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Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Centre for Energy Studies

2019 2020 (I Semester)

ESL 727: Energy and Environment

Tutorial Sheet - 4

1. In a given food chain the first level carnivores on the average ingest 30% of the production of herbivores and the second level carnivores ingest 65% of the first level carnivores. The first level and second level carnivores assimilate 75% and 90% of the ingested food. Estimate the assimilated energy with respected to the production of the herbivores by the

a. First level carnivores

b. Second level carnivores

2. Plants absorb 340000 kcal/m 2 /yr sunlight incident on a community in the region. The absorbed light results in a net plant production of 8833 kcal/m 2 /yr and evapotranspiration of 11977 kcal/m 2 /yr. The herbivores consume 3368 kcal/m 2 /yr of plant mass and additional intake of 536 kcal/m 2 /yr from other sources respiring 1760

kcal/m 2 /yr of it. 1478 kcal/m 2 /yr die of natural causes with the remaining eaten up by the carnivores, provide a net production of 37 kcal/m 2 /yr for this higher tropic level with respiration of the former level amounting to 216 kcal/m 2 /yr. Estimate the trophic efficiencies for the producers, primary and secondary consumers of this food


3. In a study of the energetics of a salt marsh carried out, it was found to have one dominant plant, the grass ‘Spartina alterniflora’ apart from some algae. The trophic

organization of the marsh was a little unusual in that most of the animals there couldn’t feed on the Spartina directly, hence had to be broken down by the bacteria. The energy flow diagram of this eco-system is given below. Calculate the trophic efficiency of the

a. Crabs and nematodes

b. Insects

in the diagram. All units in the figure are in kcal/m 2 /yr.

efficiency of the a. Crabs and nematodes b. Insects in the diagram. All units in the