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CLASS X FORMULAE MATHS

Compound interest
Amount = Principal + Interest
Or, A = P + I,

• Let P be the principal and the rate of interest be R% per annum. If the interest is compounded annually, then the
amount A and the compound interest C.I. at the end of n years are given by:
A=P ( ) and C.I. = A – P = P {( ) } respectively
• If the interest is reckoned k-times in a year, then the amount A and the compound interest C.I. at the end of n
years are given by:
A=P ( ) and C.I. = A – P = P {( ) } respectively
CASE I: When the interest is compounded half-yearly:
A=P ( ) and, C.I. = A – P = P {( ) } respectively
CASE II: When the interest is compounded quarterly:
A=P ( ) and, C.I. = A – P = P {( ) } respectively
• If rate of interest is R1 % for first n1 year, R2% for second year, R3% for third year and so on and Rk % for the
last nk year, then the amount at the end of n1 + n2 + ….. nk years is given by:
A=P( ) × ( ) ×.....×( )
• Let P be the principal and the rate of interest be R% per annum. If the interest is compounded annually but
time is the fraction of a year, say 5 years, then amount A is given by:

A=P ( ) ( ) and C.I. = A – P

Formulae for population growth:

• Population after n years = P ( )


• Population growth in first year at the rate of R1, R2 in the second year, R3 in the third year so on…..
Population after n years = P( )× ( )x( ) x …….. ( )

Formulae for depreciation:

• If V0 is the value of an article at a certain time and R% per annum is the rate of depreciation, then the value Vn at
the end of n years is given by:
Vn = V0 ( )

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CLASS X FORMULAE MATHS

• If V0 is the value of an article at certain time and the rate of depreciation is R1 % for first n1 years, R2% for next n2
years and so on and Rk % for the last nk years, then the value at the end of
n1 + n2 + ….. nk years is given by:

V = V0 ( ) × ( ) ×.....×( )

Sales Tax and Value added Tax


• Selling price = Marked price – Discount

• Discount = × Marked Price

• Sales tax = × Selling Price

• Selling price = Marked price + x% of sales tax


Or, S.P. = M.P. (1 + ST% /100)
• Selling price = Marked price – x% Discount
Or, S.P. = M.P. (1 – D%/100)
• Selling price = M.P. (1 – D%/100) ∙ (1 + ST%/100) (when sales tax and discount both are given)
• Tax% = (Tax/M.P.) × 100
While computing VAT
In step 1: Taking manufacturing cost and Calculate VAT on Manufacturing Cost
In step 2: Take Profit 1, and Calculate VAT on Profit 1 only
In step 3: Take Profit 2, and Calculate VAT on Profit 2 only
In step 4: Take Profit 3 and (+) Calculate VAT on Profit 3 only
Add all to get Total VAT
Selling price = Manufacturing cost + Profit 1 + Profit 2 + Profit 3 etc. + Total VAT

Banking

Savings bank account:

• While taking the entries you have to bear in mind that


( )
Take the least of these two.
• While computing the interest always take time as 1/12, irrespective of the total number of months given, i.e. in
PRT / 100, take time as 1/12, instead of total no of months.
• If entry of a particular month is not given, then you have to take the last entry of the previous month (Here at
times there is chance of making mistake, choose the value from the question.)
•If you are asked to find the amount that will be obtained on closing the account, then take last entry (of the
month in which account has been closed) + Interest obtained
(But DO NOT takes the Total principal)

Recurring Deposits:

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( )
Maturity Value = (Amount deposited × No. of months) + [ ] ( )
Here ‘n’ = Total no. of months
If only interest is asked then;

( )
Interest = [ ]( )

Shares & Dividends

• Dividend = [x % of Face Value] × No of shares (where x is dividend %)


• No. of shares =

• ‘Income’ of a person may be taken as the ‘Dividend’ given by the company, therefore

Income = × 100 Or Income % = × 100

HCF & LCM of polynomials

In step 1: Factorize the given polynomials,


(a) Either by splitting the terms,
Or
(b) Using these formulae
(i) (a + b) 2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 (ii) (a – b) 2 = a2 – 2ab + b2 (iii) a2 – b2 = (a + b) (a – b)
(iv) a4 – b4 = (a2)2 – (b2)2 = (a2 + b2 ) (a2 – b2) = (a2 + b2) (a – b) (a + b)
(v) (a + b) 3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab (a +b) (vi) a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 + ab + b2)
3 3 3
(vii) (a – b) = a – b – 3ab (a – b) (viii) a3 – b3 = (a – b) (a2 + ab + b2)

Or use
Trial & Error method
In step 2: Take the product of ‘common terms’ as their HCF.
In step 3: Take the product of all the terms, Omit, the HCF value which gives you the value of LCM.
Product of LCM × HCF = Product of the two polynomials.
Note: If cubical expression is given, it may be factorized by using ‘Trial & Error’ method.

Quadratic Equations

Note: To find the value of ‘x’ you may adopt either ‘splitting the middle term’ or ‘formula method’, unless
specified the method.

x=

• If roots of an equation are given, then:


Quadratic Equation: x² – (sum of the roots)x + (product of the roots) = 0
If Discriminant > 0, then the roots are real, unequal and unique.

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Discriminant = 0, then the roots are real & equal.


Discriminants < 0, then the roots are imaginary (not real).

Reflection

• After plotting the points, assume that there is a “mirror” and the point is to be reflected either:
 In X-axis (x-coordinate remains same but the sign of y-coordinate will get change),
 In Y-axis (y-coordinate remains same but the sign of x-coordinate will get change),
 In origin (0, 0) (the sign of both x-coordinate & y-coordinate will get change)

• Invariant point: Any point is invariant with respect to a given line if and only if it lies on the line.
For e.g. if a point is invariant on x-axis then it must lie on x-axis.
Note: when x = y, is given, then use ruler to measure the vertical distance of the point from the line, and then take
the same distance on the other side to obtain it’s reflection.

Ratio & Proportion

• Duplicate ratio of a: b is a2: b2 (In case of Sub-duplicate ratio you have to take ‘Square root’)
3 3
• Triplicate ratio of a: b is a : b (In case of Sub-triplicate ratio you have to take ‘Cube root’)
• Proportion a: b = c: d, Continued Proportion a: b = b: c, (Middle value is repeated)
1st 2nd 3rd 4th proportional 1st 2nd 2nd 4th proportional
• Product of ‘Means’ (Middle value) = Product of ‘Extremes’ (Either end values)

• If = is given, then Componendo & Dividendo is =

Note: “Where to take “K” method?”


You may adopt it in the following situations.
If a/b = c/d = e/f are given, then you may assume as a/b = c/d = e/f = k
Therefore a = b.k, c = d.k, e = f.k, then substitute the values of ‘a’ ‘b’ and ‘c’ in the given problem.
In case of continued proportion: a/b = b/c = k hence, a = bk, b = ck therefore putting the value of b we can get a =
ck2 & b = ck (putting these values equation can be solved)

Remainder theorem

If (x – 2) is a factor of the given expression, then take x – 2 = 0, therefore x = 2, then substitute this value in p(x) =
5x2 + 3x – 6 as
2
P (2): 5(2) + 3(2) – 6 = 0 (Here taking = 0 is very important. If not taken answer can’t be found
If (x – 2) leaves a remainder of 4
P (2): 5(2)2 + 3(2) – 6 = 4 (Here taking =4 is very important. If not taken answer can’t be found)

Matrices

 Null Matrix = [ ]

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CLASS X FORMULAE MATHS

• Size of Matrix = No. of rows × No. of columns (Rh → Rows horizontal)

• Identity Matrix = [ ]
• Only same order matrix can be added or subtracted

• Multiplication of matrix
While multiplying the matrices, check the number of columns in the second matrix, then take the first matrix
those se many number of times.
Am x n X B n x p = Cm x p

For example { }× { } here, there are two columns in the second matrix

Therefore write the first matrix twice.

{ }

• Matrix multiplication is not commutative. (i.e. AB ≠ BA)


• Matrix multiplication is associative.
A(BC) = (AB)C
• A × I = I × A = A where I is a unit matrix of suitable order.
•A(B + C) = AB + AC(distributive property)

•Transpose of a matrix is the matrix obtained on interchanging its rows and columns. If A is a matrix, then its
transpose is denoted by At.
t
e.g. If A = [ ] , then its transpose A = [ ]
2 2
•Sometimes, you may be asked to find A + AB + 7 is given, you have to assume it as A + AB + 7 I, Here, I is the
identity matrix in which all the principal diagonal values are 1 and the rest are ‘zero’.

Distance & Section Formulae

• Distance =√( ) ( ) . (The same formula is to be used to find the length of line segment, sides
of a triangle, square, rectangle, parallelogram etc.)

• To prove co-linearity of the given three points A,B, and C, You have to find length of AB, BC, AC then use the
condition AB + BC = AC.
Or, use this condition to solve the question easily:
Area of triangle formed by these points: 1/2[x1(y2 – y3) + x2(y3 – y1) + x3(y1 – y2)] = 0

• Section formula: point (x, y) = ( )

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CLASS X FORMULAE MATHS

• Mid-point = ( )

• Centroid of a triangle = ( )

Equation of a line

• If two points are given, then Slope (m) =

• If a point, and slope are given, then equation of line; y –y1 = m (x –x1)

• If two lines are parallel to each other, then their slopes are equal i.e. m1 = m2

• If two lines are perpendicular to each other then product of their slopes is – 1. i.e. m1 × m2 = – 1

• Depending upon the question you may have to use equation of straight line as:
(a) y = mx + c, where ‘c’ is the y-intercept.
(b) (y – y1) = m(x – x1)

Similarity

• If two triangles are similar then, ratios of their sides are equal.
i.e., If ∆ ABC ~ ∆ PQR then = =


• If ∆ ABC ~ ∆ PQR then = = = =

Symmetry

A line which divides the given figure into two identical parts is known as line of ‘Symmetry’
1. An angle has 1 line of symmetry.
2. Square has 4 lines of symmetry.
3. Rectangle has 2 lines of symmetry.
4. Parallelogram has no line of symmetry.
5. Rhombus has 2 lines of symmetry.
6. Isosceles triangle has one line of symmetry.
7. Equilateral triangle has 3 lines of symmetry.
8. Circle has infinite lines of symmetry.
9. Regular polygon with ’n’ sides have ‘n’ lines of symmetry.
For ex: A Regular pentagon (5 sides) has 5 lines of symmetry
( )
Note: Angle of a regular polygon = × 90°

(Here ‘n’ refers number of sides of a polygon.)

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CLASS X FORMULAE MATHS

Loci

• The locus of a line segment is it’s perpendicular bisector.


• The locus of an angle is it’s angle bisector.
For solving most of the locus problems, the above two points are good enough. In addition to these points, you
should have the basic knowledge of geometrical constructions.

Circles & Tangents

• Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre.


• The perpendicular drawn from the centre of a circle bisects the chord of the circle.
• The angle subtended at the centre by an arc = Double the angle at any part of the circumference of the circle.
• Angles subtended by the same arc in the same segment are equal.
• To a circle, if a tangent is drawn and a chord is drawn from the point of contact, then angle made between the
chord and the tangent = Angle made in the alternate segment.
• The sum of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is always 180°.

Circumference & Area of a Circle

• Area of a Circle = π r2
• Perimeter of a Circle = 2πr
• Area of sector = θ/360° (πr2)
• Length of an arc = θ/360° (2πr)
• Area of ring = π (R2 – r2)
• Distance moved by a wheel in one revolution = Circumference of the wheel.
• Number of revolutions =

2
Area of an equilateral triangle = √ ⁄ (side)

Note: While solving ‘Mensuration’ problems, take care of the units of the entire data. If the units are different,
then convert them to the same units.

Solids

1. Cylinder:
2
Volume of a cylinder = πr h
Curved surface area = 2πrh
Total surface area = 2πrh + 2πr2 = 2πr (h + r)
Volume of hollow cylinder = πR2h – πr2h = π(R2 – r2)h
TSA of hollow cylinder = Outer CSA + Inner CSA + 2 Area of ring.
2 2
= 2πRh + 2 πrh + 2[πR – πr ]
2. Cone:
Volume of a Cone = πr2h

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CLASS X FORMULAE MATHS

CSA of a Cone = πrℓ (Here ‘ℓ’ refers to ‘Slant Height’) [where ℓ = √( )]


2
TSA of a Cone = πrℓ + πr = πr (ℓ + r)

3. Sphere:
Surface area of a Sphere = 4 πr2 (In case of Sphere, CSA = TSA i.e. they are same)
3
Volume of hemisphere = πr [Take half the volume of a sphere]
2
CSA of hemisphere = 2πr [Take half the SA of a sphere]
TSA of hemisphere = 2πr2 + πr2 = 3πr2
Volume of a sphere = πr3

Volume of spherical shell = Outer volume – Inner volume = π (R3 – r3)


While solving the problems based on combination of solids it would be better if you take common.
• T.S.A of combined solid = C.S.A of solid 1 + C.S.A of solid 2 + C.S.A of solid 3
• If a solid is melted and, recast into number of other small solids, then
Volume of the larger solid = No of small solids x Volume of the smaller solid
For Ex: A cylinder is melted and cast into smaller spheres. Find the number of spheres
Volume of Cylinder = No of sphere × Volume of sphere
• If an ‘ice cream cone with hemispherical top’ is given then you have to take
(a) Total Volume = Volume of Cone + Volume of Hemisphere
(b) Surface area = CSA of Cone + CSA of hemisphere

Trigonometric Identities

• Wherever ‘Square’ appears think of using the identities


2 2 2 2 2 2
(i) Sin θ + Cos θ = 1 (ii) Sec θ – Tan θ = 1 (iii) Cosec θ – Cot θ = 1
• Try to convert all the values of the given problem in terms of Sin θ and Cos θ
• Cosec θ may be written as 1/Sin θ
• Sec θ may be written as 1/Cos θ
• Cot θ may be written as 1/Tan θ
• Tan θ may be written as Sin θ / Cos θ
• Wherever fractional parts appears then think of taking their ‘LCM’
• Think of using (a + b) 2, (a – b) 2, (a + b) 3, (a – b) 3 formulae etc.
• Rationalise the denominator [If a + b, (or) a – b format is given in the denominator]
• You may separate the denominator
For Ex: as + = 1 + Cot θ

• Sin (90 – θ) = Cos θ : Cos (90 – θ) = Sin θ


• Sec (90 – θ) = Cosec θ : Cosec (90 – θ) = Sec θ
• Tan (90 – θ) = Cot θ : Cot (90 – θ) = Tan θ

Graphical Representation

• Don’t forget to write the scale on x-axis and on y-axis.


• To find the ‘lower quartile’ take N/4 [Here N is ∑ f] then take the corresponding point on X-axis

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• To find the ‘upper quartile’ take 3N/4, then take the corresponding point on X-axis
• To find the ‘median’ take N/2, then take the corresponding point on X-axis

Measures of Central Tendency

For un-grouped data

• Arithmetic Mean =

• Mode = The most frequently occurred value of the raw data.


• To find the Median first of all arrange the data in ‘ascending’ or ‘descending’ order, then
Median = (N + 1)/2 term value of the given data, in case of the data is having odd no of observations.
Median = [{(N/2) + (N + 1)/2)] / 2 term value of the given data, in case of the data is having even number of
observations.

For grouped data



Arithmetic Mean = (Direct method)


Arithmetic Mean = a + (short cut method)


Arithmetic Mean = a + × C (where C is class interval) (step-deviation method)

Probability

Probability of an event: P (event) =

• In a deck of playing cards, there are four types of cards:

♠ (Spades in Black colour) having A, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, J, K, and Q total 13 cards


♣ (Clubs in Black colour) having A, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, J, K, and Q total 13 cards
♥ (Hearts in Red colour) having A, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, J, K, and Q total 13 cards
♦ (Diamond in Red colour) having A, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8, 9, 10, J, K, and Q total 13 cards
52 cards

Jack, King and Queen are known as ‘Face Cards’, as these cards are having some pictures on it.
Always remember Ace is not a face card as it doesn’t carry any face on it.

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CLASS X FORMULAE MATHS

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