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SUSTANTIVOS: SINGULAR/PLURAL

USO:
Indicar dos o más unidades del mismo objeto.

FORMA:
Añadir una "s" al sustantivo.

 a dollar many guitars


 a guitar two dollar
Muchos sustantivos cambian su ortografía al hacer el plural.

Cuando un sustantivo termina en "s", "ss", "x", "sh" o "ch", añadir "es".

a watch watches

NOTA: "es" se pronuncia "ez"

Cuando un sustantivo acaba en consonante + "y"cambiar la "y" por "i" y añadir


"es".

 a baby
 babies

Cuando un sustantivo termina en "o", a veces añadir "es".

 a potato
 potatoes
PERO
 a radio
 radios

Cuando un sustantivo acaba en "f" o "fe", cambiar la "f" por "v" y añadir "es" o "s".a
shelf shelves

A veces la forma plural del sustantivo parece totalmente distinta:

a foot / feet
a woman / women
a man / men
a mouse / mice
a person / people
a child / children
THERE IS / THERE ARE

USO:
Indicar que algo existe o está presente.

FORMA:
Singular: [THERE IS + RESTO DE LA ORACIÓN]

Plural: [THERE ARE + RESTO DE LA ORACIÓN]

Interrogaciones: [IS/ARE THERE + RESTO DE LA ORACIÓN]

EJEMPLOS:
"Are there any cookies left?"
"There is one more left."

ARTICULOS

USO:
"a" y "an" se utilizan con todos los sustantivos contables en singular.

"the" se utiliza para referirse a un sustantivo específico, singular o plural.

FORMA:
Con las palabras que comienzan por consonante se utiliza la forma "a". Las palabras que comienzan por vocal
utilizan la forma "an".

EJEMPLOS:
"Give me a sandwich please."
(Sandwich es singular y puede contarse.)

"This is a dog."
(Dog comienza por "d", una consonante.)

"This is an orange."
(Orange comienza por "o", una vocal.)

"I want the English book."


"I want the English books."
("the" se utiliza igualmente con sustantivos en plural o en singular.)

"I want water, please."


"I want the water, please."
(Water no puede contarse, por tanto solo puede utilizarse "the" y no "a".)

PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: AFIRMATIVO

USO:
Describir acciones que están ocurriendo ahora o en el futuro.
FORMA:
[SUJETO + BE + VERBOing + RESTO DE LA ORACIÓN]

I am waiting for you.


You are eating my cake.
He/She/It is sleeping now.

We are going tomorrow.


You are walking too fast.
They are studying English this year.

EJEMPLOS:
"I am trying to study."
"He is eating an apple."
"Our secretary is eating lunch."
"We are meeting them tonight."

PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: PREGUNTAS SI/NO

USO:
Realizar preguntas que requieren "sí" o "no" como respuesta

FORMA

El sujeto y la forma de "BE" cambian de lugar.

Enunciado: He is sleeping.
Pregunta SI/NO: Is he sleeping?

Enunciado: They are working now.


Pregunta SI/NO: Are they working now?

EJEMPLOS:
"Are you listening to me?"
"Is your sister moving to New York?"

PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: RESPUESTAS CORTAS

USO:
Responder a una pregunta sí/no.

FORMA:
[YES + SUJETO + BE] (nunca se utiliza con contracciones)
[NO + SUJETO + BE + NOT] (a menudo se utiliza con contracciones)

AFIRMATIVA
Yes, I am.
Yes, you are.
Yes, he is.
Yes, she is.
Yes, it is.

Yes, we are.
Yes, you are.
Yes, they are.
NEGATIVA

No, I'm not.


No, you're not. No, you aren't.
No, he's not. No, he isn't.
No, it's not. No, it isn't.

No, we're not. No, we aren't.


No, you're not. No, you aren't.
No, they're not. No, they aren't.

EJEMPLOS:
"Marie, are you enjoying the party?"
"Yes, I am."

"Are we leaving now?"


"No, we aren't."

Cerrar la ventana
PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: NEGATIVO

USO:
Describir una acción que no está ocurriendo ahora o en el futuro.

FORMA:
[SUJET + BE + NOT + VERBO+ing (+ REST)]

I am not driving.
You are not listening.
She is not working.
He is not working.
It is not working.

We are not studying.


You are not waiting.
They are not talking.

EJEMPLOS:
"It is not raining anymore."
"I am not going to the party tonight."

PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: PREGUNTAS -WH


USO:
Realizar preguntas que comienzan con las siguientes palabras de interrogación: WHAT,
WHEN, WHERE, WHO, WHY, HOW

FORMA:
[PALABRA DE INTERROGACIÓN + BE + SUJETO + VERBOing + RESTO]

NOTA: el sujeto y la forma de "BE" cambian de lugar.

They are working at home now.


Are they working at home now?
Where are they working now? (Wh-Question)

EJEMPLO:
"What are you doing now?"
"I'm watching a movie on TV."

"BE" PRESENTE: NEGATIVO

USO:
Hacer una sentencia negativa

FORMA:
Agregar "not" despues del verbo "BE".
[SUJETO + BE + NOT + RESTO DE LA SENTENCIA]

I am not
You are not
She is not
He is not
It is not

We are not
You are not
They are not

EJEMPLOS:
"This dress is not my size."
"They are not happy."

PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: CAMBIOS DE ORTOGRAFIA

USO:
La ortografía de algunos verbos cambia cuando se añade "ing".

FORMA:
En la mayoría de los verbos que terminan en consonante- vocal-consonante, se duplica la última letra:
stop - stopping

En los verbos que acaban en "e", eliminar la"e" antes de añadir "ing":
have - having
give - giving
EJEMPLOS:
"I'm having a great time in Paris."
"The bus driver is stopping the bus."

PRESENTE PROGRESIVO: CONTRACCIONES

USO:
Unir el sujeto y la forma de "BE" y convertirlos en una palabra. Se emplea en conversación.

FORMA:

FORMAS AFIRMATIVAS

Forma Regular Forma Contraída


I am going. I'm going.
You are going. You're going.
He is going. He's going.
She is going. She's going.
It is going. It's going.
We are going. We're going.
You are going. You're going.
They are going. They're going.

EJEMPLOS:
He is taking the bus.
He's taking the bus.

FORMAS NEGATIVAS

I'm not working.


You're not working. You aren't working.
He's not working. He isn't working.
She's not working. She isn't working.
It's not working It isn't working.

We're not working. We aren't working.


You're not working. You aren't working.
They're not working. They aren't working.

EJEMPLOS:
"Frank is not driving to work today."
"Frank isn't driving to work today."
"Frank's not driving to work today."

SUSTANTIVOS: POSESIVO

USO:
Mostrar a quién o a qué pertenece una cosa.

FORMA:
Añadir " 's " al nombre de la persona, lugar o cosa a la que pertenece el sustantivo. En los sustantivos en
plural, colocar el " ' " después de la "s".
EJEMPLOS:
"The boy's pizza."
(La pizza pertenece al niño.)

"The boys' pizza."


(La pizza pertenece a los niños.)