 2 2940 N

T1 U12 T2 :

0 Fc 2 m WB 2 m 12 m B v 2

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.2

• When the two relations are combined, the work of the

cable forces cancel. Solve for the velocity.

FC 2 m 490 N 2 m 12 200 kg v 2

4900 J 12 500 kg v 2

v 4.43 m s

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

13.2 – Alternate Solution, Group Problem Solving

Could you apply work-energy to the combined

2 system of blocks?

1

2m Given: v1= 0, distance = 2 m, k = 0.25

1

2m T1 0

2

U12 0.25 200 9.81 2 m 300 9.81 2 m 4900 J

What is T2 of the system? Note that vA = vB

T2 12 mAv 2 12 mB v 2 1

2 200 kg v 2 12 300 kg v 2

Solve for v

4900 J 1

2 500 kg v 2 v 4.43 m s

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 24

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.3

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of work and energy

between the initial position and the

point at which the spring is fully

compressed and the velocity is zero.

A spring is used to stop a 60 kg package The only unknown in the relation is the

which is sliding on a horizontal surface. friction coefficient.

The spring has a constant k = 20 kN/m

and is held by cables so that it is initially • Apply the principle of work and energy

compressed 120 mm. The package has a for the rebound of the package. The

velocity of 2.5 m/s in the position shown only unknown in the relation is the

and the maximum deflection of the spring velocity at the final position.

is 40 mm.

Determine (a) the coefficient of kinetic

friction between the package and surface

and (b) the velocity of the package as it

passes again through the position shown.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 25

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.3

SOLUTION:

• Apply principle of work and energy between initial

position and the point at which spring is fully compressed.

T1 12 mv12 12 60 kg 2.5 m s 2 187.5 J T2 0

U12 f kW x

k 60 kg 9.81m s 2 0.640 m 377 J k

Pmax k x0 x 20 kN m 0.160 m 3200 N

U12 e 12 Pmin Pmax x

12 2400 N 3200 N 0.040 m 112.0 J

T1 U1 2 T2 :

187.5 J - 377 J k 112 J 0 k 0.20

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 26

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.3

• Apply the principle of work and energy for the rebound

of the package.

36.5 J

T2 U 23 T3 :

0 36.5 J 12 60 kg v32

v3 1.103 m s

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.4

SOLUTION:

• Apply principle of work and energy to

determine velocity at point 2.

• Apply Newton’s second law to find

normal force by the track at point 2.

A 2000 lb car starts from rest at point 1

and moves without friction down the • Apply principle of work and energy to

track shown. determine velocity at point 3.

• Apply Newton’s second law to find

Determine:

minimum radius of curvature at point 3

a) the force exerted by the track on such that a positive normal force is

the car at point 2, and exerted by the track.

b) the minimum safe value of the

radius of curvature at point 3.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.4

SOLUTION:

• Apply principle of work and energy to determine

velocity at point 2.

1W 2

T1 0 T2 12 mv22 v2

2g

U1 2 W 40 ft

1W 2

T1 U1 2 T2 : 0 W 40 ft v2

2g

v22 240 ft g 240 ft 32.2 ft s 2 v2 50.8 ft s

the track at point 2.

Fn m an :

W v22 W 240 ft g

W N m an

g 2 g 20 ft

N 5W N 10000 lb

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.4

• Apply principle of work and energy to determine

velocity at point 3.

1W 2

T1 U13 T3 0 W 25 ft v3

2g

v32 225 ft g 225 ft 32.2 ft s v3 40.1ft s

curvature at point 3 such that a positive normal force is

exerted by the track.

Fn m an :

W m an

W v32 W 225 ft g

3 50 ft

g 3 g 3

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.5

SOLUTION:

Force exerted by the motor

cable has same direction as

the dumbwaiter velocity.

Power delivered by motor is

equal to FvD, vD = 8 ft/s.

The dumbwaiter D and its load have a • In the first case, bodies are in uniform

combined weight of 600 lb, while the motion. Determine force exerted by

counterweight C weighs 800 lb. motor cable from conditions for static

equilibrium.

Determine the power delivered by the

electric motor M when the dumbwaiter • In the second case, both bodies are

(a) is moving up at a constant speed of accelerating. Apply Newton’s

8 ft/s and (b) has an instantaneous second law to each body to

velocity of 8 ft/s and an acceleration of determine the required motor cable

2.5 ft/s2, both directed upwards. force.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.5

• In the first case, bodies are in uniform motion.

Determine force exerted by motor cable from

conditions for static equilibrium.

Free-body C:

Fy 0 : 2T 800 lb 0 T 400 lb

Free-body D:

Fy 0 : F T 600 lb 0

F 600 lb T 600 lb 400 lb 200 lb

1600 ft lb s

1 hp

Power 1600 ft lb s 2.91 hp

550 ft lb s

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 32

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.5

• In the second case, both bodies are accelerating. Apply

Newton’s second law to each body to determine the required

motor cable force.

a D 2.5 ft s 2 aC 12 a D 1.25 ft s 2

Free-body C:

800

Fy mC aC : 800 2T 1.25 T 384.5 lb

32.2

Free-body D:

600

Fy m D a D : F T 600 2 .5

32.2

F 384.5 600 46.6 F 262.1 lb

Power Fv D 262.1 lb 8 ft s 2097 ft lb s

1 hp

Power 2097 ft lb s 3.81 hp

550 ft lb s

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 33

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

SOLUTION:

The problem deals with a change in

position and different velocities, so use

work-energy.

• Draw FBD of the box to help us

determine the forces that do work.

incline at A with a velocity of 1 points A and C as a function of d.

m/s. The packages slide along

the surface ABC to a conveyor • Find the kinetic energy at points A

belt which moves with a and C.

velocity of 2 m/s. Knowing that

• Use the work-energy relationship

k= 0.25 between the packages

and solve for d.

and the surface ABC, determine

the distance d if the packages

are to arrive at C with a velocity

of 2 m/s.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 34

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

SOLUTION:

Given: vA= 1 m/s, vC= 2 m/s, k= 0.25

Find: distance d

Will use: TA U A B U B C TC

block at points A and C

N AB mg cos 30

FAB k N AB 0.25 mg cos 30

U A B mg d sin 30 FAB d

mg d (sin 30 k cos 30)

N BC mg xBC 7 m

FBC k mg

U B C k mg xBC

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

Determine kinetic energy at A and at C

1 2 1 2

TA mv A and v A 1 m/s TC mvC and vC 2 m/s

2 2

1 2 1 2

mv A mg d (sin 30 k cos 30) k mg xBC mv0

2 2

Divide by m and solve for d

vC2 /2 g k xBC v A2 /2 g

d

(sin 30 k cos 30) d 6.71 m

(2) 2/(2)(9.81) (0.25)(7) (1)2/(2)(9.81)

sin 30 0.25cos 30

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 36

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

k= 0.25

bottom of the ramp, would it work to place a spring as shown?

No, because the potential energy of the spring would turn

into kinetic energy and push the block back up the ramp

Yes, eventually enough energy would be dissipated

through the friction between the package and ramp.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 37

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

stored in the trampoline is

The potential energy stored at transferred to kinetic energy

the top of the roller coaster is and gravitational potential

transferred to kinetic energy energy as the girl flies upwards.

as the cars descend.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Potential Energy

If the work of a force only depends on differences in

position, we can express this work as potential energy.

Can the work done by the following forces be expressed as

potential energy?

Weight Yes No

Friction Yes No

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 39

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Potential Energy

• Work of the force of gravity W,

U12 W y1 W y 2

only on the initial and final values of Wy.

V g Wy

potential energy of the body with respect

to force of gravity.

1

U12 V g V g

2

measured is arbitrary.

V g Wy N m J

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Potential Energy

• Previous expression for potential energy of a body

with respect to gravity is only valid when the

weight of the body can be assumed constant.

gravity with distance from the center of the earth

should be considered.

GMm GMm

U12

r2 r1

force of gravity can not be neglected,

GMm WR 2

Vg

r r

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 41

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Potential Energy

• Work of the force exerted by a spring depends

only on the initial and final deflections of the

spring,

U12 12 kx12 12 kx22

to the elastic force,

Ve 12 kx 2

U12 Ve 1 Ve 2

valid only if the deflection of the spring is

measured from its undeformed position.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Conservative Forces

• Concept of potential energy can be applied if the

work of the force is independent of the path

followed by its point of application.

U12 V x1 , y1 , z1 V x2 , y 2 , z 2

Such forces are described as conservative forces.

• For any conservative force applied on a closed path,

F dr 0

• Elementary work corresponding to displacement

between two neighboring points,

dU V x, y, z V x dx, y dy, z dz

dV x, y, z

V V V

Fx dx Fy dy Fz dz dx dy dz

x y z

V V V

F grad V

x y z

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 43

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Conservation of Energy

• Work of a conservative force,

U1 2 V1 V2

U1 2 T2 T1

• Follows that

T1 V1 T2 V2

E T V constant

T1 0 V1 W • When a particle moves under the action of

T1 V1 W conservative forces, the total mechanical

energy is constant.

1W

T2 12 mv22 2 g W V2 0 • Friction forces are not conservative. Total

2g

mechanical energy of a system involving

T2 V2 W friction decreases.

• Mechanical energy is dissipated by friction

into thermal energy. Total energy is constant.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 44

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Motion Under a Conservative Central Force

• When a particle moves under a conservative central

force, both the principle of conservation of angular

momentum

r0 mv0 sin 0 rmv sin

and the principle of conservation of energy

T0 V0 T V

1 mv 2 GMm 1 2 GMm

2 0 2 mv

r0 r

may be applied.

launch conditions, the equations may be solved for

rmin, rmax, vmin, and vmax.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.6

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of conservation of

energy between positions 1 and 2.

• The elastic and gravitational potential

energies at 1 and 2 are evaluated from

the given information. The initial kinetic

energy is zero.

A 20 lb collar slides without friction • Solve for the kinetic energy and velocity

along a vertical rod as shown. The at 2.

spring attached to the collar has an

undeflected length of 4 in. and a

constant of 3 lb/in.

If the collar is released from rest at

position 1, determine its velocity after

it has moved 6 in. to position 2.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 46

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.6

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of conservation of energy between

positions 1 and 2.

V1 Ve Vg 24 in. lb 0 2 ft lb

T1 0

Position 2: Ve 12 kx22 12 3 lb in.10 in. 4 in.2 54 in. lb

Vg Wy 20 lb 6 in. 120 in. lb

V2 Ve Vg 54 120 66 in. lb 5.5 ft lb

1 20 2

T2 12 mv22 v2 0.311v22

2 32.2

Conservation of Energy:

T1 V1 T2 V2

0 2 ft lb 0.311v22 5.5 ft lb

v2 4.91ft s

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 47

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.7

SOLUTION:

• Since the pellet must remain in contact

with the loop, the force exerted on the

pellet must be greater than or equal to

zero. Setting the force exerted by the

loop to zero, solve for the minimum

velocity at D.

• Apply the principle of conservation of

energy between points A and D. Solve

The 0.5 lb pellet is pushed against the for the spring deflection required to

spring and released from rest at A. produce the required velocity and

Neglecting friction, determine the kinetic energy at D.

smallest deflection of the spring for

which the pellet will travel around the

loop and remain in contact with the

loop at all times.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.7

SOLUTION:

• Setting the force exerted by the loop to zero, solve for the

minimum velocity at D.

Fn man : W man 2

mg m vD r

2

vD rg 2 ft 32.2 ft s 64.4 ft 2 s 2

points A and D.

V1 Ve Vg 12 kx 2 0 12 36 lb ft x 2 18 x 2

T1 0

V2 Ve Vg 0 Wy 0.5 lb 4 ft 2 ft lb

2

T2 12 mvD

1 0.5 lb

2 32.2 ft s 2

64 . 4 ft 2 2

s 0.5 ft lb

T1 V1 T2 V2

0 18 x 2 0.5 2 x 0.3727 ft 4.47 in.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 49

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.9

SOLUTION:

• For motion under a conservative central

force, the principles of conservation of

energy and conservation of angular

momentum may be applied simultaneously.

• Apply the principles to the points of

minimum and maximum altitude to

A satellite is launched in a direction

determine the maximum altitude.

parallel to the surface of the earth

with a velocity of 36900 km/h from • Apply the principles to the orbit insertion

an altitude of 500 km. point and the point of minimum altitude to

determine maximum allowable orbit

Determine (a) the maximum altitude

insertion angle error.

reached by the satellite, and (b) the

maximum allowable error in the

direction of launching if the satellite

is to come no closer than 200 km to

the surface of the earth

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 50

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.9

• Apply the principles of conservation of energy and

conservation of angular momentum to the points of minimum

and maximum altitude to determine the maximum altitude.

Conservation of energy:

1 mv 2 GMm 1 2 GMm

TA V A TA V A 2 0 2 mv1

r0 r1

Conservation of angular momentum:

r

r0 mv0 r1mv1 v1 v0 0

r1

Combining,

2

1 v 2 1 r0 GM 1 r0 1

r0 2GM

2 0 2 r

r1 r0 1 r1 r0v02

r0 6370 km 500 km 6870 km

v0 36900 km h 10.25 106 m s

2

GM gR 2 9.81m s 2 6.37 106 m 398 1012 m3 s 2

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 51

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.9

• Apply the principles to the orbit insertion point and the point

of minimum altitude to determine maximum allowable orbit

insertion angle error.

Conservation of energy:

T0 V0 TA V A 1 mv 2 GMm 1 mv 2

GMm

2 0 2 max

r0 rmin

r

r0 mv0 sin 0 rmin mvmax vmax v0 sin 0 0

rmin

sin 0 0.9801

0 90 11.5 allowable error 11.5

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

SOLUTION:

• This is two part problem – you

will need to find the velocity of

the car using work-energy, and

then use Newton’s second law

to find the normal force.

A section of track for a roller coaster at points A and D, and

consists of two circular arcs AB and CD define your datum. Use

joined by a straight portion BC. The radius conservation of energy to

of CD is 240 ft. The car and its occupants, solve for vD

of total weight 560 lb, reach Point A with

practically no velocity and then drop freely • Draw FBD and KD of the car

along the track. Determine the normal at point D, and determine the

force exerted by the track on the car at normal force using Newton’s

point D. Neglect air resistance and rolling second law.

resistance.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 53

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

SOLUTION:

Given: vA= 0 ft/s, rCD= 240 ft, W=560 lbs

Find: ND

situation at points of interest

Datum

Find TA v A 0 TA 0

Solve for vD

Find VA VA Wy A (560 lb)(90 60)=84,000 ft lbs

Find TD TD

2

mvD

2 32.2

vD 8.6957vD2

vD 98.285 ft/s

Find VD yD 0 VD 0

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

Draw FBD and KD at point D

en

et

man

W

mat

ND

Use Newton’s second law in the normal direction

560 98.2852

F n man N D 560

32.2 240

vD2

ND W m

R

N D 1260 lbs

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

force at D if….

…we include friction?

a) ND gets larger

b) ND gets smaller

c) ND stays the same

a) ND gets larger a) ND gets larger

b) ND gets smaller b) ND gets smaller

c) ND stays the same c) ND stays the same

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 56

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Impulsive Motion

The impulse applied to the railcar

The thrust of a rocket acts

by the wall brings its momentum

over a specific time period

to zero. Crash tests are often

to give the rocket linear

performed to help improve safety

momentum.

in different vehicles.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

• From Newton’s second law,

d

F mv mv linear momentum

dt

Fdt d mv

t2

Fdt mv 2 mv 1

t1

• Dimensions of the impulse of t2

a force are Fdt Imp12 impulse of the force F

force*time. t1

• Units for the impulse of a mv1 Imp12 mv2

force are

2

N s kg m s s kg m s

• The final momentum of the particle can be

obtained by adding vectorially its initial

momentum and the impulse of the force during

the time interval.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Impulsive Motion

• Force acting on a particle during a very short

time interval that is large enough to cause a

significant change in momentum is called an

impulsive force.

mv1 F t mv2

occurs over a short time interval but force is

large enough to change sense of ball motion.

• Nonimpulsive

forces are forces for which

Ft is small and therefore, may be

neglected – an example of this is the weight

of the baseball.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.10

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of impulse and

momentum. The impulse is equal to the

product of the constant forces and the

time interval.

driven down a 5o incline at a speed of

60 mi/h when the brakes are applied,

causing a constant total braking force of

1500 lb.

Determine the time required for the

automobile to come to a stop.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.10

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of impulse and

momentum.

mv1 Imp12 mv2

incline,

mv1 W sin 5t Ft 0

4000

88 ft s 4000 sin 5t 1500t 0

32.2

t 9.49 s

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.11

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of impulse and

momentum in terms of horizontal and

vertical component equations.

velocity of 80 ft/s. After the ball is hit

by the bat, it has a velocity of 120 ft/s

in the direction shown. If the bat and

ball are in contact for 0.015 s,

determine the average impulsive force

exerted on the ball during the impact.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.11

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of impulse and momentum in

terms of horizontal and vertical component equations.

mv1 Imp1 2 mv2

x component equation:

mv1 Fx t mv2 cos 40

4 16

80 Fx 0.15 4 16 120 cos 40

32.2 32.2

Fx 89 lb

y component equation:

y

0 Fy t mv2 sin 40

4 16

x

Fy 0.15 120 cos 40

32.2

Fy 39.9 lb

F 89 lb i 39.9 lb j , F 97.5 lb

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.12

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of impulse and

momentum to the package-cart system

to determine the final velocity.

• Apply the same principle to the package

alone to determine the impulse exerted

on it from the change in its momentum.

A 10 kg package drops from a chute

into a 24 kg cart with a velocity of 3

m/s. Knowing that the cart is initially at

rest and can roll freely, determine (a)

the final velocity of the cart, (b) the

impulse exerted by the cart on the

package, and (c) the fraction of the

initial energy lost in the impact.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.12

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of impulse and momentum to the package-cart

system to determine the final velocity.

m p v1 Imp1 2 m p mc v2

x components:

m p v1 cos 30 0 m p mc v2

10 kg 3 m/s cos 30 10 kg 25 kg v2

v2 0.742 m/s

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.12

• Apply the same principle to the package alone to determine the impulse

exerted on it from the change in its momentum.

m p v1 Imp1 2 m p v2

10 kg 3 m/s cos 30 Fx t 10 kg v2 Fx t 18.56 N s

10 kg 3 m/s sin 30 Fy t 0 Fy t 15 N s

Imp12

Ft 18.56 N s i 15 N s j Ft 23.9 N s

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.12

10 kg 3m s 45 J

2

T1 12 m p v12 1

2

2

T1 T2 45 J 9.63 J

0.786

T1 45 J

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

SOLUTION:

• Draw impulse and momentum diagrams

of the jumper.

momentum to the jumper to determine

the force exerted on the foot.

line from the left with a horizontal

velocity of 10 m/s, remains in contact

with the ground for 0.18 s, and takes

off at a 50o angle with a velocity of 12

m/s. Determine the average impulsive

force exerted by the ground on his

foot. Give your answer in terms of the

weight W of the athlete.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

Δt= 0.18 s

Find: Favg in terms of W

mv2

mv1 50º

+ = y

W t Favg t

x

mv1 (P W )t mv 2 t 0.18 s

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

mv2

mv1 50º

+ =

W t Favg t y

x

Use the impulse momentum equation in x and y to find Favg

W W W

(10) ( Favg x )(0.18) (12)(cos 50) 0 ( Favg y W )(0.18) (12)(sin 50)

g g g

10 (12)(cos 50) (12)(sin 50)

Favg x W Favg y W W

(9.81)(0.18) (9.81)(0.18)

guessed correctly (acts to the left)

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

one another. Looking

only at the impact, which

of the following

statements are true?

The total mechanical energy is the

True False

same before and after the impact

the force A exerts on car B is bigger True False

than the force B exerts on car A.

True False

immediately before and after the impact

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 71

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

to characterize the “bounciness” of

different sports equipment. The U.S.

Golf Association limits the COR of

golf balls at 0.83

coefficient of restitution to

model rocks falling from

hillsides

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Impact

• Impact: Collision between two bodies which

occurs during a small time interval and during

which the bodies exert large forces on each other.

in contact during impact.

Direct Central Impact centers of the two bodies lie on the line of impact;

otherwise, it is an eccentric impact..

the two bodies are directed along the line of

impact.

the bodies move along a line other than the line of

impact.

Oblique Central Impact

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 73

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Direct Central Impact

• Bodies moving in the same straight line,

vA > vB .

• Upon impact the bodies undergo a

period of deformation, at the end of which,

they are in contact and moving at a

common velocity.

• A period of restitution follows during

which the bodies either regain their

original shape or remain permanently

deformed.

• Wish to determine the final velocities of the

two bodies. The total momentum of the

two body system is preserved,

m A v A m B v B m B vB m B vB

• A second relation between the final

velocities is required.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 74

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Direct Central Impact

e coefficient of restitution

• Period of deformation: m Av A Pdt m Au Rdt u vA

Pdt v A u

0 e 1

• Period of restitution: m Au Rdt m A vA

vB u

• A similar analysis of particle B yields e

u vB

second relation between the final velocities.

Total energy and total momentum conserved.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 75

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Oblique Central Impact

• Final velocities are

unknown in magnitude

and direction. Four

equations are required.

tangential component of momentum

for each particle is conserved.

• Normal component of total m A v A n m B v B n m A vA n m B vB n

momentum of the two particles is

conserved.

• Normal components of relative vB n vA n ev A n v B n

velocities before and after impact

are related by the coefficient of

restitution.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 76

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Oblique Central Impact

surface.

• Impulses from internal forces F and F

along the n axis and from external force Fext

exerted by horizontal surface and directed

along the vertical to the surface.

magnitude and unknown final block velocity

magnitude. Three equations required.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Oblique Central Impact

conserved.

• Total horizontal momentum of block m A v A m B v B x m A vA m B vB x

and ball is conserved.

• Normal component of relative vB n vA n ev A n v B n

velocities of block and ball are related

by coefficient of restitution.

• Note: Validity of last expression does not follow from previous relation for

the coefficient of restitution. A similar but separate derivation is required.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 78

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Problems Involving Energy and Momentum

• Three methods for the analysis of kinetics problems:

- Direct application of Newton’s second law

- Method of work and energy

- Method of impulse and momentum

• Select the method best suited for the problem or part of a problem

under consideration.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.14

SOLUTION:

• Resolve ball velocity into components

normal and tangential to wall.

• Impulse exerted by the wall is normal

to the wall. Component of ball

momentum tangential to wall is

conserved.

• Assume that the wall has infinite mass

A ball is thrown against a frictionless,

so that wall velocity before and after

vertical wall. Immediately before the

impact is zero. Apply coefficient of

ball strikes the wall, its velocity has a

restitution relation to find change in

magnitude v and forms angle of 30o

normal relative velocity between wall

with the horizontal. Knowing that

and ball, i.e., the normal ball velocity.

e = 0.90, determine the magnitude and

direction of the velocity of the ball as

it rebounds from the wall.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.14

SOLUTION:

• Resolve ball velocity into components parallel and

perpendicular to wall.

vn v cos 30 0.866v vt v sin 30 0.500v

vt vt 0.500v

t

• Apply coefficient of restitution relation with zero wall

n velocity.

0 vn evn 0

vn 0.90.866v 0.779v

v 0.779v n 0.500v t

0.779

v 0.926v tan 1 32.7

0.500

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.15

SOLUTION:

• Resolve the ball velocities into components

normal and tangential to the contact plane.

each ball is conserved.

The magnitude and direction of the • Total normal component of the momentum

velocities of two identical of the two ball system is conserved.

frictionless balls before they strike

each other are as shown. Assuming • The normal relative velocities of the

e = 0.9, determine the magnitude balls are related by the coefficient of

and direction of the velocity of each restitution.

ball after the impact.

• Solve the last two equations simultaneously

for the normal velocities of the balls after

the impact.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.15

SOLUTION:

• Resolve the ball velocities into components normal and

tangential to the contact plane.

v A n v A cos 30 26.0 ft s v A t v A sin 30 15.0 ft s

vB n vB cos 60 20.0 ft s vB t vB sin 60 34.6 ft s

conserved.

vA t v A t 15.0 ft s vB t vB t 34.6 ft s

ball system is conserved.

m A v A n mB vB n m A vA n mB vB n

m26.0 m 20.0 mvA n mvB n

vA n vB n 6.0

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.15

• The normal relative velocities of the balls are related by the

coefficient of restitution.

vA n vB n ev A n vB n

0.9026.0 20.0 41.4

velocities of the balls after the impact.

vA n 17.7 ft s vB n 23.7 ft s

v A 17.7t 15.0n

n

15.0

vA 23.2 ft s tan 1 40.3

17.7

vB 23.7t 34.6n

t 34.6

vB 41.9 ft s tan 1 55.6

23.7

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.16

SOLUTION:

• Determine orientation of impact line of

action.

• The momentum component of ball A

tangential to the contact plane is

conserved.

• The total horizontal momentum of the

two ball system is conserved.

Ball B is hanging from an inextensible

• The relative velocities along the line of

cord. An identical ball A is released

action before and after the impact are

from rest when it is just touching the

related by the coefficient of restitution.

cord and acquires a velocity v0 before

striking ball B. Assuming perfectly • Solve the last two expressions for the

elastic impact (e = 1) and no friction, velocity of ball A along the line of action

determine the velocity of each ball and the velocity of ball B which is

immediately after impact. horizontal.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 85

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.16

SOLUTION:

• Determine orientation of impact line of action.

r

sin 0 .5

2r • The momentum component of ball A

30 tangential to the contact plane is

conserved.

mv A Ft mv A

mv0 sin 30 0 mvA t

vA t 0.5v0

momentum of the two ball system is

conserved.

mv A Tt mv A mvB

0 mvA t cos 30 mvA n sin 30 mvB

0 0.5v0 cos 30 vA n sin 30 vB

0.5vA n vB 0.433v0

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 86

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.16

• The relative velocities along the line of action before

and after the impact are related by the coefficient of

restitution.

vB n vA n ev A n vB n

vB sin 30 vA n v0 cos 30 0

0.5vB vA n 0.866v0

A along the line of action and the velocity of ball B

which is horizontal.

vA n 0.520v0 vB 0.693v0

v A 0.5v0t 0.520v0n

0.52

vA 0.721v0 tan 1 46.1

0 . 5

46.1 30 16.1

vB 0.693v0

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 87

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.17

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of conservation of

energy to determine the velocity of the

block at the instant of impact.

• Since the impact is perfectly plastic, the

block and pan move together at the same

velocity after impact. Determine that

velocity from the requirement that the

total momentum of the block and pan is

A 30 kg block is dropped from a height conserved.

of 2 m onto the the 10 kg pan of a

• Apply the principle of conservation of

spring scale. Assuming the impact to be

energy to determine the maximum

perfectly plastic, determine the

deflection of the spring.

maximum deflection of the pan. The

constant of the spring is k = 20 kN/m.

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.17

SOLUTION:

• Apply principle of conservation of energy to

determine velocity of the block at instant of impact.

T1 0 V1 WA y 30 9.812 588 J

T2 12 m A v A 22 12 30 v A 22 V2 0

T1 V1 T2 V2

0 588 J 12 30 v A 22 0 v A 2 6.26 m s

total momentum of the block and pan is conserved.

m A v A 2 mB vB 2 m A mB v3

306.26 0 30 10v3 v3 4.70 m s

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Sample Problem 13.17

• Apply the principle of conservation of energy to

determine the maximum deflection of the spring.

T3 12 m A mB v32 12 30 10 4.7 2 442 J

V3 Vg Ve

0 1 kx 2

2 3

1

2

20 10 4.91 10

3 3 2

0.241 J

T4 0

pan weight:

392 x4 x3 12 20 103 x42

392x4 4.91 103 12 20 103 x42

WB 10 9.81 3

x3 3

4 . 91 10 m

k 20 10

T3 V3 T4 V4

442 0.241 0 392 x4 4.91 103 12 20 103 x42

x4 0.230 m

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 90

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

SOLUTION:

• This is a multiple step problem.

Formulate your overall approach.

• Use work-energy to find the

velocity of the block just

before impact

A 2-kg block A is pushed up against a spring • Use conservation of

compressing it a distance x= 0.1 m. The block is momentum to determine

then released from rest and slides down the 20º the speed of ball B after

incline until it strikes a 1-kg sphere B, which is the impact

suspended from a 1 m inextensible rope. The

spring constant k=800 N/m, the coefficient of • Use work energy to find

friction between A and the ground is 0.2, the the velocity at

distance A slides from the unstretched length of

the spring d=1.5 m, and the coefficient of • Use Newton’s 2 Law to

nd

restitution between A and B is 0.8. When =40o, find tension in the rope

find (a) the speed of B (b) the tension in the rope.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 91

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

Given: mA= 2-kg mB= 1-kg,

k= 800 N/m, A =0.2, e= 0.8

Find (a) vB (b) Trope

• Use work-energy to find the velocity of

the block just before impact

Determine the friction force acting on the block A

Solve for N

Sum forces in the y-direction N mA g cos

(2)(9.81) cos 20

Fy 0:

18.4368 N

N mA g cos 0 F f k N (0.2)(18.4368)

3.6874 N

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

Set your datum, use work-energy to determine vA at impact.

1

T1 (V1 )e (V1 ) g U12 T2 (V2 )e (V2 ) g

1 2 1 x Datum

T1 0, (V1 )e k x1 (800)(0.1)2 4.00 J d

2 2

(V1 ) g mA gh1 mA g ( x d )sin (2)(9.81)(1.6)sin 20 10.7367 J

1 1

T2 mA v A2 (1) (v A2 ) 1.000 v A2 V2 0

2 2

T1 V1 U12 T2 V2 : 0 4.00 10.7367 5.8998 1.000 v A2 0

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

• Use conservation of momentum to determine

the speed of ball B after the impact

• Draw the impulse diagram

horizontally immediately after the impact.

momentum in the x direction of restitution equation

(vB )n (vA )n e [(vB )n (v A )n ]

mA v A cos 0 mA vA cos mB vB

vB cos vA e [v A 0]

(2)(2.9727) cos 20 2vA cos 20 (1.00)vB (1) vB cos 20 vA (0.8)(2.9727) (2)

Solve (1) and (2) simultaneously

vA 1.0382 m/s vB 3.6356 m/s

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

• Use work energy to find the velocity at

Set datum, use Work-Energy to determine vB at = 40o

T1 (V1 )e (V1 ) g U12 T2 (V2 )e (V2 ) g 2

1 Datum

T1 mB (vB ) 2 V1 0 1

2

1

T2 mB v22 V2 mB gh2 mB gl (1 cos )

2

1 1

T1 V1 T2 V2 : mB (vB ) 2 0 mB v22 mB g (1 cos )

2 2

v22 (vB ) 2 2 gl (1 cos )

(3.6356) 2 (2)(9.81)(1 cos 40)

8.6274 m 2 /s 2

v2 2.94 m/s

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Group Problem Solving

• Use Newton’s 2nd Law to find tension in the rope

• Draw your free-body and

kinetic diagrams en

et

Fn mB an :

1.00 m

T mB g cos mB an v22 8.6274

an 8.6274 m/s 2

T mB (an g cos ) 1.00

T (1.0) (8.6274 9.81cos 40) T 16.14 N

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Concept Question

Compare the following statement to the problem you just solved.

If the coefficient of restitution is

smaller than the 0.8 in the

problem, the tension T will be…

Smaller Bigger

the 1 m in the problem, the

tension T will be… If the mass of A is smaller

than the 2 kg given in the

Smaller Bigger

problem, the tension T will

If the coefficient of friction is be…

smaller than 0.2 given in the Smaller Bigger

problem, the tension T will be…

Smaller Bigger

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 97

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tenth

Summary

Approaches to Kinetics Problems

Accelerations Displacements Time

Law (last chapter) Momentum

t2

F maG

T1 U12 T2 mv1 F dt mv2

t1

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