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LEA-1
POLICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION WITH POLICE PLANNING
By: RICO T. MUSONG, R.C.

Subject Code: Law Enforcement Administration (LEA) 1

Subject Course Title: Police Organization and Administration with Police Planning

Course Description: The course deals with the study of principles underlying police organization and
management with particular focus on the Constitutional mandate, Republic Acts 6975 and 8551, and
previous laws and issuances relating thereto. It includes the organizational structure and organization
of the Philippine National Police, on the national and local levels. Emphasis is given on direction,
supervision, coordination and control of all local police forces as a homogeneous body under a single
command. It also includes the basic management functions in so far as these are applied to the police
organization. Police planning is integrated into this course, and it is designed to equip the students with
knowledge on the development of effective plans, particularly on strategies and tactics for effective
operations. The emphasis is on the special techniques and procedure applicable to unusual needs like
unusual criminal activities, civil disturbances, special community events, disaster plans, and civil
defense.

Introduction:

The organization with management and administration is directed towards the


achievement of goals and objectives. Goals are broad statements of general and long term
organizational purposes often used to define the role of the police, for instance, to prevent
crime, maintain order or help solve community problems. Objectives are specific short term
statements consistent with an organizations goal.

The organization guides members in its operation of the assigned duties. It enhances
better administration of the department. Good organization and administration would
eventually mean effective and efficient police work.

Organization can also distinguished by their degree of formality and structure:

1. Formal Organization- is defined as those organizations that are formally established


for explicit purpose of achieving certain goals. (Stable social institutions.)
2. Informal Organization- are those sharing the basic characteristic of all organizations
arise through the social interactions of individuals or through family grouping.

What is Organization?

It is a form of human association for the attainment of goal or objective. It is the


process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating

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responsibility and authority establishing relationships for the propose of enabling people work
effectively.

What is Police Organization?

Police organization is a group of trained personnel in the field of public safety


administration engaged in the achievement of goals and objectives that promotes the
maintenance of crimes.

Administration of Police Organization- It is the systematic structure of management of a


police organization.

What is Police?

Police is a branch of the criminal justice system that has the specific responsibility of
maintaining law and order and combating crime within the society.

The term police are derived from the word POLITIA, meaning condition of a state,
government and administration, POLITIA organization is from the Greek word POLITEIA
which means government, citizenship, or the entire activity of a POLIS, a city.

POLICE (broadest sense) means the internal organization or regulation of a state,


the control and regulation of a community or state through the exercise of the constitutions
power of the government.

POLICE (less broadest sense) it denotes the power of the government which
concerns the tranquility, public order, peace, security of persons and property and the
protection of the public health and moral.

In the very restricted sense, the word police refers exclusively to that body of armed
men which as an institution is capable of exercising its duties by armed physical forces in the
preservation and detection of crime and the execution of laws.

Police Activities:

1. The prevention of Criminality.


2. Repression of Crime.
3. Apprehending of offenders.
4. Recovery of Property.
5. Regulation of Non-Criminal Conduct.
6. Performance of Related Miscellaneous Service.

The organization of the police force commonly requires the following


organizational units:

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Functional Units:

1. Bureau- the largest organic functional unit within a large department. It comprises of
numbers of divisions:
2. Division- a primary subdivision of a bureau.
3. Section- functional unit within a division that is necessary for specialization.
4. Unit- functional group within a section; or the smallest functional group within an
organization.

Territorial Units:

1. Post- a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty, such as a
designated desk or office or an intersection or cross walk from traffic duty. It is a spot
location for general guard duty.
2. Route- a length of streets designated for patrol purposes. It is also called LINE BEAT.
3. Beat- an area assigned for patrol purposes, whether foot or motorized.
4. Sector- an area containing two or more beats, routes, or post.
5. District- a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes, usually with its own
station.
6. Area- a section or territorial division of a large city each comprised of designated
districts.

Other Items and Terminologies

1. Sworn Officers- all personnel of the police department who have oath and who
posses the power to arrest.
2. Superior Officer- one having supervisory responsibilities, either temporarily or
permanently, over officers of lower rank.
3. Commanding Officer- an officer who is in command of the department, a bureau, a
division, an area, or a district.
4. Ranking Officer- the officer who has the senior rank in a team or group.
5. Length of Service- the period of time that has elapsed since the oath of office was
administered. Previous active services may be included or added.
6. On Duty- the period when an officer is actively engaged in the performance of his
duty.
7. Off Duty- the nature of which the police officer is free from specific routine duty.
8. Special Duty- the police service, its nature, which requires that the officer be excused
from the performance of his active regular duty.
9. Leave of Absence- period, which an officer is excused from active duty by any
valid\acceptable reason, approved by higher authority.
10. Sick leave- period which an officer is excused from active duty by reason of illness or
injury.
11. Suspension- a consequence of an act which temporarily deprives an officer from the
privilege of performing his duties as result of violating directives or other department
regulations.

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12. Department Rules- rules established by department directors\superiors to control the
conduct of the members of the police force.
13. Duty Manual- describes the procedures and defines the duties of officers assigned to
specified post or position.
14. Order- an instruction given by a ranking officer to a subordinate, either: a. General
Order, b. Special, or c. Personal
15. Report- usually a written communication unless otherwise specifies to be verbal
reports; verbal reports should be confirmed by written communication.

Nature of Police Organization

The police department is truly a complex bureaucracy. It is mostly a multi-level


organization, organized in the form of a pyramid with the top-level administrator being the
chief of police. At the bottom level of the organization, one finds the patrolman or line officer.

The patrol officer is the backbone of the police department. The lowest level worker
found in many, if not most, complex organizations who usually performs the routine, repetitive
kind of work necessary to keep the organization functioning.

The police department by its very nature places the line officer in a position where he
is a decision maker and manager of his area of responsibility from the first time he is given a
beat to patrol. There are indeed few agencies in which the efficiency and parameter of the
law enforcement functions are vested in those individuals quite likely have the least amount
of experience and expertise in the organization.

Types of Police Organizational Structures

An organizational structure is a mechanical means of depicting, by an arrangement of


symbols, the relationships that exist between individuals, groups, and functional relationships
between groups and individuals clearly defined to ensure accountability and compliance.

Line Organization

The straight line organization, often called the individual, military or departmental types
of organization, is the simplest and perhaps the oldest types; but it is seldom encountered in
its channels of authority and responsibility extends in a direct line from top to bottom within
the structures, authority is definite and absolute.

While the line type of organization has many advantages, it also has some inherent
weaknesses which, for many organizations, make its use impractical. Perhaps its greatest
advantage it that, it is utterly simple. It involves a division of the work into units of eight
person with a person in charge who has complete control and who can be hold directly
responsible or accountable for result, or lack of them.

Quick decisions can be made in the line organization because of the direct lines
authority. Because of these direct lines, each member in the chain of command knows to

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whom he is clearly fixed. Discipline is administered in this type of the organization.
Responsibility for making decisions is well identified. Singleness of purpose is fostered.
Coordination of effort is relatively easy to achieve because functional overlapping in between
units, a prime cause of friction in any organization can be minimized.

Functional Organization

The functional organization in its pure form is rarely found in present day organizations,
except at or near the top of the very large organizations. Unlike the type of structure, those
establishment organized on a functional basis violate the prime rule that men perform best
when they have but one superior. The functional responsibility of each functional manager is
limited to the particular activity over which he has control, regardless of who performs the
function.

Coordination of effort in this type of organization becomes difficult since the employees
responsible for results may be subject to functional direction of several persons. Discipline is
difficult to administer because of this multi-headed leadership. There may be considerable
conflict among the functional administrators, resulting in much conclusion among line
personnel. Line of authority and responsibility are fragmented into many functional channels,
making each superior responsible to several superiors depending upon the function he
happens to be performing.

The functional organization in its purest form is rarely found in present-day organization
except at or near the top level.

Advantages

1. divides responsibility and authority between several specialist;


2. functional responsibility is limited to the particular activity over which he has control
regardless of who performs the functions.

Disadvantages

1. coordination of effort becomes difficult;


2. Discipline is difficult to administer;
3. Conflict among the functional administrators.

Line and Staff Organization

The line and staff organization is a combination of the line and functional types. It
combines staff specialist such as the criminalists, the training officers, the research and
development specialists, etc. channels of responsibility is to think and provide expertise for
the line units. The line supervisor must remember that he obtains advice from the staff
specialist.

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In normal operations, the staff supervisor has line commands but with recognized
limitations such as coordination between line and staff personnel can be achieved without
undue friction. Failure to recognize these line and staff relationship is the greatest and most
frequent source of friction and a barrier to effective coordination. The advantage of this kind
would be- it combines staff specialist or units with line organization so that service of
knowledge can be provided line personnel by specialist.

POLICE SERVICE

Fundamental Theories of Police Service

1. The Continental Theory- police are servant of higher authorities and the people have
little or no share at all in their duties, nor any direct connection with them.
2. The Home Rule Theory- policemen are considered as servants of the community who
defend for the effectiveness of their function upon the express wishes of the people.

Concepts of Police Service

1. Old Concepts- this old philosophy means throwing more people in jail rather than
keeping these out jail. Punishment is the sole instrument of crime control. The
yardstick of efficiency of the police is more on arrests.
2. Modern Concept- police service today has broadened its activities to include certain
aspect of social service for the welfare of the people. Their yardstick of efficiency is the
absence of crime.

All police function and activities can be categorized as their line or non-line. Line
functions are those tasks that directly facilitate the accomplishment of organizational goals,
whereas non-line functions are those tasks that supplement the line its task performance.
Line activities are further broken into the sub-categories: primary line and secondary line
functions, both of which are field service.

1. Line Function

1.1. Primary Line Function

The primary line function is police patrol; that is the patrol activities of a police
organization are considered basic and the first priority. The patrol division has the initial
responsibility for crime prevention and dictation of the apprehension of offenders. It also
assists in the preparation in the facts for presentation in a court of law. Theoretically, if the
patrol force were 100 percent effective in the execution of its assigned tasks, the need for
specialized units (traffic and detective) would be eliminated. The patrol function is accurately
called the backbone of the police service.

1.2. Secondary Function

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Historically, police department were established only as police patrols, however as
municipalities increased in population, area, and technology (for example, the invention of the
automobile), the burden of this patrols was greatly increased. The department, were unable
to provide additional personnel because of budgetary limitations, were unable to increase the
number of the officers on the patrol beat in proportion to the rising population and rate of
crime and was force to enlarge each officers beat.

2. Non-Line Function

Simply put, non-line functions are those services that support the line. Whereas the
line provides services directly to the citizens, non-line activities help the line to accomplish its
primary task. Traditionally non-line or support activities consist of two major categories: staff
and auxiliary services.

2.1. Staff Services

These activities that have the responsibility and personal development and
department management are staff services. Personal development includes recruitment,
selection, training, and supervision. Budget, planning and research, inspection, and similar
activities fall under the heading of managerial activities.

2.2. Auxiliary Services

All non-line not regarded as staff service are classified as auxiliary services.
Typically, they provide support service of both a technical and non-technical nature to both
line and non-line activities. Polygraph examiner, photographer, fingerprint and crime scene
technicians, and the police laboratory are technical auxiliary services that support the line
activities. The jail and the communication system and non-line (staff) activities. Some
activities are extremely difficult to classify as either the staff or auxiliary. In many instances
they perform a dual service. Police community relation units, although performing secondary
line service, may be designated as an auxiliary or even a staff function. Illustration 1 presents
the various functions.

Illustration 1

LINE FUNCTION NON-LINE FUNCTION

Primary Secondary Staff Auxiliary

-Criminal -Planning and -Police record system


Investigation Research
-Patrol -Identification service
-Vice Investigation -Inspection

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-Traffic Regulation -Personnel -Property control


and control Administration
-Communication
-Crime Prevention -Training
-Crime Laboratory
-Budgeting Control
-Jail
-Purchasing
-Supply
-Public Relation
-Transportation

-Maintenance

PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION

To understand the organization and operation of public departments certain general


basic principles of organization must be understood. These principles of organization were
generated by the experience of industry, business, and the military services. They have no
absolute values, but they do provide a check list against which an organization can be
structurally and functionally evaluated. This notion will become more defined as each
principle is considered.

Division of Labor

For a police organization to be effective, work assignments must be designed so that


similar tasks, functions, and activities are given to an individual or group for accomplishment.

Police functions are sub-divided into units that are described as follows:

1. Branch- usually the largest unit within station


2. Division- part of the branch having a department-wide function
3. Section- basically one of the several functional elements of a division

Unity of Command

Unity of command requires that an individual be directly accountable to only one


superior. No person can effectively serve two superiors at a given time.

Chain of Command

Primarily this principle provides for the vertical movement of authority up and down
established channels in the organizational hierarchy. To illustrate this concept, consider a
directives originating in the office of the patrol chief intended for the patrol force (downward
movement). Two levels of authority fall between the patrol chief and the patrol officer-

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inspector. Because both levels are held responsible for various aspects of patrol supervision,
both must be aware of such directives. If either supervisor is by-passed, that one can not be
held accountable for the lack of knowledge. Further, performance of supervisory duties is
greatly hindered, and potentially serious problem is created.

Delegation of Responsibility and Authority

There must be a clear line of normal authority running from the top to bottom of every
organization. Ultimate authority and responsibility for a police organization lies at the top of
the chain of command-with the chief. However, if a subordinate is to be held responsible for
the accomplishment of a given task, he or she must be given the authority to carry out those
responsibilities. It is important, also the responsibility and the authority be clearly defined. If
the patrol officers is given the responsibility for evaluating police response time on a given
day or in a specific situation, the officer must be given the authority to procure the
communication logs from the communication center. Without this authority, the entire task
can not be accomplished.

Delineation of Responsibility and Authority

A clear-out delineation of responsibility and authority is essential to prevent confusion of


lines of authority. If responsibility and authority are not clearly defined, conflicts, duplication
and overlaps of function lead to confusion and inefficiency. Each officer and each
organization segment of authority delegated to accomplish the job.

Span of Control

The number of officers or units reporting directly to the supervisor should not exceed the
number that can be feasibly and effectively coordinate and directed. There are an
innumerable factor that limits the span control including distance, time, knowledge,
personality, and the complexity of the work to be performed. It is not unusual to fine fifty or
sixty workers to perform identification function reporting to one supervisor. On the other hand,
as we ascend the chain of command and the diversity of functions increases, the number of
individuals that a police executive supervises decreases rapidly.

Objective

All organizational elements must contribute, directly or indirectly, to the accomplishment


of the objectives of the enterprise. Each organizational element should be formed for a
definite purpose, and this purposes must be accomplish the major objective. Any police
function and organizational elements that is not required in the accomplishment of the overall
objectives should be eliminated.

Coordination

The organizational structure must facilitate the development of close, friendly, and co-
operative relations, especially between line and staff activities. Effective coordination is

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dependent almost entirely upon adequate communication among all element of a police
organization.

Time

The police service is among the few public services that maintain a twenty-four hour
schedule. It is necessary to the department to assigned officers in sufficient number to meet
the demands at any given time.

Watch or Shift

A time division of the day to ensure proper allocation of personnel. Shifts are normally
eight consecutive hours, five days, giving an officer a forty-hour a week. However, longer
working hours and work weeks are common. Further, shifts frequently overlaps to provide
additional personnel during peak period.

Territory

Territorial distribution is necessary to ensure the availability and general suitability of the
patrol service throughout a jurisdiction. Geographical or territorial divisions of the department
can beer described as follows:

1. Post- a fixed or stationary point location (e.g., a specified street intersection,


surveillance site, or an assigned desk or office).
2. Rout or Lined Beat- a length of street normally assigned to the traffic and patrol
officers whether foot or mobile. The rout has the characteristics of being continuous, in
a straight line, or the line sight.
3. Beat- a geographical area, once again assigned to either foot or mobile patrol and
traffic officer.
4. Section- two or more beats, routes, posts, or any combination thereof.

Clientele

The distribution of patrol services with respect to the characteristics of the population
served must be recognized and dealt with in contemporary law enforcement. The
development of specialized functional units expresses the principle of the organization by
clientele.

Nature of the Office of a Policeman

A police man must have a mind of a lawyer the soul of a clergyman, the heart of the
social worker, discipline of an army sergeant, the integrity of a saint. He must believe in a
community of law, while seeing little but lawlessness; believe in the goodness of man, while
seeing the man most often at his worst, depend on his faithfulness, know his jurisdictions like
a sociologist, and he must understand people like a psychologist. He must take long view of
life like a philosopher and yet never losing his common touch.

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POLICE OPERATIONS

Police Operation

Another word in the large collection of police service terminology is operations. For the
most part, operation is synonymous with line function. In accordance with previous
definitions, operations are inclusive of both primary and secondary line functions.
Subdivision of the Operation Area.

1. District- is a subdivision of a province and shall consist of a metropolitan city or a


metropolitan city and adjacent municipalities\ small cities, or several adjacent
municipalities and small cities.
2. Station- is a subdivision of a district and shall consist of a large municipality or a small
city or municipalities\small city and some adjacent smaller municipalities or several
adjacent municipalities.
3. Sub-station- is a subdivision of a station and shall consist of a large municipality or s
small city or a municipality itself.

Operating Unit of a Police Station

1. Patrol Division\Section- shall be responsible for crime prevention; general


preservation of peace and order; crime suppression, and other public safety services.

2. Investigation Division\section- shall be charged with the duty of carrying on the


objectives of criminal investigation, that is, to identify and locate the guilty party and
provide evidence of his guilt through criminal proceedings.

3. Vice Control Division\Section- shall be responsible for the neutralization or


suppression of vices such as gambling, prostitution and drug abuse.

4. Juvenile Division\Section- shall be primarily concerned with children and youth, the
correction and rehabilitation of youth offenders.

5. Intelligence Division\Section- shall work for the detection of syndicated crimes and
subtle criminal activities, including subversion and threats to the security of the state.

6. Traffic Division\section- shall be responsible fro the enforcement of traffic laws and
regulation of traffic. This section is primarily concerned with the motorist and
pedestrians.

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7. Homicide Division\Section- shall be charged with the duty to investigate homicide
and murder cases.

8. Municipal Police Sub-station- shall be concerned with the general maintenance of


peace, order and public safety within their respective jurisdictions.

The Municipal Police Sub-station shall consist of two principal sections with
corresponding functions as indicated below:

a. Patrol Section

1. Preservation of peace and order


2. Suppression of criminal activities
3. crime prevention
4. Inspection activities
5. Enforcement of traffic laws and regulations
6. Fire prevention and control

b. Investigation section

1. Crime investigation
2. Vice control
3. Control of juvenile delinquency
4. custody of prisoners

Peace Officer of Small Police Station

Peace officers of small Police stations are considered as generalist. Most small police
station within the limits of their capabilities, are responsible for all activities in the fields of law
enforcement and public safety. They provide routine patrol, conduct premise inspection,
make criminal and traffic investigations, make arrest, and in other ways, provide for the
community security. In such stations, its members and officers are by and large generalist.

Historical Background on Policing


 Primitive Policing
Law enforcement can be traced back to the cave dwellers, who were expected to follow
certain rules or face banishment or death. The customs depicted in early cave dwelling may
represent the beginning of law and law enforcement.
The prehistoric social order consisted of small family groups living together as tribes or
clans. Group living gave rise to customs everyone was expected to observe. The tribe’s chief
had executive, legislative and judicial powers and often appointed tribe members to perform
special task to include guarding the community against depredation of lawless elements.
 Ancient Law Enforcement
• The Sumerians

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The earliest record of ancient peoples need to standardize rules and methods of
enforcement to control human behavior dates to approximately 2300 B.C., when the
Sumerian rulers Lipithstar and Eshumma set standards on what constituted an offense
against society.

• The Babylonians

The Code of King Hammurabi (2100 B.C.) –during the time of Babylonian King
Hammurabi, he established rules for his kingdom that designated not only offenses but
punishment as well. The principle of the code was that the strong shall not injure the week.
Hammurabi originated the legal principle of LEX Talionis- the eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth
doctrine.

• Ancient Egypt

The early Egyptians established laws and court and a rudimentary rule of law. The first
account of a developing court system originated in Egypt in approximately 1500 B.C. the
court system was presided by judges who were appointed by the pharaoh. They later
organized marine patrols and customhouses to protect commerce.

• Ancient Greece

The Greeks had an impressive of law enforcement called the Ephori. Each year at
Sparta, a body of Ephors was elected and given almost unlimited powers as investigator,
judge, jury and executioner. These five men also presided over the senate and assembly,
assuring that their rules and decrees were followed.

From the Greek philosopher PLATO, who lived from 427 to 347 B.C., was the idea
that punishment should serve the purpose rather than simple retaliation.

• Ancient Rome

The Romans had a high development system of administering justice. The 12


Tabulae (12 tables) were the first written laws of the Roman Empire. It deals with legal
procedures, property ownership, building codes, marriage customs and punishment for
crimes. At the reign of Emperor Augustus, he created the Praetorian Guard, which
consisted of about 7000 men\soldiers to protect the palace and the City of Rome, together
with the Urban Cohorts to patrol the city. He created the so called Vigiles who were
assigned as firefighters and eventually given law enforcement responsibilities. As the first
civilian police force the Vigiles sometimes kept the peace very ruthlessly, hence the word
vigilantes.

Another important event was the time of Justinian I, ruler of the Eastern Roman
Empire ( 527 to 265 A.D.) who collected all Roman laws and put it into his Justinian Code-
they became known the Corpus Juris Civilis which means Body of Law.

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The Early Policing System
The policing system is divided into different systems namely:
 The Anglo-Saxon Period

The Anglo-Saxons were influential in developing the early police forces. The following
are the features of this period:

1. Tun Policing System- Tun is the forerunner of the word town. Under this system all male
residents are required to guard the town and to preserve the peace and control, to protect life
and property from harm or disturbance.

2. Hue and Cry- a system of apprehending a criminal whereby a complaint goes to the
middle of the street and shouts to call all males to assemble. The victim reports his complaint
to the assembly and gives the whereabouts of the perpetrator. All male residents would then
proceed to locate and apprehend the culprit. When apprehended, trial is conducted giving the
culprit a chance to depend himself.

3. The Royal Jude- a person who conducts criminal investigation and gives punishment.
Punishment usually fits the crime committed.

4. Trial by Ordeal- a system of determining guilt and innocence in the ancient times
which was based on painful test of skills. It is usually accompanied by harsh
punishment. For instance, suspects were required to place their hands in boiling oil or
water. When not hurt, it indicated guilt and the suspect placed under punishment.

 The Normal Period of Policing (1066-1285)

1. Shire-Rieve System- England at the time of William Norman, divided England into 55
military districts known as the Shire-Rieve. Shire was the district, Rieve was the ruler who
makes laws, pass judgement and impose punishment. He was assisted by a constable
(forerunner of the word constabulary).
2. The Traveling Judge- one responsible in passing judgment which was taken from the
Shire-Rieve in view of some abuses by the Rieves.

3. Leges Henri- the law of King Henrie I. During this period:

a. offenses were classified as against the king and individual


b. police men were considered public officials
c. police and the citizens have the broad power to arrest
d. a grand jury was created to inquire on the facts of the law.

4. The Magna-Carta- laws were enacted upon the demand of the knights of the Round Table
and forced the king to sign the same. Examples of the principles of law include the following:

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a. no free men shall be taken or imprisoned, disposed or outlawed except by legal


judgment of his peers
b. no person should be tried fro murder unless there is proof the body of the victim
c. Beginning of the national and local government as well as legislation.

 The Westminster Period of Policing (1285-1500)

1. The Statute of 1295- this law prescribed the closing of the gates of London at
sundown. Start of curfew systems.
2. Justice of the Peace- this was position which gives a person the power to arrest,
pursue and impose imprisonment.
3. The star chamber court- a special court which try offenses against the state.

 Modern policing System

This period came to the limelight when a bill creating the Scotland Yard was passed
by the parliament of England. It was sponsored and expanded by Sir Robert Pell who was
made to be the first head of the police organization. He was referred as the Father of
Modern Policing system due to his contributions in the modernization of the police force.

The following are the principles were considered in organizing and administering the
Scotland Yard known as the Peels Principles:
1. Stable and effective police force should be under government control.
2. Absence of crime is the best proof of efficiency.
3. Fast distribution of new to the people is essential.
4. Proper distribution of personnel according to shift and by hour.
5. The best qualification of peace officers is control of temper.
6. Proper selection and training is the basis of efficiency.
7. Police can not function properly without wholehearted support of the people.
8. Every police must sell himself to the people.
9. Police officers must go out to their way to help or assist the people.

Philippine National Police

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The Philippine National Police or PNP is the national police force of the Republic of the Philippines with
a manpower strength of 113,928 as of end-July 2007. It provides law enforcement services through its regional,
provincial, municipal, district and local police units all over the islands.

Created by virtue of Republic Act 6975, otherwise known as the “Department of the Interior and Local
Government Act of 1990", the PNP came into being on January 29, 1991, at Camp Crame, Quezon City, when
the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National Police were retired as mandated by law.

History
Early Policing
Organized policing started in 1500s when nightmen or bantayans patrolled the streets of Manila. The
nightmen were under the direction of the alguacil mayor who provided them with muskets as weapons and
alarm bells as their means of communication.

In 1836, the Spanish colonial authorities formed the Cuadrillo, a rural police force, to enforce peace in the
countryside. Six years later, its general function was assumed by the Cuerpo de Carabineros de Seguridad
Publica.

The Carabineros de Seguridad Publica was organized in 1712 for the purpose of carrying outlaws of the
Spanish government. Native Filipinos served up to the rank of sergeant under the command of Spanish officers.
It was the earlier version of mounted riflemen in the history of the Philippine police system.

In 1852, the notoriously dreaded Guardia Civil took over peacekeeping duties in the islands under a
Royal Decree. Guardia Civil in the provinces was composed mainly of Filipinos who worked under the
jurisdiction of the alcaldes or mayors. They followed a military structure and received semi-military training yet
lacked other dimensions of today’s police service.

The capture of General Emilio Aguinaldo, president of the First Philippine Republic, signaled the start of
the American occupation of the Philippines. Maintaining peace and order, particularly in the countryside,
remained the biggest problem of the Americans. The Americans failed to subdue the followers of Aguinaldo like
Gen. Macario Sakay. Hostilities continued in Batangas, Mindoro, Cebu, Bohol and Samar. A military solution to
the peace and order problem was ruled, hence, the birth of the Philippine Constabulary.

Pacification Campaigns
To fight rampant lawlessness, the Philippine Constabulary divided the entire country into
constabulary districts. Banditry was rampant in Southern Luzon. Records referred to the bandits as
tulisanes. The style of fighting of the early American Constables and the bandits was “man-to-man, on

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foot, and generally by arms and bolos.” The American foot soldiers had a hard time repelling the
tulisanes in their fight in the mountains as their enemies were familiar with the terrain. Malaria and
cholera were the diseases that the afflicted the American troops whenever they conducted foot patrol in
the hinterlands.
The Insular Force
The Americans are credited for creating the Philippine Constabulary, the principal instrument of the civil
authorities for the maintenance of peace and order. The PC began as a small unit—the Insular Force in 1901. It
was set up by virtue of Organic Act No. 175, enacted by the Second Philippine Commission on July 18, 1901.
The Constabulary then was composed of six thousand men led by American officers and former members of the
Spanish Guardia Civil. Under close American direction and control, it functioned as a military organization.

Since its formation, the Constabulary had been primarily discharging police law enforcement and public
safety functions. Its officers and men had served with distinction both in the field of law enforcement and in
combating violence and lawlessness, and in various aspects of public service. There was even a time in history
when they performed the duties of teachers, sanitary inspectors, midwives, doctors and foresters.

The Philippine Constabulary was mandated as a civilian organization on March 15, 1945 when it was
placed under the general supervision of the Interior then later transferred to the Secretary of National Defense
on March 30, 1950. The Secretary of Interior had supervision over the Constabulary as early as January 13,
1939 until the outbreak of World War II.

As an insular police force, the officers of the Constabulary carried the civilian title of
“inspector.” Its peacekeeping duty was limited to areas where military rule had been lifted.
The Constabulary At War
The participation of the Constabulary in the dark years of the Second World War began upon
President Roosevelt’s declaration of a state of emergency in the United States. Manila prepared for
war. The word had been sent: Japan, the Axis power’s ally in Asia, would soon attack the Far East.
Filipinos woke up on the morning of December 8, 1941 to the news that the Japanese had attacked
Pearl Harbor. The first war casualties of the Constabulary came from the bombing of Pan-American
Airways installation at San Pedro, Makati in the afternoon of December 8. Six Constables from the
Headquarters Company were wounded. The next days and months saw relentless Japanese bombings
on the country’s landmarks, airfields and naval bases.
The Death March
The Japanese had taken Manila but were surprised that no defense forces were waiting to be
captured. The Japanese forces then began the siege of Bataan, ordering four infantry regiments with
artillery and tank support to crush the American and Filipino soldiers. The Japanese then prepared to

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transfer the prisoners and surrendered troops to Camp o’ Donnel in Capas, Tarlac in what has been
known as the “Death March.” Because of torture and starvation, 4,326 prisoners of war died in the
infamous march.
The Postwar Constabulary
The county was left in shambles after the Second World War. Manila was in ruins. Loose firearms and
dead bodies littered the streets. This was also the period when communist ideology had been propagated in the
countryside and hard-line supporters had been won.

The Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan or Hukbalahap became a force to reckon with in Central Luzon. The
Hukbalahap was born in Pampanga and was spawned by a feudal land system in the province dominated by
landlords. Pampanga was an “ideal ground” for the agrarian unrest. It achieved legal status during the Japanese
occupation when it merged with the guerilla forces in fighting the Japanese.

The communist movement, meanwhile, capitalized on the agrarian problems of the country to cement its
presence. Agrarian unrest was prevalent in agricultural lands in Luzon as well as the sprawling haciendas in the
south. Luis Taruc became a leader of the HMBs and founded his own government in Central Luzon.

It was during this turbulent period that the Philippine Constabulary was reactivated into the Military Police
Command . Faced with peace and order problems, the Military Police Command was suffering from its own
internal crises. The last war had killed many Constables. There was a dearth for trained personnel who would be
utilized to address the problems.

Constabulary records showed that there were about 20,000 Hukbalahaps in Luzon in 1946. The
Military Police Command, on the other hand, had 23,000 informal enlistees.
Reorganization

On January 1, 1944, the Military Police Command was dissolved by virtue of Executive Order No. 94
issued by President Manuel A. Roxas. The Command’s 12,000 officers and men were absorbed by the newly
reorganized Philippine Constabulary.

The revitalized PC was in charge of the country’s peace and order “except those which were
purely military in nature.” Brig. Gen. Mariano Castañeda became chief of the PC and instituted
reforms. On June 21, 1948, President Elpidio Quirino offered general amnesty to the Huks. Taruc, who
had been elected a member of Congress representing Pampanga, returned to Manila. But Taruc had no
plans to surrender. He only went to Manila to collect his back salaries and used the money for his
comrades’ operations in Central Luzon. President Ramon Magsaysay was credited for crippling the
Huk movement by mobilizing the Philippine Constabulary. Magsaysay used the “friendly touch” for
winning over the Huks, building roads for them and giving them lands.

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The Rise of the Communist Party of the Philippines
The Philippine Constabulary’s attempt to maintain peace and order did not end with the
decimation of the Huks. On December 26, 1968,Jose Maria Sison, a Political Science student at
the University of the Philippines, founded the Communist Party of the Philippines. The communist
ideology spread through a small discussion group called Kabataan Makabayan organized by Sison and
his colleagues in the middle sixties. Sison then rose to become the leader of the CPP and organized the
military wing of the CPP, the New People’s Army. But the communists suffered a crushing blow on
January 9, 1969 in the hands of the Constabulary who killed the most number of communist leaders in
one encounter in Orani, Bataan.
The PC Metropolitan Command
The upsurge of mass demonstrations and violence during the latter part of the 60s and the
expansion efforts of the communist movement triggered the creation of the PC Metropolitan
Command. To quell the unrest, President Ferdinand Marcos issued Executive Order Number 76 on
July 14, 1967 establishing the PC Metrocom which became the PC’s striking force as it was authorized
to conduct 24/7 patrol in the entire Metro Manila and was tasked to “supplement or complement local
police action in the repression and prevention of crimes…”
Martial Law and the PC

The Philippine Constabulary took on a pivotal role when President Marcos declared Martial Law on
September 21,1972. Marcos mobilized the Constabulary and other major services of the military to dismantle
the “unconstitutional opposition” and to prevent widespread hooliganism and gangsterism. Convinced that there
was a need to restructure the social base that bred lawlessness, Marcos reorganized the government machinery
to effect his desired changes in the social, economic and political structures.

On March 21, 1974, President Ferdinand E. Marcos signed Presidential Decree 421 unifying all the police,
fire and jail services in Metro Manila. The move was significant as it created an elite force, the Metropolitan
Police Force, that was placed under the aegis of the PC Metrocom. The decree was also the first step in fulfilling
the constitutional mandate for an integrated national police force. The Metropolitan Police Force was tasked to
carry out the integration of all police units nationwide.

Brigadier General Prospero A Olivas, commanding general of the Metrocom, was assigned the task of
launching the pilot project under the supervision of Fidel V. Ramos and Brigadier General Cicero C. Campos,
deputy Chief for police matters. General Olivas would have the power and direction over the Metrocom,
including tactical, strategic movements, deployments, placements and utilization of the entire force and the
training thereof.

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On August 8, 1975, Marcos issued Presidential Decree No. 765 establishing the Integrated
National Police with the Philippine Constabulary as the nucleus and all police officers as components.
They were all placed under the supervision of the Ministry of National Defense.
The Creation of the Philippine National Police
The People’s Revolution of 1986 saw the birth of the 1987 Constitution that included a provision on the
PNP which was to be “national in scope and civilian in character.” In 1991, the Philippine National Police was
created with the passage of Republic Act No. 6975, otherwise known as the “Department of the Interior and
Local Government Act of 1990.” The principal authors of the Republic Act 6975 were Senators Ernesto N
Maceda and Aquilino Pimentel, Congressmen Jose S Cojuangco Jr. and Rodrigo Gutang.

Upon its signing into law on December 13, 1990, the PNP underwent a transitory period; and on 31
March 1991, President Corazon Aquino named General Cesar Nazareno as the first Director General of the
Philippine National Police.

On January 29, 1991, at Camp Crame, Quezon City, the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated
National Police were retired officially and the Philippine National Police was born.

Like any new evolving organization, the PNP suffered from birth pains. To address these
concerns, Republic Act 8551 or the PNP Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998 was enacted on
February 17, 1998 to amend certain provisions of Republic Act No. 6975. This move was in response
to the growing clamor to transform the PNP “into a more responsive, effective and relevant police
organization.” Under this Act, the PNP shall be strengthened and evolved into a highly efficient police
force that is community and service-oriented and fully accountable in the performance of its action.

Officer Training

Officers for the Philippine National Police are sourced from the Philippine National Academy as well as
through lateral entry, for specialized disciplines and requirements such as doctors, engineers and other
technical positions.

The Philippine National Police Academy is located in Silang, Cavite and is the primary training
school for the PNP.

Recruitment and Training

The PNP conducts regular recruitment programs, depending on annual budget allocations. The entry
level for non-commissioned officers is the rank of Police Officer 1 or PO1, with a starting salary of P14,265.00
inclusive of allowances. The new recruits undergo Police Basic Recruit Course for six months, and a Field
Training Program for another six months prior to deployment to various units.

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Republic Act No. 6975
Approved: December 13, 1990

-An Act Establishing the Philippine National Police under a Reorganized Department of the
Interior and Local Government, and for other purposes.

PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE (PNP)

The Philippine National Police (PNP) has been established initially consisting of the following:

a. Members of the police force who were integrated into the Integrated National Police
(INP) pursuant to PD 765;
b. Officers and enlisted personnel of the Philippine Constabulary (PC) which include:
• Those assigned with the Narcotics Command (NARCOM);
• Those assigned with the Criminal Investigation Service (CIS);
• Those of the technical services of the AFP assigned with the PC.
• Civilian operatives of the CIS.
c. Regular operatives of the abolished NAPOLCOM Inspection, Investigation and Intelligence
Branch may also be absorbed by the PNP.

In addition, the PNP shall absorb the Office of the National Action Committee on Anti-
Hijacking (NACAH) of the DND, all the functions of the Philippine Air Force Security
Command (PAFSECOM), as well as the police functions of the Coast Guard.

The PNP Organizational Set Up

The PNP shall be headed by a Chief who shall be assisted by two (2) deputy chief,
one (1) for operations and one (1) for administration, both of whom shall be appointed by
the President upon recommendation of the Commission from among the most senior and
qualified officers in the service: Provided, however, That in no case shall any officer who has
retired or is retirable within six (6) months from his compulsory retirement age be appointed
as Chief of the PNP. The PNP shall be composed of a national office, regional offices,
provincial offices, district offices, city or municipal stations.

At the national level, the PNP shall maintain its national headquarter in Camp Crame,
office in Metropolitan Manila which shall house the directorial staff, service staff and
special support units.

At the regional level, the PNP shall have regional offices, including that of the National
Capital Region, which may be divided into two (2) separate regions without prejudice to the
pertinent provisions of the Organic Act for the Autonomous Regions of the Cordilleras and

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Muslim Mindanao relative to the creation of a regional office force in the area of autonomy.
Each of these regional offices shall be headed by a regional director for peace and order.

At the provincial level, there shall be a PNP office, each headed by a provincial
director. In the case of large provinces, police districts may be established by the
Commission to be headed by a district director.

At the city or municipal level, there shall be a PNP station, each headed by a chief of
police.

Powers and Functions

The PNP shall have the following powers and functions:

a. Enforce all laws and ordinances relative to the protection of lives and properties;
b. Maintain peace and order and take all necessary steps to ensure public safety;
c. Investigate and prevent crimes, effect the arrest of criminal offenders, bring offenders to
justice and assist in their prosecution;
d. Exercise the general powers to make arrest, search and seizure in accordance with the
Constitution and pertinent laws;
e. Detain an arrested person for a period not beyond what is prescribed by law, informing the
person so detained of all his rights under the Constitution;
f. Issue licenses for the possession of firearms and explosives in accordance with law;
g. Supervise and control the training and operations of security agencies and issue licenses
to operate security agencies, and to security guards and private detectives, for the practice
of their professions; and
h. Perform such other duties and exercise all other functions as may be provided by law.

Powers and Functions of the PNP Chief

The command and direction of the PNP shall be vested in the Chief of the PNP with the
following powers and functions:

d. Direct and control tactical as well a strategic movements, deployment,


placement, utilization of the PNP or any of its units and personnel, including its
equipment, facilities and other resources. Such command and direction may be
delegated to subordinate officials with the respect to units under their respective
commands in accordance with the prescribed NAPOLCOM rules and
regulations.

b. Issue detained implementing policies and instructions regarding personnel,


funds, properties, records, correspondence and such as other matters.

The Manning Levels

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On the average nationwide, the manning levels of the PNP shall be approximately in
accordance with a police-to-population ratio of one (1) policeman for every five hundred (500)
persons. The actual strength by cities and municipalities shall depend on the state of peace
and order, population density and actual demands of the service in the particular area:
Provided, That the minimum police-to-population ratio shall not be less than one (1)
policeman for every one thousand (1,000) persons: Provided, further, That urban areas shall
have a higher minimum police-to-population ratio as may be prescribed by regulations.

Rank Classification

For purposes of efficient administration, supervision and control, the rank classification
of the members of the PNP shall be as follows:

Director General

Deputy Director General

Director

Chief Superintendent

Senior Superintendent

Superintendent

Chief Inspector

Senior Inspector

Inspector

Senior Police Officer IV

Senior Police Officer III

Senior Police Officer II

Senior Police Officer I

Police Officer III

Police Officer II

Police Officer I

Key Positions

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The head of the PNP with the rank director general shall have the position title of Chief
of the PNP. The second in command of the PNP with the rank of deputy director general shall
be the Deputy Chief of the PNP for Administration. The third in command with the rank also
of deputy director general shall be the Deputy Chief of the PNP for Operations.

At the national office, the head of the directorial staff with the rank of deputy director
general shall be known as Chief of the Directorial Staff of the PNP.

The heads of the various staff divisions in the directorial staff shall have the rank of
director with the position title of Director of the Directorial Staff of their respective functional
divisions. The head of the Inspectorate Division with the rank of chief superintendent shall
assume the position title of Inspector General. The heads of the administrative and
operational support divisions shall have the rank of chief superintendent.

The head of the NCR with the rank of director shall assume the position title of NCR
Director.

The heads of the regional offices with the rank of chief superintendent shall assume
the position title of Regional Director.

The heads of the NCR district offices with the rank of chief superintendent shall have
the position title of District Director.

The heads of provincial offices with the rank of senior superintendent shall be known
as Provincial Director.

The heads of the district offices with the rank of superintendent shall have the position
title of District Director.

The heads of the municipality or city offices with the rank of chief inspector shall be
known as Chief of Police.

General Qualifications for Appointment

No person shall be appointed as officer or member of the PNP unless he possesses


the following minimum qualifications:

(a) A citizen of the Philippines;

(b) A person of good moral conduct;

(c) Of sound mind and body;

(d) Must possess a formal baccalaureate degree for appointment as officer and must
have finished at least second year college or the equivalent of seventy-two (72)

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collegiate units for appointment as non-officer or an equivalent training or experience
for those already in the service upon the affectivity of this Act.

(e) Must be eligible in accordance with the standards set by the Commission;

(f) Must not have been dishonorably discharged from military employment or
dismissed for cause from any civilian position in the Government;

(g) Must not have been convicted be final judgment of an offense or crime involving
moral turpitude;

(h) Must be at least one meter and sixty-two centimeters (1.62 m.) in height for male
and one meter and fifty-seven centimeters (1.57 m.) for female;

(i) Must weight not more or less than five kilograms (5 kg.) of the standard weight
corresponding to his or her height, age, and sex; and

(j) For a new applicant, must not be less than twenty-one (21) nor more than thirty (30)
years of age.

Appointment of PNP Officers and Members

The appointment of the officers and members of the PNP shall be effected in the
following manner:

(a) Police Officer I to Senior Police Officer IV. – Appointed by the PNP regional
director for regional personnel or by the Chief of the PNP for the national headquarters
personnel and attested by the Civil Service Commission.

(b) Inspector to Superintendent. – Appointed by the Chief of the PNP, as


recommended by their immediate superiors, attested by the Civil Service Commission;

(c) Senior Superintendent to Deputy Director General. – Appointed by the


President upon recommendation of the chief of the PNP, with proper endorsement by
the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and subject to confirmation by the
Commission on Appointments; and

(d) Director General. – Appointed by the President from among the senior officers
down to the rank of chief superintendent in the service, subject to confirmation by the
Commission on Appointments: Provided, That the Chief of the PNP shall serve a tour
of duty not to exceed four (4) years: Provided, further, That, in times of war or other
national emergency declared by Congress, the President may extend such tour of
duty.

Examinations for Policemen

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The Civil Service Commission shall administer the qualifying entrance examinations
for policemen on the basis of the standards set by the NAPOLCOM.

Lateral Entry of Officers into the PNP

In general, all original appointments of commissioned officers in the PNP shall


commence with the rank of inspector, to include all those with highly technical qualifications
applying for the PNP technical services, such as dentist, optometrists, nurses, engineers, and
graduates of forensic sciences. Doctors of medicine, members of the Bar, and chaplains shall
be appointed to the rank of senior inspector in their particular technical service. Graduates of
the Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA) shall be automatically appointed to the initial
rank of inspector. Licensed criminologists may be appointed to the rank of inspector to fill up
any vacancy after promotions from the ranks are completed.

Qualifications of Chief of City and Municipal Police Stations

1. No person may be appointed chief of a city police station unless he holds a


bachelor's degree from a recognized institution of learning or has served in the Philippine
Constabulary or in the police department of any city or municipality with the rank of captain or
its equivalent therein for at least three (3) years.

2. No person may be appointed chief of a municipal police station unless he holds a


bachelor's degree from a recognized institution of learning or has served as officer in the
Philippine Constabulary or in the police department of any city or municipality for at least two
(2) years with the rank lieutenant or its equivalent: Provided,

3. That a member of the Bar with at least five (5) years experience in active law practice and who
possesses the general qualifications under Section 30 of this Act shall be qualified for appointment as
chief of a city or municipal police station: Provided, further, That the chief of police shall be appointed
in accordance with the provisions of Section 51, paragraph b), subparagraph (4) (i) of this Act.

PNP Support Units

The PNP shall be supported by the following support units:

(a) Administrative Support Units.

1. Crime Laboratory. There shall be established a central Crime Laboratory to be headed


by a Director with the rank of chief superintendent, which shall provides scientific and
technical investigative aid and support to the PNP and other government investigative
agencies. It shall also provide crime laboratory examination, evaluation and identification of
physical evidences involved in crimes with primary emphasis on their medical, chemical,
biological and physical nature.

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There shall be likewise be established regional and city crime laboratories as may be
necessary in all regions and cities of the country.

2. Logistic Unit. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief superintendent, the Logistics
Unit shall be responsible for the procurement, distributions and management of all the
logistical requirements of the PNP including firearms and ammunition.

3. Communications Unit. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief superintendent, the
Communications Unit shall be responsible for establishing an effective police
communications network.

4. Computer Center. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief superintendent, the
Computer Center shall be responsible for the design, implementation and maintenance of a
database system for the PNP.

5. Finance Center. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief superintendent, the Finance
Center shall be responsible for providing finance services to the PNP.

6. Civil Security Unit. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief superintendent, the Civil
Security Unit shall provide administrative services and general supervision over organization,
business operation and activities of all organized private detectives, watchmen, security
guard agencies and company guard houses.

The unit shall likewise supervise the licensing and registration of firearms and explosives.

The approval applications for licenses to operate private security agencies, as well as the
issuance of licenses to security guards and the licensing of firearms and explosives, shall be
decentralized to the PNP regional offices

(b) Operational Support Units.

(1) Maritime Police Unit. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief superintendent, the
Maritime Police Unit shall perform all police functions over Philippine territorial waters and
rivers.

(2) Police Intelligence Unit. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief superintendent,
the Police Intelligence Unit shall serve as the intelligence and counterintelligence operating
unit of the PNP.

(3) Police Security Unit. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief superintendent,
Police Security Unit shall provide security for government officials, visiting dignitaries and
private individuals authorized to be given protection.

(4) Criminal Investigation Unit. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief
superintendent, the Criminal Investigation Unit shall undertake the monitoring, investigation
and prosecution of all crimes involving economic sabotage, and other crimes of such

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magnitude and extent as to indicate their commission by highly placed or professional
criminal syndicates and organizations. This unit shall likewise investigate all major cases
involving violations of the Revised Penal Code and operate against organized crime groups,
unless the President assigns the case exclusively to the National Bureau of Investigation
(NBI).

(5) Special Action Force. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief superintendent,
the Special Action Force shall function as a mobile strike force or reaction unit to augment
regional, provincial, municipal and city police forces for civil disturbance control,
counterinsurgency, hostage-taking rescue operations, and other special operations.

(6) Narcotics Unit. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief superintendent, the
Narcotics Unit shall enforce all laws relative to the protection of the citizenry against
dangerous and other prohibited drugs and substances.

(7) Aviation Security Unit. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief superintendent,
the Aviation Security Unit, in coordination with airport authorities, shall secure all the
country’s airports against offensive and terroristic acts that threaten civil aviation, exercise
operational
control and supervision over all agencies involved in airport security operation, and enforce
all laws and regulations relative to air travel protection and safety.

(8) Traffic Management Unit. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief
superintendent, the Traffic Management Unit shall enforce traffic laws and regulations.

(9) Medical and Dental Centers. Headed by a Director with the rank of chief
superintendent, the Medical and Dental Centers shall be responsible for providing medical
and dental services for the PNP.

(10) Civil Relations Units. Headed with a Director with the rank of chief superintendent,
the Civil Relations Unit shall implement plans and programs that will promote community and
citizens’ participation in the maintenance of peace and order and public safety.

Status of PNP Members

The members of the PNP shall be considered employees of the National Government
and shall draw their salaries there from: Provided, That PNP members assigned in
Metropolitan Manila, chartered cities and first class municipalities may be paid in additional
monthly allowance by the local government unit concerned.

Performance Evaluation System

There shall be established a performance evaluation system which shall be


administered in accordance with the rules, regulations and standards, and a code of conduct
promulgated by the Commission for members of the PNP. Such performance evaluation
system be administered in such a way as to foster the improvement of individual efficiency

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and behavioral discipline as well as the promotion of organizational effectiveness and respect
for the constitutional and human rights of citizens, democratic principles and ideals and the
supremacy of civilian authority over the military.

The rating system as contemplated herein shall be based on standards prescribed by


the Commission and shall consider results of annual physical, psychological and
neuropsychiatric examinations conducted on the PNP officer or member concerned.

Promotions

(a) A member of the PNP shall not be eligible for promotion to a higher position or rank
unless he has successfully passed the corresponding promotional examination given by the
Commission, or the Bar or corresponding board examinations for technical services and other
professions, and has satisfactorily completed an appropriate and accredited course in the
PNP or equivalent training institutions. In addition, no member of the PNP shall eligible for
promotion unless he has been cleared by the People's Law Enforcement Board (PLEB) of
complaints proffered against him, if any.

(b) Special promotion may be extended to any member of the PNP for acts of conspicuous
courage and gallantry at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty, or selected as
such in a nationwide search conducted by the PNP or any accredited civic organization.

Two Types of Retirements:

1. Compulsory Retirement

Compulsory retirement, for officer and non-officer, shall be upon the attainment of age
fifty-six (56): Provided, that, in case of any officer with the rank of chief superintendent,
director or deputy director general, the Commission may allow his retention in the service for
an unextendible period of one (1) year.

2. Optional Retirement

Upon accumulation of at least twenty (20) years of satisfactory active service, an officer or non-
officer, at his own request and with the approval of the Commission, shall be retired from the service
and entitled to receive benefits provided by law.

Internal Affairs Service

An Internal Affairs Service (IAS) of the PNP has been created to have the following
powers and functions:

(a) Pro-actively conduct inspections and audits on PNP personnel and units;

(b) Investigate complaints and gather evidence in support of an open


investigation;

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(c) Conduct summary hearings on PNP members facing administrative charges;

(d) Submit a periodic report on the assessment, analysis, and evaluation of the
character and behavior of PNP personnel and units to the Chief PNP and the
Commission;

(e) File appropriate criminal cases against PNP members before the court as
evidence warrants and assist in the prosecution of the case;

(f) Provide assistance to the Office of the Ombudsman in cases involving the
personnel of the PNP.

The IAS shall also conduct, motu proprio, automatic investigation of the following
cases:

(a) Incidents where a police personnel discharges a firearm;

(b) Incidents where death, serious physical injury, or any violation of human
rights occurred in the conduct of a police operation;

(c) Incidents where evidence was compromised, tampered with, obliterated, or


lost while in the custody of police personnel;

(d) Incidents where a suspect in the custody of the police was seriously injured;
and

(e) Incidents where the established rules of engagement have been violated.

Finally, the IAS shall provide documents or recommendations as regards to the


promotion of the members of the PNP or the assignment of PNP personnel to any key
position.

COMMON PROVISIONS FOR UNIFORMED PERSONNEL

Incentives and Awards

There shall be established an incentives and awards system which shall be


administered by a board under such rules, regulations and standards as may be promulgated
by the Department: Provided, That equivalent awards shall be given by the Department for
every award duly given by respectable civic organizations in a nationwide selection for
outstanding achievement and/or performance of any member.

Health and Welfare

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It shall be the concern of the Department to provide leadership and assistance in
developing health and welfare programs for its personnel.

The heads of all bureaus and other offices created under this Act shall take all proper
steps towards the creation of an atmosphere conducive to a good supervisor-subordinate
relationship and the improvement of personnel morale.

Longevity Pay and Allowances

Uniformed personnel of the Department shall be entitled to a longevity pay of ten


percent (10%) of their basic monthly salaries for every five (5) years of service, which shall be
reckoned from the date of the personnel's original appointment in the AFP, or appointment in
the police, fire jail or other allied services to the integration of the PC and the INP: Provided,
That the totality of such longevity pay shall not exceed fifty percent (50%) of the basic pay.
They shall also continue to enjoy the subsistence allowance, quarters allowance, clothing
allowance cost of living allowance, hazard pay, and all other allowances as provided by
existing laws.

Active Service

For purposes of this Act, active service of the uniformed personnel shall refer to
services rendered as an officer and non-officer, cadet, trainee or draftee in the PNP, Fire or
Jail Force or in the municipal police prior to the integration of the PC-INP or in the AFP, and
services rendered as a civilian official or employee in the Philippine Government prior to the
date of separation or retirement from the PNP, Fire or Jail Force: Provided, That, for
purposes of retirement he shall have rendered at least ten (10) years of active service as
officer or non-officer in the AFP, and /or in the INP and/or in the PNP, Fire or Jail Force:
Provided, further, That services rendered as cadet, probationary officer, trainee or draftee in
the AFP or as cadet or trainee in the INP and PNP shall be credited for purposes of longevity
pay: Provided, finally, That, for cadet services, the maximum number of service to be credited
shall not exceed the duration of the pre-commissionship course specified in the curriculum.

Permanent Physical Disability

An officer or non-officer who, having accumulated at least twenty (20) years of active
service, incurs total permanent physical disability in line of duty shall be compulsorily retired:
Provided, That, if he has accumulated less than twenty (20) years of active service, he shall
be separated from the service and be entitled to a separation pay equivalent to one and one-
fourth (11/4) months base pay for every year of service, or a fraction thereof, and longevity
pay of the permanent grade he holds.

Retirement in the Next Higher Grade

Uniformed personnel covered under this Act shall, for purposes of retirement pay, be
retired in one (1) grade higher than the permanent grade last held: Provided, That they have
served for at least one (1) year of active service in the permanent grade.

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Retirement Benefits

Monthly retirement pay shall be fifty percent (50%) of the base pay and longevity pay of
the retired grade in case of twenty (20) years of active service, increasing by two and one-
half percent (2.5%) for every year of active service rendered beyond twenty (20) years to a
maximum of ninety percent (90%) for thirty-six (36) years of active service and over.

Death and Disability Benefits

Uniformed personnel and/or his heirs shall be entitled to all benefits relative to the death
or permanent incapacity of said personnel, as provided for under this Act, and/or other
existing laws.

Exemption from Attachment and Taxes

All benefits granted by this Act, including benefits received from the Government
Service Insurance System, shall not be subject to attachment, levy, execution or any tax of
whatever nature.

Uniformed Personnel Missing in Action

Any uniformed personnel who while in the performance of duty or by reason of his
being an officer or member of the PNP, Fire or Jail Force, is officially confirmed missing in
action, kidnapped or captured by lawless elements shall, while so absent, be entitled to
receive or to have credited to his account the same pay and allowances to which such officer
or uniformed member was entitled at the time of the incident: Provided, That the compulsory
retirement of a person missing in action shall be processed to allow the members of the next
of kin to enjoy the retirement benefits: Provided, further, That should the Chief of the PNP,
Fire or Jail Force, as the same may be, upon the recommendation of the proper authority
and/or immediate supervisor, subsequently determine that the officer or uniformed member
concerned have been absent from duty without authority, such member or his heirs shall
reimburse the PNP, Fire or Jail Force all such amount and allowances received by him in
accordance with this section and the following section.

Payment of Salary and Allowances to the Heirs of Uniformed Personnel

In case any uniformed personnel has been officially confirmed as missing in action
under any of the circumstances provided in the preceding section, the Chief of the PNP, Fire
or Jail Force, as the case may be, shall direct payment of the absent uniformed personnel's
monthly salary and allowances and other emoluments pertinent thereto his/her heirs for their
support for a maximum period of one (1) year from the date of commencement of absent or
when last heard from as those kidnapped or captured by lawless elements.

Finding of Death and Termination of Payment of Salary and Allowances

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Upon the termination of the one (1) year period as specified in the preceding section,
the missing uniformed personnel shall be automatically terminated. In the event said
personnel shall thereafter be found to have been alive and is not entitled to the benefits paid
under the preceding sections of this Act, said benefits shall be reimbursed to the State within
six (6) months from the discovery of the fact or his reappearance. However, if his continued
disappearance was fraudulent or made in bad faith he shall, together with his co-
conspirators, be prosecuted according to law.

Complaints and Grievances

Uniformed personnel shall have the right to present complaints and grievances to their
superiors or commanders and have them heard and adjudicated as expeditiously as possible
in the best interest of the service, with due regard to due process in every case. Such
complaints or grievances shall be resolved at the lowest possible level in the unit of
command and the respondent shall have the right to appeal from an adverse decision to
higher authorities.

Republic Act No. 8551


Approved: February 25, 1998

AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE REFORM AND REORGANIZATION OF THE PHILIPPINE


NATIONAL POLICE AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES, AMENDING CERTAIN PROVISIONS
OF REPUBLIC ACT NUMBERED SIXTY-NINE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-FIVE ENTITLED,
"AN ACT ESTABLISHING THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE UNDER A RE-
ORGANIZED DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT, AND FOR
OTHER PURPOSES"

THE ROLE OF THE PNP IN COUNTER-INSURGENCY FUNCTIONS

Section 3. Section 12 of Republic Act No. 6975 is hereby amended to read as follows:

"SEC. 12. Relationship of the Department with the Department of National Defense

The Department of the Interior and Local Government shall be relieved of the primary
responsibility on matters involving the suppression of insurgency and other serious threats to
national security. The Philippine National Police shall, through information gathering and
performance of its ordinary police functions, support the Armed Forces of the Philippines on
matters involving suppression of insurgency, except in cases where the President shall call
on the PNP to support the AFP in combat operations.

"In times of national emergency, the PNP, the Bureau of Fire Protection, and the Bureau of
Jail Management and Penology shall, upon the direction of the President, assist the armed
forces in meeting the national emergency."

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THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE

A. REORGANIZATION

Section 13. Authority of the Commission to Reorganize the PNP. – Notwithstanding the
provisions of Republic Act No. 6975 on the organizational structure and rank classification of
the PNP, the Commission shall conduct a management audit, and prepare and submit to
Congress a proposed reorganization plan of the PNP not later than December 31, 1998,
subject to the limitations provided under this Act and based on the following criteria: a)
increased police visibility through dispersal of personnel from the headquarters to the field
offices and by the appointment and assignment of non-uniformed personnel to positions
which are purely administrative, technical, clerical or menial in nature and other positions
which are not actually and directly related to police operation; and b) efficient and optimized
delivery of police services to the communities.

The PNP reorganization program shall be approved by Congress through a joint resolution.

B. QUALIFICATIONS UPGRADING

Section 14. Section 30 of Republic Act No. 6975 is hereby amended to read as follows:

"SEC. 30. General Qualifications for Appointment. – No person shall be appointed as


officer or member of the PNP unless he or she possesses the following minimum
qualifications:

"a) A citizen of the Philippines;

"b) A person of good moral conduct;

"c) Must have passed the psychiatric/psychological, drug and physical tests to
be administered by the PNP or by any NAPOLCOM accredited government
hospital for the purpose of determining physical and mental health;

"d) Must possess a formal baccalaureate degree from a recognized institution of


learning;

"e) Must be eligible in accordance with the standards set by the Commission;

"f) Must not have been dishonorably discharged from military employment or
dismissed for cause from any civilian position in the Government;

"g) Must not have been convicted by final judgment of an offense or crime
involving moral turpitude;

"h) Must be at least one meter and sixty-two centimeters (1.62 m.) in height for
male and one meter and fifty-seven centimeters (1.57 m.) for female;

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"i) Must weigh not more or less than five kilograms (5 kgs.) from the standard
weight corresponding to his or her height, age, and sex; and

"j) For a new applicant, must not be less than twenty-one (21) nor more than
thirty (30) years of age: except for the last qualification, the above-enumerated
qualifications shall be continuing in character and an absence of any one of
them at any given time shall be a ground for separation or retirement from the
service: Provided, That PNP members who are already in the service upon the
effectivity of this Act shall be given at least two (2) more years to obtain the
minimum educational qualification and one (1) year to satisfy the weight
requirement.

"For the purpose of determining compliance with the requirements on physical and
mental health, as well as the non-use of prohibited drugs, the PNP by itself or through
a NAPOLCOM accredited government hospital shall conduct regular psychiatric,
psychological drug and physical tests randomly and without notice.

"After the lapse of the time period for the satisfaction of a specific requirement, current
members of the PNP who will fail to satisfy any of the requirements enumerated under
this Section shall be separated from the service if they are below fifty (50) years of age
and have served in Government for less than twenty (20) years or retired if they are
from the age of fifty (50) and above and have served the Government for at least
twenty (20) years without prejudice in either case to the payment of benefits they may
be entitled to under existing laws."

Section 15. Waivers for Initial Appointments to the PNP. – The age, height, weight, and
educational requirements for initial appointment to the PNP may be waived only when the
number of qualified applicants fall below the minimum annual quota: Provided, That an
applicant shall not be below twenty (20) nor over thirty-five (35) years of age: Provided,
further, That any applicant not meeting the weight requirement shall be given reasonable time
but not exceeding six (6) months within which to comply with the said requirement: Provided,
furthermore, That only applicants who have finished second year college or have earned at
least seventy-two (72) collegiate units leading to a bachelor's decree shall be eligible for
appointment: Provided, furthermore, That anybody who will enter the service without a
baccalaureate degree shall be given a maximum of four (4) years to obtain the required
educational qualification: Provided, finally, That a waiver for height requirement shall be
automatically granted to applicants belonging to the cultural communities.

Section 16. Selection Criteria Under the Waiver Program. – The selection of applicants
under the Waiver Program shall be subject to the following minimum criteria:

a) Applicants who possess the least disqualification shall take precedence over those
who possess more disqualifications.

b) The requirements shall be waived in the following order: (a) age, (b) height, (c)
weight, and (d) education.

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The Commission shall promulgate rules and regulations to address other situations arising
from the waiver of the entry requirements.

Section 17. Nature of Appointment Under a Waiver Program. – Any PNP uniformed
personnel who is admitted due to the waiver of the educational or weight requirements shall
be issued a temporary appointment pending the satisfaction of the requirement waived. Any
member who will fail to satisfy any of the waived requirements within the specified time
periods under Section 13 of this Act shall be dismissed from the service.

Section 18. Re-application of Dismissed PNP Members Under a Waiver Program. – Any
PNP member who shall be dismissed under a waiver program shall be eligible to re-apply for
appointment to the PNP: Provided, That he or she possesses the minimum qualifications
under Section 14 of this Act and his or her reappointment is not by virtue of another waiver
program.

Section 19. The Field Training Program. – All uniformed members of the PNP shall
undergo a Field Training Program for twelve (12) months involving actual experience and
assignment in patrol, traffic, and investigation as a requirement for permanency of their
appointment.

Section 20. Increased Qualifications for Provincial Directors. – No person may be


appointed Director of a Provincial Police Office unless:

a) he or she holds a master's degree in public administration, sociology, criminology,


criminal justice, law enforcement, national security administration, defense studies, or
other related discipline from a recognized institution of learning; and

b) has satisfactorily passed the required training and career courses necessary for the
position as may be established by the Commission.

Any PNP personnel who is currently occupying the position but lacks any of the qualifications
mentioned above shall be given three (3) years upon the effectivity of this Act to comply with
the requirements; otherwise he or she shall be relieved from the position.

Section 21. Section 32 of Republic Act No. 6975 is hereby amended to read as follows:

"SEC. 32. Examinations of Policemen. – The National Police Commission shall


administer the entrance and promotional examinations for policemen on the basis of
the standards set by the Commission."

Section 22. Section 34 of Republic Act No. 6975 is hereby amended to read as follows:

"SEC. 34. Qualifications of Chief of City and Municipal Police Stations. – No person
shall be appointed chief of a city police station unless he/she is a graduate of Bachelor
of Laws or has finished all the required courses of a master's degree program in public
administration, criminology, criminal justice, law enforcement, national security

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administration, defense studies, and other related disciplines from a recognized
institution of learning. No person shall be appointed chief of a municipal police station
unless he or she has finished at least second year Bachelor of Laws or has earned at
least twelve (12) units in a master's degree program in public administration,
criminology, criminal justice, law enforcement, national security administration, and
other related disciplines from a recognized institution of learning: Provided, That
members of the Bar with at least five (5) years of law practice, licensed criminologists
or graduates of the Philippine National Police Academy and who possess the general
qualifications for initial appointment to the PNP shall be qualified for appointment as
chief of a city or municipal police station: Provided, further, That the appointee has
successfully passed the required field training program and has complied with other
requirements as may be established by the Commission: Provided, furthermore, That
the chief of police shall be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Section 51,
paragraph (b), subparagraph 4(i) of this Act."

Section 23. Qualifications Upgrading Program. – The Commission shall design and
establish a qualifications upgrading program for the Philippine National Police officers and
members in coordination with the Civil Service Commission, and the Commission on Higher
Education through a distance education program and/or an in-service education program or
other similar programs within ninety (90) days from the effectivity of this Act.

C. ATTRITION SYSTEM FOR UNIFORMED PERSONNEL

Section 24. Attrition System. – There shall be established a system of attrition within the
uniformed members of the PNP within one (1) year from the effectivity of this Act to be
submitted by the PNP to the Commission for approval. Such attrition system shall include but
is not limited to the provisions of the following sections.

Section 25. Attrition by Attainment of Maximum Tenure in Position. – The maximum


tenure of PNP members holding key positions is hereby prescribed as follows:

POSITION MAXIMUM TENURE


Chief four (4) years
Deputy Chief four (4) years
Director of the Staff Services four (4) years
Regional Directors six (6) years
Provincial/City Directors nine (9) years

Other positions higher than Provincial Director shall have the maximum tenure of six (6)
years. Unless earlier separated, retired or promoted to a higher position in accordance with
the PNP Staffing Pattern, police officers holding the above-mentioned positions shall be
compulsorily retired at the maximum tenure in position herein prescribed, or at age fifty-six

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(56), whichever is earlier: Provided, That in times of war or other national emergency
declared by Congress, the President may extend the PNP Chief's tour of duty: Provided,
further, That PNP members who have already reached their maximum tenure upon the
effectivity of this Act may be allowed one (1) year more of tenure in their positions before the
maximum tenure provided in this Section shall be applied to them, unless they shall have
already reached the compulsory retirement age of fifty-six (56), in which case the compulsory
retirement age shall prevail.

Except for the Chief, PNP, no PNP member who has less than one (1) year of service before
reaching the compulsory retirement age shall be promoted to a higher rank or appointed to
any other position.

Section 26. Attrition by Relief. – A PNP uniformed personnel who has been relieved for just
cause and has not been given an assignment within two (2) years after such relief shall be
retired or separated.

Section 27. Attrition by Demotion in Position or Rank. – Any PNP personnel, civilian or
uniformed, who is relieved and assigned to a position lower than what is established for his or
her grade in the PNP staffing pattern and who shall not be assigned to a position
commensurate to his or her grade within eighteen (18) months after such demotion in
position shall be retired or separated.

Section 28. Attrition by Non-promotion. – Any PNP personnel who has not been promoted
for a continuous period of ten (10) years shall be retired or separated.

Section 29. Attrition by Other Means. – A PNP member or officer with at least five (5) years
of accumulated active service shall be separated based on any of the following factors:

a) inefficiency based on poor performance during the last two (2) successive annual
rating periods;

b) inefficiency based on poor performance for three (3) cumulative annual rating
periods;

c) physical and/or mental incapacity to perform police functions and duties; or

d) failure to pass the required entrance examinations twice and/or finish the required
career courses except for justifiable reasons.

Section 30. Retirement or Separation Under the Preceding Sections. – Any personnel
who is dismissed from the PNP pursuant to Sections 25, 26, 27, 28 and 29 hereof shall be
retired if he or she has rendered at least twenty (20) years of service and separated if he or
she has rendered less than twenty (20) years of service unless the personnel is disqualified
by law to receive such benefits.

D. PROMOTION SYSTEM

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Section 31. Rationalized Promotion System. – Within six (6) months after the effectivity of
this Act, the Commission shall establish a system of promotion for uniformed and non-
uniformed personnel of the PNP which shall be based on merits and on the availability of
vacant positions in the PNP staffing pattern. Such system shall be gender fair and shall
ensure that women members of the PNP shall enjoy equal opportunity for promotion as that
of men.

Section 32. Promotion by Virtue of Position. – Any PNP personnel designated to any key
position whose rank is lower than that which is required for such position shall, after six (6)
months of occupying the same, be entitled to a rank adjustment corresponding to the
position: Provided, That the personnel shall not be reassigned to a position calling for a
higher rank until after two (2) years from the date of such rank adjustment: Provided, further,
That any personnel designated to the position who does not possess the established
minimum qualifications therefor shall occupy the same temporarily for not more than six (6)
months without reappointment or extension.

Section 33. Section 38 (a) and (b) of Republic Act No. 6975 is hereby amended to read as
follows:

"SEC. 38. Promotions. – (a) A uniformed member of the PNP shall not be eligible for
promotion to a higher position or rank unless he or she has successfully passed the
corresponding promotional examination given by the Commission, or the Bar, or the
corresponding board examinations for technical services and other professions, has
satisfactorily completed the appropriate and accredited course in the PNPA or
equivalent training institutions, and has satisfactorily passed the required
psychiatric/psychological and drug tests. In addition, no uniformed member of the PNP
shall be eligible for promotion during the pendency of his or her administrative and/or
criminal case or unless he or she has been cleared by the People's Law Enforcement
Board (PLEB), and the Office of the Ombudsman of any complaints proffered against
him or her, if any.

"(b) Any uniformed member of the PNP who has exhibited acts of conspicuous
courage and gallantry at the risk of his/her life above and beyond the call of
duty, shall be promoted to the next higher rank: Provided, That such acts shall
be validated by the Commission based on established criteria."

E. UPGRADING OF SALARIES AND BENEFITS

Section 34. Section 75 of the same Act is hereby amended to read as follows:

"SEC. 75. Retirement Benefits. – Monthly retirement pay shall be fifty percent (50%) of
the base pay and longevity pay of the retired grade in case of twenty (20) years of
active service, increasing by two and one-half percent (2.5%) for every year of active
service rendered beyond twenty (20) years to a maximum of ninety percent (90%) for
thirty-six (36) years of active service and over: Provided, That, the uniformed
personnel shall have the option to receive in advance and in lump sum his retirement

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pay for the first five (5) years: Provided, further, That payment of the retirement
benefits in lump sum shall be made within six (6) months from effectivity date of
retirement and/or completion: Provided, finally, That retirement pay of the officers/non-
officers of the PNP shall be subject to adjustments based on the prevailing scale of
base pay of police personnel in the active service."

Section 35. Section 73 of the same Act is hereby amended to read as follows:

"SEC. 73. Permanent Physical Disability. – An officer or non-officer who is


permanently and totally disabled as a result of injuries suffered or sickness contracted
in the performance of his duty as duly certified by the National Police Commission,
upon finding and certification by the appropriate medical officer, that the extent of the
disability or sickness renders such member unfit or unable to further perform the duties
of his position, shall be entitled to one year's salary and to lifetime pension equivalent
to eighty percent (80%) of his last salary, in addition to other benefits as provided
under existing laws.

"Should such member who has been retired under permanent total disability under this
section die within five (5) years from his retirement, his surviving legal spouse or if
there be none, the surviving dependent legitimate children shall be entitled to the
pension for the remainder of the five (5) years guaranteed period."

Section 36. Section 36 of Republic Act No. 6975 is hereby amended to read as follows:

"SEC. 36. Status of Members of the Philippine National Police. – The uniformed
members of the PNP shall be considered employees of the National Government and
shall draw their salaries therefrom. They shall have the same salary grade level as that
of public school teachers: Provided, That PNP members assigned in Metropolitan
Manila, chartered cities and first class municipalities may be paid financial incentive by
the local government unit concerned subject to the availability of funds."

Section 37. Early Retirement Program. – Within three (3) years after the effectivity of this
Act, any PNP officer or non-commissioned officer may retire and be paid separation benefits
corresponding to a position two (2) ranks higher than his or her present rank subject to the
following conditions:

a) that at the time he or she applies for retirement, he or she has already rendered at
least ten (10) years of continuous government service;

b) the applicant is not scheduled for separation or retirement from the service due to
the attrition system or separation for cause;

c) he or she has no pending administrative or criminal case; and

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d) he or she has at least three (3) more years in the service before reaching the
compulsory retirement age and at least a year before his or her maximum tenure in
position.

Section 38. Rationalization of Retirement and Separation Benefits. – The Commission


shall formulate a rationalized retirement and separation benefits schedule and program within
one (1) year from the effectivity of this Act for approval by Congress: Provided, That the
approved schedule and program shall have retroactive effect in favor of PNP members and
officers retired or separated from the time specified in the law, unless the retirement or
separation is for cause and the decision denies the grant of benefits.

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