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Tenth Edition

VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

13
CHAPTER

DYNAMICS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
Phillip J. Cornwell Kinetics of Particles:
Lecture Notes:
Energy and Momentum
Brian P. Self
California Polytechnic State University Methods

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Contents
Introduction Sample Problem 13.6
Work of a Force Sample Problem 13.7
Principle of Work & Energy Sample Problem 13.9
Applications of the Principle of Principle of Impulse and Momentum
Work & Energy Impulsive Motion
Power and Efficiency Sample Problem 13.10
Sample Problem 13.1 Sample Problem 13.11
Sample Problem 13.2 Sample Problem 13.12
Sample Problem 13.3 Impact
Sample Problem 13.4 Direct Central Impact
Sample Problem 13.5 Oblique Central Impact
Potential Energy Problems Involving Energy and
Conservative Forces Momentum
Conservation of Energy Sample Problem 13.14
Motion Under a Conservative Sample Problem 13.15
Central Force Sample Problems 13.16
Sample Problem 13.17
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Energy and Momentum Methods
The pogo stick allows the boy
to change between kinetic Accidents are often analyzed
energy, potential energy from by using momentum methods.
gravity, and potential energy
in the spring.

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Introduction
• Previously, problems dealing with the motion of
particles were solved through the fundamental
equation of motion,  
F  ma.
• The current chapter introduces two additional
methods of analysis.

• Method of work and energy: directly relates force,


mass, velocity and displacement.

• Method of impulse and momentum: directly


relates force, mass, velocity, and time.

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Introduction
Approaches to Kinetics Problems

Forces and Velocities and Velocities and


Accelerations Displacements Time

Newton’s Second Work-Energy Impulse-


Law (last chapter) Momentum

   t2  
 F  maG
T1  U12  T2 mv1   F dt  mv2
t1

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Work of a Force

• Differential vector dr is the particle displacement.

• Work of the force is


 
dU  F  dr
 F ds cos 
 Fx dx  Fy dy  Fz dz

• Work is a scalar quantity, i.e., it has magnitude and


sign but not direction.

• Dimensions of work are length  force. Units are


1 J  joule   1 N 1 m  1ft  lb  1.356 J

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Work of a Force
• Work of a force during a finite displacement,
A2 

U12   F  d r
A1
s2 s2
  F cos  ds   Ft ds
s1 s1
A2
  Fx dx  Fy dy  Fz dz 
A1

• Work is represented by the area under the


curve of Ft plotted against s.

• Ft is the force in the direction of the


displacement ds

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Work of a Force

What is the work of a constant force in


rectilinear motion?

a) U12  F x
b) U12   F cos   x
c) U12   F sin   x
d) U12  0

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Work of a Force

• Work of the force of gravity,


dU  Fx dx  Fy dy  Fz dz
 W dy
y2
U12    W dy
y1
 W  y 2  y1   W y

• Work of the weight is equal to product of


weight W and vertical displacement y.

• In the figure above, when is the work done by the weight positive?

a) Moving from y1 to y2 b) Moving from y2 to y1 c) Never

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Work of a Force
• Magnitude of the force exerted by a spring is
proportional to deflection,
F  kx
k  spring constant  N/m or lb/in.
• Work of the force exerted by spring,
dU   F dx   kx dx
x2
U12    kx dx  12 kx12  12 kx22
x1

• Work of the force exerted by spring is positive


when x2 < x1, i.e., when the spring is returning to
its undeformed position.

• Work of the force exerted by the spring is equal to


negative of area under curve of F plotted against x,
U12   12  F1  F2  x

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Work of a Force

As the block moves from A0 to A1, is


Displacement is
the work positive or negative? in the opposite
direction of the
Positive Negative force

As the block moves from A2 to Ao, is


the work positive or negative?
Positive Negative
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Work of a Force

Work of a gravitational force (assume particle M


occupies fixed position O while particle m follows path
shown),
Mm
dU   Fdr  G 2 dr
r
r2
Mm Mm Mm
U12    G dr  G G
r1 r2 r2 r1

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth

Does the normal force do work as the


block slides from B to A?

YES NO

Does the weight do work as


the block slides from B to A? Positive or
Negative work?
YES NO
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Work of a Force

Forces which do not do work (ds = 0 or cos :

• Reaction at frictionless pin supporting rotating body,


• Reaction at frictionless surface when body
in contact moves along surface,
• Reaction at a roller moving along its track, and
• Weight of a body when its center of gravity
moves horizontally.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Particle Kinetic Energy: Principle of Work & Energy 
• Consider a particle of mass m acted upon by force F
dv
Ft  mat  m
dt
dv ds dv
m  mv
ds dt ds
F t ds  mv dv
• Integrating from A1 to A2 ,
s2 v2
2 2
 Ft ds  m  v dv  12 mv2  12 mv1
s1 v1

U12  T2  T1 T  12 mv 2  kinetic energy



• The work of the force F is equal to the change in
kinetic energy of the particle.
• Units of work and kinetic energy are the same:
2
m
   m
T  12 mv 2  kg    kg 2 m  N  m  J
s  s 
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Applications of the Principle of Work and Energy


• Force P acts normal to path and does no
work.
T1  U12  T2
1W 2
• The bob is released 0  Wl  v2
2 g
from rest at position A1.
Determine the velocity v2  2 gl
of the pendulum bob at
• Velocity is found without determining
A2 using work & kinetic
expression for acceleration and integrating.
energy.
• All quantities are scalars and can be added
directly.

• Forces which do no work are eliminated from


the problem.

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Applications of the Principle of Work and Energy
• Principle of work and energy cannot be
applied to directly determine the acceleration
of the pendulum bob.

• Calculating the tension in the cord requires


supplementing the method of work and energy
with an application of Newton’s second law.

• As the bob passes through A2 ,


 Fn  m an
W v22
P W 
g l
W 2 gl
P W   3W
v2  2 gl g l

If you designed the rope to hold twice the weight of the bob, what would happen?
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Power and Efficiency
• Power  rate at which work is done.
 
dU F  dr
 
dt dt
 
 F v

• Dimensions of power are work/time or force*velocity.


Units for power are
J m ft  lb
1 W (watt)  1  1 N  or 1 hp  550  746 W
s s s

•   efficiency
output work

input work
power output

power input

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.1
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate the change in kinetic energy.
• Determine the distance required for the
work to equal the kinetic energy change.

An automobile weighing 4000 lb is


driven down a 5o incline at a speed of
60 mi/h when the brakes are applied
causing a constant total breaking force
of 1500 lb.
Determine the distance traveled by the
automobile as it comes to a stop.

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.1
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate the change in kinetic energy.
 mi  5280 ft  h 
v1   60     88 ft s
 h  mi  3600 s 
T1  12 mv12  12 4000 32.2 882  481000 ft  lb

v2  0 T2  0
• Determine the distance required for the work
to equal the kinetic energy change.
U12   1500 lb x  4000 lb sin 5x
 1151 lb x
T1  U12  T2
481000 ft  lb  1151 lb x  0
x  418 ft
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.2
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of work and
energy separately to blocks A and B.

• When the two relations are combined,


the work of the cable forces cancel.
Solve for the velocity.
Two blocks are joined by an inextensible
cable as shown. If the system is released
from rest, determine the velocity of block
A after it has moved 2 m. Assume that the
coefficient of friction between block A
and the plane is k = 0.25 and that the
pulley is weightless and frictionless.

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.2
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of work and energy separately
to blocks A and B.
 
W A  200 kg  9.81 m s 2  1962 N
FA   k N A   k W A  0.251962 N   490 N
T1  U12  T2 :
0  FC 2 m   FA 2 m   12 m A v 2

FC 2 m   490 N 2 m   12 200 kg v 2

 
WB  300 kg  9.81 m s 2  2940 N
T1  U12  T2 :
0  Fc 2 m   WB 2 m   12 m B v 2

 Fc 2 m   2940 N 2 m   12 300 kg v 2

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.2
• When the two relations are combined, the work of the
cable forces cancel. Solve for the velocity.
FC 2 m   490 N 2 m   12 200 kg v 2

 Fc 2 m   2940 N 2 m   12 300 kg v 2

2940 N 2 m   490 N 2 m   12 200 kg  300 kg v 2


4900 J  12 500 kg v 2

v  4.43 m s

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
13.2 – Alternate Solution, Group Problem Solving
Could you apply work-energy to the combined
2 system of blocks?
1
2m Given: v1= 0, distance = 2 m, k = 0.25

What is T1 of the system?


1
2m T1  0
2

What is the total work done between points 1 and 2?


U12    0.25  200  9.81 2 m    300  9.81 2 m   4900 J
What is T2 of the system? Note that vA = vB
T2  12 mAv 2  12 mB v 2  1
2  200 kg  v 2  12  300 kg  v 2
Solve for v
4900 J  1
2  500 kg  v 2 v  4.43 m s
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.3
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of work and energy
between the initial position and the
point at which the spring is fully
compressed and the velocity is zero.
A spring is used to stop a 60 kg package The only unknown in the relation is the
which is sliding on a horizontal surface. friction coefficient.
The spring has a constant k = 20 kN/m
and is held by cables so that it is initially • Apply the principle of work and energy
compressed 120 mm. The package has a for the rebound of the package. The
velocity of 2.5 m/s in the position shown only unknown in the relation is the
and the maximum deflection of the spring velocity at the final position.
is 40 mm.
Determine (a) the coefficient of kinetic
friction between the package and surface
and (b) the velocity of the package as it
passes again through the position shown.
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.3
SOLUTION:
• Apply principle of work and energy between initial
position and the point at which spring is fully compressed.
T1  12 mv12  12 60 kg 2.5 m s 2  187.5 J T2  0

U12  f    kW x

 
   k 60 kg  9.81m s 2 0.640 m   377 J  k

Pmin  kx0  20 kN m 0.120 m   2400 N


Pmax  k  x0  x   20 kN m 0.160 m   3200 N
U12 e   12 Pmin  Pmax x
  12 2400 N  3200 N 0.040 m   112.0 J

U1 2  U1 2  f  U1 2 e  377 J  k  112 J

T1  U1 2  T2 :
187.5 J - 377 J  k  112 J  0  k  0.20
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.3
• Apply the principle of work and energy for the rebound
of the package.

T2  0 T 3 12 mv32  12 60kg v32

U 23  U 23  f  U 23 e  377 J  k  112 J


 36.5 J

T2  U 23  T3 :
0  36.5 J  12 60 kg v32
v3  1.103 m s

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.4
SOLUTION:
• Apply principle of work and energy to
determine velocity at point 2.
• Apply Newton’s second law to find
normal force by the track at point 2.
A 2000 lb car starts from rest at point 1
and moves without friction down the • Apply principle of work and energy to
track shown. determine velocity at point 3.
• Apply Newton’s second law to find
Determine:
minimum radius of curvature at point 3
a) the force exerted by the track on such that a positive normal force is
the car at point 2, and exerted by the track.
b) the minimum safe value of the
radius of curvature at point 3.

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.4
SOLUTION:
• Apply principle of work and energy to determine
velocity at point 2.
1W 2
T1  0 T2  12 mv22  v2
2g
U1 2  W 40 ft 
1W 2
T1  U1 2  T2 : 0  W 40 ft   v2
2g

v22  240 ft g  240 ft  32.2 ft s 2  v2  50.8 ft s

• Apply Newton’s second law to find normal force by


the track at point 2.
   Fn  m an :
W v22 W 240 ft g
 W  N  m an  
g  2 g 20 ft
N  5W N  10000 lb

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.4
• Apply principle of work and energy to determine
velocity at point 3.
1W 2
T1  U13  T3 0  W 25 ft   v3
2g
v32  225 ft g  225 ft 32.2 ft s  v3  40.1ft s

• Apply Newton’s second law to find minimum radius of


curvature at point 3 such that a positive normal force is
exerted by the track.

   Fn  m an :

W  m an
W v32 W 225 ft g
  3  50 ft
g 3 g 3

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.5
SOLUTION:
Force exerted by the motor
cable has same direction as
the dumbwaiter velocity.
Power delivered by motor is
equal to FvD, vD = 8 ft/s.

The dumbwaiter D and its load have a • In the first case, bodies are in uniform
combined weight of 600 lb, while the motion. Determine force exerted by
counterweight C weighs 800 lb. motor cable from conditions for static
equilibrium.
Determine the power delivered by the
electric motor M when the dumbwaiter • In the second case, both bodies are
(a) is moving up at a constant speed of accelerating. Apply Newton’s
8 ft/s and (b) has an instantaneous second law to each body to
velocity of 8 ft/s and an acceleration of determine the required motor cable
2.5 ft/s2, both directed upwards. force.

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.5
• In the first case, bodies are in uniform motion.
Determine force exerted by motor cable from
conditions for static equilibrium.

Free-body C:
   Fy  0 : 2T  800 lb  0 T  400 lb

Free-body D:
   Fy  0 : F  T  600 lb  0
F  600 lb  T  600 lb  400 lb  200 lb

Power  Fv D  200 lb 8 ft s 


 1600 ft  lb s
1 hp
Power  1600 ft  lb s   2.91 hp
550 ft  lb s
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.5
• In the second case, both bodies are accelerating. Apply
Newton’s second law to each body to determine the required
motor cable force.
a D  2.5 ft s 2  aC   12 a D  1.25 ft s 2 

Free-body C:
800
   Fy  mC aC : 800  2T  1.25 T  384.5 lb
32.2
Free-body D:
600
   Fy  m D a D : F  T  600   2 .5 
32.2
F  384.5  600  46.6 F  262.1 lb
Power  Fv D  262.1 lb 8 ft s   2097 ft  lb s
1 hp
Power  2097 ft  lb s   3.81 hp
550 ft  lb s
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving
SOLUTION:
The problem deals with a change in
position and different velocities, so use
work-energy.
• Draw FBD of the box to help us
determine the forces that do work.

Packages are thrown down an • Determine the work done between


incline at A with a velocity of 1 points A and C as a function of d.
m/s. The packages slide along
the surface ABC to a conveyor • Find the kinetic energy at points A
belt which moves with a and C.
velocity of 2 m/s. Knowing that
• Use the work-energy relationship
k= 0.25 between the packages
and solve for d.
and the surface ABC, determine
the distance d if the packages
are to arrive at C with a velocity
of 2 m/s.
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving
SOLUTION:
Given: vA= 1 m/s, vC= 2 m/s, k= 0.25
Find: distance d
Will use: TA  U A B  U B C  TC

Draw the FBD of the Determine work done A → B


block at points A and C
N AB  mg cos 30
FAB  k N AB  0.25 mg  cos 30
U A B  mg  d sin 30  FAB  d
 mg  d (sin 30  k cos 30)

Determine work done B → C


N BC  mg xBC  7 m
FBC  k  mg
U B C   k mg xBC

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving
Determine kinetic energy at A and at C
1 2 1 2
TA  mv A and v A  1 m/s TC  mvC and vC  2 m/s
2 2

Substitute values into TA  U A B  U B C  TC

1 2 1 2
mv A  mg d (sin 30  k cos 30)  k mg  xBC  mv0
2 2
Divide by m and solve for d

vC2 /2 g  k xBC  v A2 /2 g 
d 
(sin 30  k cos 30) d  6.71 m
(2) 2/(2)(9.81)  (0.25)(7)  (1)2/(2)(9.81)

sin 30  0.25cos 30
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 36
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth

k= 0.25

If you wanted to bring the package to a complete stop at the


bottom of the ramp, would it work to place a spring as shown?
No, because the potential energy of the spring would turn
into kinetic energy and push the block back up the ramp

Would the package ever come to a stop?


Yes, eventually enough energy would be dissipated
through the friction between the package and ramp.
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 37
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth

The elastic potential energy


stored in the trampoline is
The potential energy stored at transferred to kinetic energy
the top of the roller coaster is and gravitational potential
transferred to kinetic energy energy as the girl flies upwards.
as the cars descend.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 38


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Potential Energy
If the work of a force only depends on differences in
position, we can express this work as potential energy.
Can the work done by the following forces be expressed as
potential energy?

Weight Yes No
Friction Yes No

Normal force Yes No

Spring force Yes No


© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 39
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Potential Energy

• Work of the force of gravity W,
U12  W y1  W y 2

• Work is independent of path followed; depends


only on the initial and final values of Wy.
V g  Wy
 potential energy of the body with respect
to force of gravity.

1
   
U12  V g  V g
2

• Choice of datum from which the elevation y is


measured is arbitrary.

• Units of work and potential energy are the same:


V g  Wy  N  m  J

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 40


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Potential Energy
• Previous expression for potential energy of a body
with respect to gravity is only valid when the
weight of the body can be assumed constant.

• For a space vehicle, the variation of the force of


gravity with distance from the center of the earth
should be considered.

• Work of a gravitational force,


GMm GMm
U12  
r2 r1

• Potential energy Vg when the variation in the


force of gravity can not be neglected,
GMm WR 2
Vg   
r r
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 41
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Potential Energy
• Work of the force exerted by a spring depends
only on the initial and final deflections of the
spring,
U12  12 kx12  12 kx22

• The potential energy of the body with respect


to the elastic force,
Ve  12 kx 2
U12  Ve 1  Ve 2

• Note that the preceding expression for Ve is


valid only if the deflection of the spring is
measured from its undeformed position.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 42


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Conservative Forces
• Concept of potential energy can be applied if the
work of the force is independent of the path
followed by its point of application.
U12  V  x1 , y1 , z1   V  x2 , y 2 , z 2 
Such forces are described as conservative forces.
• For any conservative force applied on a closed path,
 
 F  dr  0
• Elementary work corresponding to displacement
between two neighboring points,
dU  V  x, y, z   V  x  dx, y  dy, z  dz 
  dV  x, y, z 
 V V V 
Fx dx  Fy dy  Fz dz   dx  dy  dz 
 x y z 
  V V V 
F       grad V
 x y z 
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 43
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Conservation of Energy
• Work of a conservative force,
U1 2  V1  V2

• Concept of work and energy,


U1 2  T2  T1

• Follows that
T1  V1  T2  V2
E  T  V  constant
T1  0 V1  W • When a particle moves under the action of
T1  V1  W conservative forces, the total mechanical
energy is constant.
1W
T2  12 mv22  2 g   W V2  0 • Friction forces are not conservative. Total
2g
mechanical energy of a system involving
T2  V2  W friction decreases.
• Mechanical energy is dissipated by friction
into thermal energy. Total energy is constant.
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 44
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Motion Under a Conservative Central Force
• When a particle moves under a conservative central
force, both the principle of conservation of angular
momentum
r0 mv0 sin  0  rmv sin 
and the principle of conservation of energy
T0  V0  T  V
1 mv 2 GMm 1 2 GMm
2 0   2 mv 
r0 r
may be applied.

• Given r, the equations may be solved for v and

• At minimum and maximum r, 90o. Given the


launch conditions, the equations may be solved for
rmin, rmax, vmin, and vmax.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 45


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.6
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of conservation of
energy between positions 1 and 2.
• The elastic and gravitational potential
energies at 1 and 2 are evaluated from
the given information. The initial kinetic
energy is zero.
A 20 lb collar slides without friction • Solve for the kinetic energy and velocity
along a vertical rod as shown. The at 2.
spring attached to the collar has an
undeflected length of 4 in. and a
constant of 3 lb/in.
If the collar is released from rest at
position 1, determine its velocity after
it has moved 6 in. to position 2.
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 46
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.6
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of conservation of energy between
positions 1 and 2.

Position 1: Ve  12 kx12  12 3 lb in.8 in.  4 in.2  24 in.  lb


V1  Ve  Vg  24 in.  lb  0  2 ft  lb
T1  0
Position 2: Ve  12 kx22  12 3 lb in.10 in.  4 in.2  54 in.  lb
Vg  Wy  20 lb  6 in.  120 in.  lb
V2  Ve  Vg  54  120  66 in.  lb  5.5 ft  lb
1 20 2
T2  12 mv22  v2  0.311v22
2 32.2
Conservation of Energy:
T1  V1  T2  V2
0  2 ft  lb  0.311v22  5.5 ft  lb
v2  4.91ft s 
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 47
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.7
SOLUTION:
• Since the pellet must remain in contact
with the loop, the force exerted on the
pellet must be greater than or equal to
zero. Setting the force exerted by the
loop to zero, solve for the minimum
velocity at D.
• Apply the principle of conservation of
energy between points A and D. Solve
The 0.5 lb pellet is pushed against the for the spring deflection required to
spring and released from rest at A. produce the required velocity and
Neglecting friction, determine the kinetic energy at D.
smallest deflection of the spring for
which the pellet will travel around the
loop and remain in contact with the
loop at all times.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 48


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.7
SOLUTION:
• Setting the force exerted by the loop to zero, solve for the
minimum velocity at D.
   Fn  man : W  man 2
mg  m vD r
2
vD  rg  2 ft 32.2 ft s   64.4 ft 2 s 2

• Apply the principle of conservation of energy between


points A and D.
V1  Ve  Vg  12 kx 2  0  12 36 lb ft x 2  18 x 2
T1  0

V2  Ve  Vg  0  Wy  0.5 lb 4 ft   2 ft  lb
2
T2  12 mvD 
1 0.5 lb
2 32.2 ft s 2
64 . 4 ft 2 2

s  0.5 ft  lb

T1  V1  T2  V2
0  18 x 2  0.5  2 x  0.3727 ft  4.47 in.
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 49
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.9
SOLUTION:
• For motion under a conservative central
force, the principles of conservation of
energy and conservation of angular
momentum may be applied simultaneously.
• Apply the principles to the points of
minimum and maximum altitude to
A satellite is launched in a direction
determine the maximum altitude.
parallel to the surface of the earth
with a velocity of 36900 km/h from • Apply the principles to the orbit insertion
an altitude of 500 km. point and the point of minimum altitude to
determine maximum allowable orbit
Determine (a) the maximum altitude
insertion angle error.
reached by the satellite, and (b) the
maximum allowable error in the
direction of launching if the satellite
is to come no closer than 200 km to
the surface of the earth
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 50
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.9
• Apply the principles of conservation of energy and
conservation of angular momentum to the points of minimum
and maximum altitude to determine the maximum altitude.
Conservation of energy:
1 mv 2 GMm 1 2 GMm
TA  V A  TA  V A 2 0   2 mv1 
r0 r1
Conservation of angular momentum:
r
r0 mv0  r1mv1 v1  v0 0
r1
Combining,
 2
1 v 2 1  r0   GM 1  r0  1 
r0 2GM

2 0 2  r 
 r1  r0  1 r1 r0v02
r0  6370 km  500 km  6870 km
v0  36900 km h  10.25  106 m s

  2
GM  gR 2  9.81m s 2 6.37  106 m  398  1012 m3 s 2

r1  60.4  106 m  60400 km


© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 51
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.9
• Apply the principles to the orbit insertion point and the point
of minimum altitude to determine maximum allowable orbit
insertion angle error.
Conservation of energy:
T0  V0  TA  V A 1 mv 2  GMm  1 mv 2 
GMm
2 0 2 max
r0 rmin

Conservation of angular momentum:


r
r0 mv0 sin 0  rmin mvmax vmax  v0 sin 0 0
rmin

Combining and solving for sin ,


sin 0  0.9801
 0  90  11.5 allowable error  11.5

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 52


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving
SOLUTION:
• This is two part problem – you
will need to find the velocity of
the car using work-energy, and
then use Newton’s second law
to find the normal force.

• Draw a diagram with the car


A section of track for a roller coaster at points A and D, and
consists of two circular arcs AB and CD define your datum. Use
joined by a straight portion BC. The radius conservation of energy to
of CD is 240 ft. The car and its occupants, solve for vD
of total weight 560 lb, reach Point A with
practically no velocity and then drop freely • Draw FBD and KD of the car
along the track. Determine the normal at point D, and determine the
force exerted by the track on the car at normal force using Newton’s
point D. Neglect air resistance and rolling second law.
resistance.
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 53
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving
SOLUTION:
Given: vA= 0 ft/s, rCD= 240 ft, W=560 lbs
Find: ND

Define your datum, sketch the


situation at points of interest
Datum

Use conservation of energy to find vD TA  VA  TD  VD

Find TA v A  0 TA  0
Solve for vD
Find VA VA  Wy A  (560 lb)(90  60)=84,000 ft lbs

1 2 1  560  2 8.6957vD2  84000


Find TD TD 
2
mvD   
2  32.2 
vD  8.6957vD2
vD  98.285 ft/s

Find VD yD  0 VD  0

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 54


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving
Draw FBD and KD at point D
en
et
man
W
mat
ND
Use Newton’s second law in the normal direction

560  98.2852 
F n  man N D  560  
32.2  240


 vD2 
ND  W  m  
 R
  N D  1260 lbs

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 55


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving

What happens to the normal


force at D if….
…we include friction?
a) ND gets larger
b) ND gets smaller
c) ND stays the same

…we move point A higher? …the radius is smaller?


a) ND gets larger a) ND gets larger
b) ND gets smaller b) ND gets smaller
c) ND stays the same c) ND stays the same
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 56
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Impulsive Motion
The impulse applied to the railcar
The thrust of a rocket acts
by the wall brings its momentum
over a specific time period
to zero. Crash tests are often
to give the rocket linear
performed to help improve safety
momentum.
in different vehicles.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 57


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Principle of Impulse and Momentum
• From Newton’s second law,
 d  
F  mv  mv  linear momentum
dt
 
Fdt  d mv 
t2   
 Fdt  mv 2  mv 1
t1
• Dimensions of the impulse of t2  
a force are  Fdt  Imp12  impulse of the force F
force*time. t1
 
• Units for the impulse of a mv1  Imp12  mv2
force are
 2

N  s  kg  m s  s  kg  m s
• The final momentum of the particle can be
obtained by adding vectorially its initial
momentum and the impulse of the force during
the time interval.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 58


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Impulsive Motion
• Force acting on a particle during a very short
time interval that is large enough to cause a
significant change in momentum is called an
impulsive force.

• When impulsive forces act on a particle,


  
mv1   F t  mv2

• When a baseball is struck by a bat, contact


occurs over a short time interval but force is
large enough to change sense of ball motion.

• Nonimpulsive
 forces are forces for which
Ft is small and therefore, may be
neglected – an example of this is the weight
of the baseball.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 59


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.10
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and
momentum. The impulse is equal to the
product of the constant forces and the
time interval.

An automobile weighing 4000 lb is


driven down a 5o incline at a speed of
60 mi/h when the brakes are applied,
causing a constant total braking force of
1500 lb.
Determine the time required for the
automobile to come to a stop.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 60


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.10
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and
momentum.
 
mv1   Imp12  mv2

Taking components parallel to the


incline,
mv1  W sin 5t  Ft  0
 4000 
 88 ft s   4000 sin 5t  1500t  0
 32.2 
t  9.49 s

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 61


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.11
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and
momentum in terms of horizontal and
vertical component equations.

A 4 oz baseball is pitched with a


velocity of 80 ft/s. After the ball is hit
by the bat, it has a velocity of 120 ft/s
in the direction shown. If the bat and
ball are in contact for 0.015 s,
determine the average impulsive force
exerted on the ball during the impact.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 62


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.11
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and momentum in
terms of horizontal and vertical component equations.
 
mv1  Imp1 2  mv2
x component equation:
 mv1  Fx t  mv2 cos 40
4 16
 80  Fx 0.15  4 16 120 cos 40
32.2 32.2
Fx  89 lb
y component equation:
y
0  Fy t  mv2 sin 40
4 16
x
Fy 0.15  120 cos 40
32.2
Fy  39.9 lb
  
F  89 lb i  39.9 lb  j , F  97.5 lb

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 63


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.12
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and
momentum to the package-cart system
to determine the final velocity.
• Apply the same principle to the package
alone to determine the impulse exerted
on it from the change in its momentum.
A 10 kg package drops from a chute
into a 24 kg cart with a velocity of 3
m/s. Knowing that the cart is initially at
rest and can roll freely, determine (a)
the final velocity of the cart, (b) the
impulse exerted by the cart on the
package, and (c) the fraction of the
initial energy lost in the impact.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 64


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.12
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and momentum to the package-cart
system to determine the final velocity.


 
m p v1   Imp1 2  m p  mc v2 

x components: 
m p v1 cos 30  0  m p  mc v2 
10 kg 3 m/s cos 30  10 kg  25 kg v2
v2  0.742 m/s

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 65


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.12
• Apply the same principle to the package alone to determine the impulse
exerted on it from the change in its momentum.

 
m p v1   Imp1 2  m p v2

x components: m p v1 cos 30  Fx t  m p v2


10 kg 3 m/s cos 30  Fx t  10 kg v2 Fx t  18.56 N  s

y components:  m p v1 sin 30  Fy t  0


 10 kg 3 m/s sin 30  Fy t  0 Fy t  15 N  s

  
 Imp12    
 Ft   18.56 N  s i  15 N  s j Ft  23.9 N  s

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 66


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.12

To determine the fraction of energy lost,

10 kg  3m s   45 J
2
T1  12 m p v12  1
2

T2  12  m p  mc  v22  12 10 kg  25 kg  0.742 m s   9.63 J


2

T1  T2 45 J  9.63 J
  0.786
T1 45 J

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 67


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth

SOLUTION:
• Draw impulse and momentum diagrams
of the jumper.

• Apply the principle of impulse and


momentum to the jumper to determine
the force exerted on the foot.

The jumper approaches the takeoff


line from the left with a horizontal
velocity of 10 m/s, remains in contact
with the ground for 0.18 s, and takes
off at a 50o angle with a velocity of 12
m/s. Determine the average impulsive
force exerted by the ground on his
foot. Give your answer in terms of the
weight W of the athlete.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 68


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving

Given: v1 = 10 m/s, v2= 12 m/s at 50º,


Δt= 0.18 s
Find: Favg in terms of W

Draw impulse and momentum diagrams of the jumper



mv2

mv1 50º
+ = y
W t Favg t
x

Use the impulse momentum equation in y to find Favg


mv1  (P  W )t  mv 2 t  0.18 s

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 69


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving 
mv2

mv1 50º
+ =
W t Favg t y
x

mv1  (Favg  W )t  mv 2 t  0.18 s


Use the impulse momentum equation in x and y to find Favg
W W W
(10)  ( Favg  x )(0.18)  (12)(cos 50) 0  ( Favg  y  W )(0.18)  (12)(sin 50)
g g g
10  (12)(cos 50) (12)(sin 50)
Favg  x  W Favg  y W  W
(9.81)(0.18) (9.81)(0.18)

Favg  1.295W i  6.21W j Favg-x is positive, which means we


guessed correctly (acts to the left)

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 70


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving

Car A and B crash into


one another. Looking
only at the impact, which
of the following
statements are true?
The total mechanical energy is the
True False
same before and after the impact

If car A weighs twice as much as car B,


the force A exerts on car B is bigger True False
than the force B exerts on car A.

The total linear momentum is the same


True False
immediately before and after the impact
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 71
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth

The coefficient of restitution is used


to characterize the “bounciness” of
different sports equipment. The U.S.
Golf Association limits the COR of
golf balls at 0.83

Civil engineers use the


coefficient of restitution to
model rocks falling from
hillsides

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Impact
• Impact: Collision between two bodies which
occurs during a small time interval and during
which the bodies exert large forces on each other.

• Line of Impact: Common normal to the surfaces


in contact during impact.

• Central Impact: Impact for which the mass


Direct Central Impact centers of the two bodies lie on the line of impact;
otherwise, it is an eccentric impact..

• Direct Impact: Impact for which the velocities of


the two bodies are directed along the line of
impact.

• Oblique Impact: Impact for which one or both of


the bodies move along a line other than the line of
impact.
Oblique Central Impact
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Direct Central Impact
• Bodies moving in the same straight line,
vA > vB .
• Upon impact the bodies undergo a
period of deformation, at the end of which,
they are in contact and moving at a
common velocity.
• A period of restitution follows during
which the bodies either regain their
original shape or remain permanently
deformed.
• Wish to determine the final velocities of the
two bodies. The total momentum of the
two body system is preserved,
m A v A  m B v B  m B vB  m B vB
• A second relation between the final
velocities is required.
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Direct Central Impact

e  coefficient of restitution
• Period of deformation: m Av A   Pdt  m Au Rdt u  vA
 
 Pdt v A  u
0  e 1
• Period of restitution: m Au   Rdt  m A vA
vB  u
• A similar analysis of particle B yields e
u  vB

• Combining the relations leads to the desired vB  vA  ev A  v B 


second relation between the final velocities.

• Perfectly plastic impact, e = 0: vB  vA  v m A v A  m B v B  m A  m B v

• Perfectly elastic impact, e = 1: vB  vA  v A  v B


Total energy and total momentum conserved.
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Oblique Central Impact
• Final velocities are
unknown in magnitude
and direction. Four
equations are required.

• No tangential impulse component; v A t  vA t v B t  vB t


tangential component of momentum
for each particle is conserved.
• Normal component of total m A v A n  m B v B n  m A vA n  m B vB n
momentum of the two particles is
conserved.
• Normal components of relative vB n  vA n  ev A n  v B n 
velocities before and after impact
are related by the coefficient of
restitution.
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Oblique Central Impact

• Block constrained to move along horizontal


surface.
 
• Impulses from internal forces F and  F
along the n axis and from external force Fext
exerted by horizontal surface and directed
along the vertical to the surface.

• Final velocity of ball unknown in direction and


magnitude and unknown final block velocity
magnitude. Three equations required.

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Oblique Central Impact

• Tangential momentum of ball is v B t  vB t


conserved.
• Total horizontal momentum of block m A v A   m B v B  x  m A vA   m B vB  x
and ball is conserved.
• Normal component of relative vB n  vA n  ev A n  v B n 
velocities of block and ball are related
by coefficient of restitution.

• Note: Validity of last expression does not follow from previous relation for
the coefficient of restitution. A similar but separate derivation is required.
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Problems Involving Energy and Momentum
• Three methods for the analysis of kinetics problems:
- Direct application of Newton’s second law
- Method of work and energy
- Method of impulse and momentum

• Select the method best suited for the problem or part of a problem
under consideration.

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.14
SOLUTION:
• Resolve ball velocity into components
normal and tangential to wall.
• Impulse exerted by the wall is normal
to the wall. Component of ball
momentum tangential to wall is
conserved.
• Assume that the wall has infinite mass
A ball is thrown against a frictionless,
so that wall velocity before and after
vertical wall. Immediately before the
impact is zero. Apply coefficient of
ball strikes the wall, its velocity has a
restitution relation to find change in
magnitude v and forms angle of 30o
normal relative velocity between wall
with the horizontal. Knowing that
and ball, i.e., the normal ball velocity.
e = 0.90, determine the magnitude and
direction of the velocity of the ball as
it rebounds from the wall.

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.14
SOLUTION:
• Resolve ball velocity into components parallel and
perpendicular to wall.
vn  v cos 30  0.866v vt  v sin 30  0.500v

• Component of ball momentum tangential to wall is conserved.


vt  vt  0.500v

t
• Apply coefficient of restitution relation with zero wall
n velocity.
0  vn  evn  0 
vn  0.90.866v   0.779v

  
v   0.779v n  0.500v t
 0.779 
v  0.926v tan 1   32.7
 0.500 

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.15
SOLUTION:
• Resolve the ball velocities into components
normal and tangential to the contact plane.

• Tangential component of momentum for


each ball is conserved.

The magnitude and direction of the • Total normal component of the momentum
velocities of two identical of the two ball system is conserved.
frictionless balls before they strike
each other are as shown. Assuming • The normal relative velocities of the
e = 0.9, determine the magnitude balls are related by the coefficient of
and direction of the velocity of each restitution.
ball after the impact.
• Solve the last two equations simultaneously
for the normal velocities of the balls after
the impact.

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.15
SOLUTION:
• Resolve the ball velocities into components normal and
tangential to the contact plane.
v A n  v A cos 30  26.0 ft s v A t  v A sin 30  15.0 ft s
vB n  vB cos 60  20.0 ft s vB t  vB sin 60  34.6 ft s

• Tangential component of momentum for each ball is


conserved.
vA t  v A t  15.0 ft s vB t  vB t  34.6 ft s

• Total normal component of the momentum of the two


ball system is conserved.
m A v A n  mB vB n  m A vA n  mB vB n
m26.0   m 20.0   mvA n  mvB n
vA n  vB n  6.0

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.15
• The normal relative velocities of the balls are related by the
coefficient of restitution.
vA n  vB n  ev A n  vB n 
 0.9026.0   20.0   41.4

• Solve the last two equations simultaneously for the normal


velocities of the balls after the impact.
vA n  17.7 ft s vB n  23.7 ft s

  
v A  17.7t  15.0n
n
 15.0 
vA  23.2 ft s tan 1   40.3
 17.7 
  
vB  23.7t  34.6n
t  34.6 
vB  41.9 ft s tan 1   55.6
 23.7 

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.16
SOLUTION:
• Determine orientation of impact line of
action.
• The momentum component of ball A
tangential to the contact plane is
conserved.
• The total horizontal momentum of the
two ball system is conserved.
Ball B is hanging from an inextensible
• The relative velocities along the line of
cord. An identical ball A is released
action before and after the impact are
from rest when it is just touching the
related by the coefficient of restitution.
cord and acquires a velocity v0 before
striking ball B. Assuming perfectly • Solve the last two expressions for the
elastic impact (e = 1) and no friction, velocity of ball A along the line of action
determine the velocity of each ball and the velocity of ball B which is
immediately after impact. horizontal.
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.16
SOLUTION:
• Determine orientation of impact line of action.
r
sin    0 .5
2r • The momentum component of ball A
  30 tangential to the contact plane is
conserved.

 
mv A  Ft  mv A
mv0 sin 30  0  mvA t
vA t  0.5v0

• The total horizontal (x component)


momentum of the two ball system is
conserved.
   
mv A  Tt  mv A  mvB
0  mvA t cos 30  mvA n sin 30  mvB
0  0.5v0  cos 30  vA n sin 30  vB
0.5vA n  vB  0.433v0
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.16
• The relative velocities along the line of action before
and after the impact are related by the coefficient of
restitution.
vB n  vA n  ev A n  vB n 
vB sin 30  vA n  v0 cos 30  0
0.5vB  vA n  0.866v0

• Solve the last two expressions for the velocity of ball


A along the line of action and the velocity of ball B
which is horizontal.
vA n  0.520v0 vB  0.693v0

  
v A  0.5v0t  0.520v0n
0.52 
vA  0.721v0   tan 1   46.1
 0 . 5 
  46.1  30  16.1
vB  0.693v0 
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 87
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.17
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of conservation of
energy to determine the velocity of the
block at the instant of impact.
• Since the impact is perfectly plastic, the
block and pan move together at the same
velocity after impact. Determine that
velocity from the requirement that the
total momentum of the block and pan is
A 30 kg block is dropped from a height conserved.
of 2 m onto the the 10 kg pan of a
• Apply the principle of conservation of
spring scale. Assuming the impact to be
energy to determine the maximum
perfectly plastic, determine the
deflection of the spring.
maximum deflection of the pan. The
constant of the spring is k = 20 kN/m.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 88


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.17
SOLUTION:
• Apply principle of conservation of energy to
determine velocity of the block at instant of impact.
T1  0 V1  WA y  30 9.812   588 J
T2  12 m A v A 22  12 30 v A 22 V2  0
T1  V1  T2  V2
0  588 J  12 30 v A 22  0 v A 2  6.26 m s

• Determine velocity after impact from requirement that


total momentum of the block and pan is conserved.

m A v A 2  mB vB 2  m A  mB v3
306.26  0  30  10v3 v3  4.70 m s

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Sample Problem 13.17
• Apply the principle of conservation of energy to
determine the maximum deflection of the spring.
T3  12 m A  mB v32  12 30  10 4.7 2  442 J
V3  Vg  Ve

0 1 kx 2
2 3
 1
2
20  10 4.91 10 
3 3 2
 0.241 J
T4  0

Initial spring deflection due to V4  Vg  Ve  WA  WB  h   12 kx42


pan weight:


 392 x4  x3   12 20  103 x42
 392x4  4.91  103   12 20  103 x42
WB 10 9.81 3
x3   3
 4 . 91  10 m
k 20  10
T3  V3  T4  V4
  
442  0.241  0  392 x4  4.91  103  12 20  103 x42 
x4  0.230 m

h  x4  x3  0.230 m  4.91  103 m h  0.225 m


© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 - 90
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving
SOLUTION:
• This is a multiple step problem.
Formulate your overall approach.
• Use work-energy to find the
velocity of the block just
before impact
A 2-kg block A is pushed up against a spring • Use conservation of
compressing it a distance x= 0.1 m. The block is momentum to determine
then released from rest and slides down the 20º the speed of ball B after
incline until it strikes a 1-kg sphere B, which is the impact
suspended from a 1 m inextensible rope. The
spring constant k=800 N/m, the coefficient of • Use work energy to find
friction between A and the ground is 0.2, the the velocity at
distance A slides from the unstretched length of
the spring d=1.5 m, and the coefficient of • Use Newton’s 2 Law to
nd

restitution between A and B is 0.8. When =40o, find tension in the rope
find (a) the speed of B (b) the tension in the rope.
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving
Given: mA= 2-kg mB= 1-kg,
k= 800 N/m, A =0.2, e= 0.8
Find (a) vB (b) Trope
• Use work-energy to find the velocity of
the block just before impact
Determine the friction force acting on the block A

Solve for N
Sum forces in the y-direction N  mA g  cos 
 (2)(9.81) cos 20
 Fy  0:
 18.4368 N
N  mA g cos   0 F f  k N  (0.2)(18.4368)
 3.6874 N

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving
Set your datum, use work-energy to determine vA at impact.
1
T1  (V1 )e  (V1 ) g  U12  T2  (V2 )e  (V2 ) g

Determine values for each term. 2


1 2 1 x Datum
T1  0, (V1 )e  k x1  (800)(0.1)2  4.00 J d
2 2
(V1 ) g  mA gh1  mA g ( x  d )sin   (2)(9.81)(1.6)sin 20  10.7367  J

U1 2   F f ( x  d )  (3.6874)(1.6)  5.8998  J

1 1
T2  mA v A2  (1) (v A2 )  1.000  v A2 V2  0
2 2

Substitute into the Work-Energy equation and solve for vA


T1  V1  U12  T2  V2 : 0  4.00  10.7367  5.8998  1.000 v A2  0

v A2  8.8369 m 2 /s 2 v A  2.9727 m/s

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 93


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving
• Use conservation of momentum to determine
the speed of ball B after the impact
• Draw the impulse diagram

Note that the ball is constrained to move only


horizontally immediately after the impact.

Apply conservation of Use the relative velocity/coefficient


momentum in the x direction of restitution equation
(vB )n  (vA )n  e [(vB )n  (v A )n ]
mA v A cos   0  mA vA cos   mB vB
vB cos   vA  e [v A  0]

(2)(2.9727) cos 20  2vA cos 20  (1.00)vB (1) vB cos 20  vA  (0.8)(2.9727) (2)
Solve (1) and (2) simultaneously
vA  1.0382 m/s vB  3.6356 m/s

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving
• Use work energy to find the velocity at
Set datum, use Work-Energy to determine vB at = 40o
T1  (V1 )e  (V1 ) g  U12  T2  (V2 )e  (V2 ) g 2

Determine values for each term.


1 Datum
T1  mB (vB ) 2 V1  0 1
2
1
T2  mB v22 V2  mB gh2  mB gl (1  cos  )
2

Substitute into the Work-Energy equation and solve for vA


1 1
T1  V1  T2  V2 : mB (vB ) 2  0  mB v22  mB g (1  cos  )
2 2
v22  (vB ) 2  2 gl (1  cos  )
 (3.6356) 2  (2)(9.81)(1  cos 40)
 8.6274 m 2 /s 2

v2  2.94  m/s

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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Group Problem Solving
• Use Newton’s 2nd Law to find tension in the rope
• Draw your free-body and
kinetic diagrams en
et

• Sum forces in the normal direction • Determine normal acceleration


 Fn  mB  an :
  1.00 m
T  mB g cos   mB an v22 8.6274
an    8.6274 m/s 2
T  mB (an  g cos  )  1.00

• Substitute and solve


T  (1.0) (8.6274  9.81cos 40) T  16.14  N

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 96


Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Concept Question
Compare the following statement to the problem you just solved.
If the coefficient of restitution is
smaller than the 0.8 in the
problem, the tension T will be…
Smaller Bigger

If the rope length is smaller than


the 1 m in the problem, the
tension T will be… If the mass of A is smaller
than the 2 kg given in the
Smaller Bigger
problem, the tension T will
If the coefficient of friction is be…
smaller than 0.2 given in the Smaller Bigger
problem, the tension T will be…
Smaller Bigger
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 97
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tenth
Summary
Approaches to Kinetics Problems

Forces and Velocities and Velocities and


Accelerations Displacements Time

Newton’s Second Work-Energy Impulse-


Law (last chapter) Momentum

   t2  
 F  maG
T1  U12  T2 mv1   F dt  mv2
t1

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