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Fabrics for Ladies Wear

Wool fabrics

A natural fiber, wool comes primarily from sheep—Australian merino sheep’s wool is considered to be the best.
However, we also get wool fibers from goats (mohair and cashmere), rabbits (angora), camels (camel hair), and
llamas (alpaca). A wool fiber is either short and fluffy, when it is known as a woolen yarn, or it is long, strong, and
smooth, when it is called worsted

Characteristics of Wool

 comfortable to wear in all climates


 Breathable, warm in the winter and cool in the summer
 absorbs moisture better than other natural fibers—will absorb up to 30 percent of its weight before it
feels wet
 flame-resistant
 relatively crease-resistant
 often blended with other fibers to reduce the cost of fabric

TYPES OF WOOLS FABRIC

a. CASHMERE- wool from the Kashmir goat, and the most luxurious of all the wools. A soft yet hard-wearing
fabric available in different weights

b. CHALLIS- a fine wool fabric, made from a worsted yarn that has an uneven surface texture. Challis is
often printed as well as plain.

c. CREPE- a soft fabric made from a twisted yarn, which is what produces the uneven surface. It is
important to preshrink this fabric prior to use by giving it a good steaming, because it will have stretched
on the bolt and it is prone to shrinkage.

d. FLANNEL- a wool with a lightly brushed surface, featuring either a plain or twill weave. Used in the past
for underwear.

e. GABARDINE- A hard-wearing suiting fabric with a distinctive weave. Gabardine often has a sheen and is
prone to shine. It can be difficult to handle as it is springy and frays badly.

f. WOOL WORSTED- A light and strong cloth, made from good-quality thin, firm filament fibers. Always
steam prior to cutting out as the fabric may shrink slightly after having been stretched around a bolt
Cotton fabrics

One of the most versatile and popular of all fabrics, cotton is a natural fiber that comes from the seed
pods, or bolls, of the cotton plant. It is thought that cotton fibers have been in use since ancient times.

CHARACTERISTICS OF COTTON

 prone to shrinkage unless it has been treated


 will deteriorate from mildew and prolonged exposure to sunlight
 creases easily
 soils easily, but launders well
 absorbs moisture well and carries heat away from the body
 stronger wet than dry
 does not build up static electricity
 dyes well

Date Developed : Issued By:


September 2019 MPC
Ladies Wear Page 1 of 1
Developed By: Revision No.
Fabric and fabric Maria Paula A.
preperation Pervera
SILK FABRICS

Often referred to as the queen of all fabrics, silk is made from the fibers of the silkworm’s cocoon. This
strong and luxurious fabric dates back thousands of years to its first development in China, and the secret of silk
production was well protected by the Chinese until 300AD. Silk fabrics can be very fine or thick and chunky. They
need careful handling as some silk fabrics can be easily damaged.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SILK

 keeps you warm in winter and cool in summer


 absorbs moisture and dries quickly
 dyes well, producing deep, rich colors
 static electricity can build up and fabric may cling
 will fade in prolonged strong sunlight
 prone to shrinkage
 best dry-cleaned
 weaker when wet than dry

TYPES OF SILK FABRIC

a. CHIFFON- a very strong and very fine, transparent silk with a plain weave. Will gather and ruffle well.
Difficult to handle.

b. CREPE DE CHINE- medium weight, with an uneven surface due to the twisted silk yarn used. Drapes well
and often used on bias-cut garments.

c. DUCHESS SATIN- a heavy, expensive satin fabric used almost exclusively for special-occasion wear.
Cutting out: use a nap layout Seams: plain, with pinked edges Thread: polyester all-purpose thread

d. DUPIONI- similar to shantung but woven using a much smoother yarn to reduce the amount of nubbly
bits in the weft.

e. SHANTUNG- the most popular of all the silks. A distinctive weft yarn with many nubbly bits. Available in
hundreds of colors. Easy to handle, but it does fray badly.

f. GEORGETTE -a soft, filmy silk fabric that has a slight transparency. Does not crease easily.

g. ORGANZA- a sheer fabric with a crisp appearance that will crease easily.

h. SATIN- silk with a satin weave that can be very light to quite heavy in weight.
Linen fabrics

Linen is a natural fiber that is derived from the stem of the flax plant. It is available in a variety of qualities
and weights, from very fine linen to heavy suiting weights. Coarser than cotton, it is sometimes woven with
cotton as well as being mixed with silk.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LINEN

 cool and comfortable to wear


 absorbs moisture well
 shrinks when washed
 does not ease well
 Linen dries quickly
 Linen fabrics lose their crispness when laundered

Date Developed : Issued By:


September 2019 MPC
Ladies Wear Page 1 of 1
Developed By: Revision No.
Fabric and fabric Maria Paula A.
preperation Pervera
 Linen can get a shiny, waxy finish when pressed on the right side without a press cloth.
 Linens have good moisture absorbency, and are comfortable to wear

TYPES OF LINEN FABRIC

a. COTTON AND LINEN BLEND- two fibers may have been mixed together in the yarn or may have mixed
warp and weft yarns. It has lots of texture in the weave. Silk and linen mix is treated in the same way

b. DRESS-WEIGHT LINEN- a medium-weight linen with a plain weave. The yarn is often uneven, which
causes slubs in the weave.

c. PRINTED LINENS- many linens today feature prints or even embroidery. The fabric may be light to
medium weight, with a smooth yarn that has few slubs.

d. SUITING LINEN- a heavier yarn is used to produce a linen suitable for suits for men and women. Can be
a firm, tight weave or a looser weave.

Manmade fabrics

The term “manmade” applies to any fabric that is not 100 percent natural. Many of these fabrics have
been developed over the last hundred years, which means they are new compared to natural fibers. Some
manmade fabrics are made from natural elements mixed with chemicals while others are made entirely from
non-natural substances.

a. ACETATE- introduced in 1924, acetate is made from cellulose and chemicals. The fabric has a slight shine
and is widely used for linings. Acetate can also be woven into fabrics such as acetate taffeta, acetate
satin, and acetate jersey.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ACETATE:

 dyes well
 can be heat-set into pleats
 washes well
b. ACRYLIC- introduced in 1950, acrylic fibers are made from ethylene and acrylonitrile. The fabric
resembles wool and makes a good substitute for machine-washable wool. Often seen as a knitted fabric,
the fibers can be mixed with wool.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ACRYLIC:

 little absorbency
 tends to retain odors
 not very strong
c. NYLON- developed by DuPont in 1938, the fabric takes its name from a collaboration between New York
(NY) and London (LON). Nylon is made from polymer chips that are melted and extruded into fibers. The
fabric can be knitted or woven.

CHARACTERISTICS OF NYLON:

 very hard-wearing
 does not absorb moisture
 washes easily, although white nylon can discolor easily
 very strong
d. POLYESTER- one of the most popular of the manmade fibers, polyester was introduced in 1951, made
from petroleum by-products and can take on any form, from a very fine sheer fabric to a thick, heavy
suiting.

CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYESTER:

Date Developed : Issued By:


September 2019 MPC
Ladies Wear Page 1 of 1
Developed By: Revision No.
Fabric and fabric Maria Paula A.
preperation Pervera
 non-absorbent
 does not crease
 can build up static
 may “pill”
e. RAYON- also known as viscose and often referred to as artificial silk, this fiber was developed in 1889. It
is made from wood pulp or cotton linters mixed with chemicals. Rayon can be knitted or woven and
made into a wide range of fabrics. It is often blended with other fibers.

CHARACTERISTICS OF RAYON:

 absorbent
 is not static
 dyes well
 frays badly
f. SPANDEX- introduced in 1958, this is a lightweight, soft fiber than can be stretched 500% without
breaking. A small amount of spandex is often mixed with other fibers to produce wovens with a slight
stretch.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPANDEX:

 resistant to body oils, detergents, sun, sea, and sand


 can be difficult to sew
 can be damaged by heat
 not suitable for hand
g. SYNTHETIC FURS- Created using a looped yarn that is then cut on a knitted or a woven base, synthetic
fur can be made from nylon or acrylic fibers. The furs vary tremendously in quality and some are very
difficult to tell from the real thing.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNTHETIC FURS:

 require careful sewing


 can be heat-damaged by pressing
 not as warm as real fur

INTRODUCTION

Following the correct pattern layout will help ensure that your garment is cut out on grain.
Pinning and cutting your garment carefully will avoid wasting fabric. This lesson will provide the
information you need to lay out, pin, and cut out your pattern pieces.
Fabric of any type must be pre-treated before cutting to avoid later alterations or damage in the
finished garment. The untreated fabric may be of correct size on the first wear, but due to repeated washing
it may shrink and be uncomfortable to the wearer. Grain perfection is another factor which may deform the
silhouette of the garment. These factors must be given due consideration before cutting

Steps in Preparing the Fabric for Cutting:

1. SOAKING - soak the fabric overnight in cold water to prevent shrinkage.


Purpose: To have a good fit after laundering.

Date Developed : Issued By:


September 2019 MPC
Ladies Wear Page 1 of 1
Developed By: Revision No.
Fabric and fabric Maria Paula A.
preperation Pervera
2. DRYING- do not squeeze the fabric after soaking. Let it dry without folding on
the clothesline

3. IRONING - when dry, iron the fabric on the wrong side.

4. STRAIGHTENING THE FABRIC - Straighten the fabric by pulling a crosswise


thread through the fabric. Cut the fabric following the thread line. If the clothes
are uneven, pull the fabric diagonally to straighten.

BEFORE STRAIGHENING THE GRAINLINE

AFTER STRAIGTHENING THE GRAINLINE

Date Developed : Issued By:


September 2019 MPC
Ladies Wear Page 1 of 1
Developed By: Revision No.
Fabric and fabric Maria Paula A.
preperation Pervera
PRINCIPLES OF LAYING OUT PATTERN PIECES FOR
LADIES WEAR

In laying out pattern pieces onto the fabric study the direction of the fibers that are woven
into the fabric. It is the grain line of the fabric. This is where the pattern pieces laid out. To locate
the grain line, one should be familiar with the following parts of a woven fabric.

1. Selvage- this is the finished side


edges of the fabric. It is tightly
woven to avoid unraveling.
Sometimes it is where the brand
name is printed. It produced by
passing the weft back and forth
all the way down the length of
the bolt when weaving.

2. Lengthwise grain- this is known


as the warp which runs parallel to
the selvage and the strongest
grain line with least amount of
stretch.

3. Crosswise grain- this is also


known as weft yarns, also called
the fill, perpendicular to the warp
yarns.

4.Bias- this is the line that runs


diagonally across the fabric. The
true bias is always at a 45 degree
angle to the crosswise and
lengthwise grain and is the fabrics
stretches point.

5.Raw edge- This is the cut portion


of the fabric. It is the part that
ravels so care must be given to
this part.

6.Right side- This is the side of a


fabric which has the prominent
print.

7. Wrong side-This is the side of the


fabric which has the faded print or
no print at all.

Date Developed : Issued By:


September 2019 MPC
Ladies Wear Page 1 of 1
Developed By: Revision No.
Fabric and fabric Maria Paula A.
preperation Pervera
JOB SHEET 1.1

Fabric Folding

Procedure : Lay the fabric on the table with different kinds of folds:
Four Ways of Fabric Folding
1. Lengthwise Center fold- The fabric is folded lengthwise at the center with
the selvage together.

2. Crosswise Centerfold-The fabric is folded crosswise at the center with the


raw edges together.

3. Off-center lengthwise fold – The fabric is folded lengthwise with the raw
edges meeting at the center.

Date Developed : Issued By:


September 2019 MPC
Ladies Wear Page 1 of 1
Developed By: Revision No.
Fabric and fabric Maria Paula A.
preperation Pervera
4. Off- center crosswise fold- The fabric is folded crosswise with the raw edged
meeting at the center.

Date Developed : Issued By:


September 2019 MPC
Ladies Wear Page 1 of 1
Developed By: Revision No.
Fabric and fabric Maria Paula A.
preperation Pervera
Date Developed : Issued By:
September 2019 MPC
Ladies Wear Page 1 of 1
Developed By: Revision No.
Fabric and fabric Maria Paula A.
preperation Pervera