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I.

Leadership
What is Leadership?
- Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the
organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by
applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills.

- A simple definition of leadership is that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act
towards achieving a common goal. Put even more simply, the leader is the inspiration and director of
the action. He or she is the person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and skills
that makes others want to follow his or her direction

Is a Leader Born or Made?


- Leader Emergence
Leader emergence is the idea that people who become leaders possess traits or characteristics
different from people who do not become leaders. Does that mean that there is a “leadership gene”
that influences leader emergence? Probably yes or no, instead we inherit certain traits and abilities
that might influence our decision to seek leadership. We can see Leadership emergence in the process
during which a leader is recognized by their peers as the leader of a firmly leaderless group.

LEADERSHIP EMERGENCE: In leaderless groups, leadership emergence typically occurs among


the more confident members. As it is a kind of leadership based on innate qualities

- Leader Performance
Leader performance involves the idea that leaders who perform well possess certain
characteristics such as thinking and skills, that poorly performing leader do not. They are the kind of
leader that is seen by their behaviour and depending on the situations being presented.
Leadership Styles
- IMPACT Theory
This theory believes that each leader has one of six behavioral styles: informational, magnetic,
position, affiliation, coercive, or tactical. Each style is effective in only a particular situation, or in what
the researchers call an organizational climate.

 Informational Style in a Climate of Ignorance: The leader who has an informational style
provides information in a climate of ignorance, where important information is missing from
the group.
 Magnetic Style in a Climate of Despair: A leader with a magnetic style leads through energy
and optimism and is effective only in a climate of despair, which is characterized by low
morale.
 Position Style in a Climate of Instability:A person who uses the position style leads by virtue of
the power inherent in that position. Such a person might lead through statements like “As your
captain, I am ordering you to do it” or “Because I am your mother—that’s why.” Individuals
who use a position style will be effective only in climates of instability.
 Affiliation Style in a Climate of Anxiety: A person with an affiliation style leads by liking and
caring about others. This style is similar to that of the person-oriented leader discussed
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previously. A leader using affiliation will be most effective in a climate of anxiety or when worry
predominates.
 Coercive Style in a Climate of Crisis: A person using the coercive style leads by controlling
reward and punishment and is most effective in a climate of crisis. Such a leader will often use
statements such as “Do it or you’re fired” or “If you can get the package there on time, I will
have a little something for you.”
 Tactical Style in a Climate of Disorganization: A leader with a tactical style leads through the
use of strategy and is most effective in a climate of disorganization.

Subordinate Ability
- An important influence on leader effectiveness is the abilities and attitudes of the leader’s followers
and how these abilities and attitudes interact with the style and characteristics of the leader believed a
leader’s behavior will be accepted by subordinates only to the extent to which the behavior helps the
subordinates achieve their goals.

 Path-Goal Theory based on specifying a leader's style or behavior that best fits the employee
and work environment in order to achieve a goal. The goal is to increase your employees'
motivation, empowerment, and satisfaction so they become productive members of the
organization.

Relationship with Subordinate


The theory concentrates on the interactions between leaders and subordinates. LMX theory states that
leaders develop different roles and relationships with the people under them and thus act differently with
different subordinates.
 In-group: are those who have developed trusting, friendly relationships with the leader. As a
result, the leader deals with in-group members by allowing them to participate in decisions and
by rarely disciplining them.
 Out-group: Out group subordinates are treated differently from those in the in-group and are
more likely to be given direct orders and to have less say about how affairs are conducted.

Leadership Skills

 Leadership through Decision-making


Leaders often have to make challenging decisions, such as what direction to move their company in. It
is noted that in certain situations are decisions best made by the leader; in other situations, decisions
are best made with the participation of a leader’s subordinates, colleagues, or both. Because of this
situational aspect to decision making.

 Leadership through Contact: Management by Walking Around


Management by walking around (MBWA) is another popular specific behavioral theory. This one holds
that leaders and managers are most effective when they are out of their offices, walking around and
meeting with and talking to employees and customers about their needs and progress.

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 Leadership through Power
Another strategy leaders often use is management by power. Power is important to a leader because
as it increases so does the leader’s potential to influence others. Leaders who have power are able to
obtain more resources, dictate policy, and advance farther in an organization than those who have
little or no power.

 Expert Power: leaders who know something useful—that is, have expert knowledge—will
have power. But there are two requirements for expert power. First, the knowledge must
be something that others in an organization need. Second, others must be aware that the
leader knows something. Information is powerful only if other people know that the leader
has it or if the leader uses it.
 Legitimate Power: Leaders obtain legitimate power on the basis of their positions. For
example, a sergeant has power over a corporal, a vice president has power over a
supervisor, and a coach has power over players on a football team. Leaders with legitimate
power are best able to get employees to comply with their orders.
 Reward Powers: Leaders also have power to the extent that they can reward others.
Reward power involves having control over both financial rewards—salary increases,
bonuses, or promotions—and nonfinancial rewards—praise or more favorable work
assignments.
 Coercive Power: it is important that others believe she is willing to use her ability to punish;
she cannot maintain coercive power if employees believe she is bluffing. Punishment
includes such actions as firing or not promoting and the more subtle action of giving
someone the cold shoulder.
 Referent Power: Another source of power for a leader may lie in the positive feelings that
others hold for him. Leaders who are well liked can influence others even in the absence of
reward and coercive power. Leaders can obtain such referent power by complimenting
others, doing favors, and generally being friendly and supportive.

 Leadership through Vision: Transformational Leadership


Transformational leadership focuses on changing or transforming the goals, values, ethics, standards,
and performance of others (Northouse, ).Transformational leaders are often labeled as being
“visionary,” “charismatic,” and “inspirational.” They lead by developing a vision, changing organizations
to fit this vision, and motivating employees to reach the vision or long-term goal.

1. Intellectual Stimulation: The leader encourages followers to explore new ways of doing things and
new opportunities to learn.
2. Individualized Consideration: Transformational leadership also involves offering support and
encouragement to individual followers.
3. Inspirational Motivation: Transformational leaders have a clear vision that they are able to
articulate to followers. These leaders are also able to help followers experience the same passion
and motivation to fulfill these goals.
4. Idealized Influence: The transformational leader serve as a role model for followers. Because
followers trust and respect the leader, they emulate this individual and internalize his or her ideals.

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 Leadership through Persuasion
One skill that is commonly needed by leaders is the ability to persuade others. Leaders must use this to
present their ideas through reason and logic, in order to influence the audience. One skill that is
commonly needed by leaders is the ability to persuade others. Supervisors often need to persuade
upper-level managers that a new program will work; politicians need to persuade fellow politicians to
vote a particular way; and public relations executives often want to persuade the public to change its
perception of an organization or a product.

o Persuasion by Communication: Considerable research indicates that people who have certain
characteristics can communicate through persuasion more easily than people who lack these
characteristics.
 Expertise: Research has found that in general, a leader who either has or is perceived as
having expertise about a topic will be more persuasive than a leader who does not.
 Trustworthiness: Another leader characteristic that is important in persuasion is
trustworthiness. Trustworthiness can be thought of as the quality of someone being
competent and benevolent so that others can safely be in partnership with that person.
 Attractiveness: Attractiveness has the same effect with persuasion: Attractive people
are more persuasive than unattractive people. This is why television commercials
generally use attractive people and why attractive politicians are considered to be ideal
candidates.
o Persuasion vs Manipulation
1. Persuasion- A successful leader often persuades others to agree with their decision or strategy. This is
necessary for them to effectively lead others. Persuasive leaders will understand that everyone is
valuable and will respect others. They see beyond position and title.
2. Manipulation- Manipulative leaders use position, power, and coercion to derive their outcomes. They
confuse people for widgets or cogs in a machine. They falsely believe that these manipulative
characteristics and behaviors will yield them success.

II. Proclaiming Your Dream: Developing Vision and Mission


What is Vision?

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