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MODEL EXAM

PART – A

1. What should be done if there is number indication of oil pressure


shortly after starting the engine?
 After starting the engine, check for oil pressure immediately.
 If oil pressure does not register within the prescribed time (10-30
sec) shut down the engine and identifies the problem.
2. What are the methods and purpose of preliminary visual inspection?
 Visual inspection is accomplished by direct examination and with
the use of magnifying glass. In both case a strong light should be
used to reveal the defects.
 Visual inspection reveals cracks, corrosion, nicks, scratches galling,
scoring and other disturbances. Parts that are damaged beyond repair
should be discarded and marked. So that they will not be reused.
3. Why are crank pins usually hollow?
Crank pins are made hollow to reduce its weight, resulting in low
inertia effect of reciprocating parts.
This pin is also known as “Fully Floating” as this is free to turn or
oscillate both in the piston bosses as well as the small end of the
connecting rod.
4. Why is compression testing is carried out piston engine?
 Compression testing is basically a test to determine the amount of
leakage past the piston rings and valves in an engine cylinder.
 The type of compression test used for aircraft engines is a
differential compression test.
5. How the term is overhauled engine defined?
Overhauled engine, according to the FAA, (Federation of Aviation
Authority) is one that has been disassembled, cleaned, inspected, repaired
as necessary, reassembled, and tested according to the manufacturer
instruction and specification.
6. Enumerate the instruments used for Non – routine inspection of gas
turbine engine?
Bore scope or video scope
Fiberscope
Electronic imaging
7. What is “hung start” or “false” start?
If the engine fails to accelerate properly or does not reach the idle rpm
position, the starting attempt is called a false start or a hung start.
8. Distinguished a gas-turbine igniter plug with a spark plug.
 Design and configuration of igniter plug and spark plug are
different.
 Since igniter plug is designed to operate at a lower surrounding
pressure than is a spark plug, the spark gaps in an igniter are greater.
 Spark discharge of an igniter causes much more rapid erosion of the
electrodes than the spark provided by the spark plug.
9. Define ‘online maintenance’
Maintenance work that is required to maintain an engine and its systems in
an air worthy condition while it is installed in an aircraft is called on line
maintenance.
10. Write down the two methods of measuring and correcting any
unbalance of gas turbine engine?
The two main methods of measuring and correcting unbalance are
single plane (static) balancing and two plane (dynamic) balancing
2 ] 16 – Mk

SUPERCHARGERS – sounds cool, right ? Well, it is. You might have come

across it in NFS or other racing games if you are hardcore racing fan like me .
So what are superchargers, their types, advantages, how do they work ?
Lets know everything related to them today, right here, right now !

Superchargers :-

In simple words, Superchargers are pressure boosting devices(compressors) which


increase the pressure of the air before letting it get into cylinder of the internal
combustion engine !
And the process of increasing the pressure OR forcing more air to get into engine
is called as supercharging.

Why do we need superchargers ?

Let’s keep this simple by not diving into those big lengthy formulas, alright.
The power generated by engine is a function of the mean effective pressure aka.
average pressure in the cylinder. Power is directly proportional to the average
pressure.
Power ∝ Mean effective pressure (MEP)

Pressure goes on increasing during compression stroke & goes on decreasing


during exhaust stroke. So average pressure is calculated with the help of these data.
More the MEP, more the efficiency of engine !
So if more air is forced & compressed into the cylinder, there will be an increase in
the mean pressure & hence will produce more power ! This is why we need them –
to force the air into engine !

Working of Superchargers :-

Diagram showing working of a supercharger

Superchargers are basically compressors/blowers which takes air at normal


ambient pressure & compresses it and forcefully pushes it into engine ! Power to
the compressor/blower is transmitted from engine via the belt drive.
The addition of extra amount of air-fuel mixture into the cylinder increases the
mean effective pressure of the engine. An increment in MEP makes the engine
produce more power. In this way, adding a compressor to the engine makes it more
efficient.

Types of superchargers :-
types of superchargers

Source

 Centrifugal superchargers –

These are commonly used in the vehicles & are powered by the engine via a belt-
pulley system. The air-fuel mixture enters the impeller at the centre. The air is then
passed through diffuser, which increases the pressure. Finally the air makes it way
through the volute casing to the engine.

 Root’s type supercharger –

Root’s type contain two rotors of epicycloid shape. The rotors are of equal size
inter-meshed & are mounted and keyed on 2 different shafts. Any one shaft is
powered by the engine via a V-belt or gear train(depending on the distance). Each
rotor can have 2 or more than 2 lobes depending upon the requirement. The air
enters through the inlet & gets trapped on its way to outlet. As a result, pressure at
outlet would be greater than the inlet.

 Vane type supercharger –

A number of vanes are mounted on the drum of the supercharger. These vanes are
pushed outwards via pre-compressed springs. This arrangement helps the vane to
stay in contact with the inner surface of the body.
Now due to eccentric rotation, the space between two vanes is more at the inlet &
less at the oulet. In this way, the quantity of air which enters at the inlet decreases
it’s volume on its way to oulet. A decrease in volume results in increment of
pressure of air. Thus the mixture obtained at the outlet is at higher pressure than at
the inlet.

working of vane type supercharger

Are there any other methods of supercharging ?

Yes. There are various other ways to force the air which doesn’t need extra power
unlike compressors. The 2 most widely applied are –

Ram effect supercharging –

Here, the inlet manifold is designed in such a way that the air gets automatically
pushed into the cylinder. The air continuously tries into the cylinder but the intake
valves open/close several times a second ! Every time the valve closes, the air just
rams into it. This generates a pressure wave which travels in the opposite direction
until it hits the plenum & gets reflected back.
Now if the resonant frequency of the plenum & engine matches, this pressure wave
carries more air into the cylinder doing the work of a supercharger.

Under piston supercharging –

This type of method is generally adopted in large marine engines. It utilizes the
bottom side of the piston for compressing the air. With proper timing of valves,
this system gives an adequate supply of compressed air, as there are 2 delivery
strokes to each suction stroke of each stroke !
You might like –

Advantages of supercharging :-

 Higher power output. This was whole point of studying & installing
superchargers.

 Reduced smoke from exhaust gases. The extra air pushed into cylinder,
helps the air to complete combust leading to lesser smoke generation.

 Quicker acceleration of vehicle. Supercharger starts working as soon as the


engine starts running. This way the engine gets a boost even at the beginning
leading to quicker acceleration.

 Cheaper than turbocharger.

Limitations :-

 Draws power from engine. Though the overall mechanical efficiency is


increased but it consumes power from the engine. The same job is done by a
turbocharger without consuming extra power !

 Increased heat generation. The engine should have proper heat dissipation
systems as well as it should be able to withstand thermal stresses !

 Induces stress. The engine must hold up against the high pressure & bigger
explosions generated in the cylinder. If the engine is not designed
considering these stresses, it may damage the piston head

Turbocharger:

A turbocharger, colloquially known as a turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction


device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output
by forcing extra compressed air into the combustion chamber.

What's the difference between single, twin, twin-scroll, variable geometry, or even
electric turbochargers? What are the advantages of each setup?
The world of turbocharging has about as much variety as engine layouts. Let’s take
a look at the different styles:

1. Single-Turbo

2. Twin-Turbo

3. Twin-Scroll Turbo

4. Variable Geometry Turbo

5. Variable Twin Scroll Turbo

6. Electric Turbo

1. Single-Turbo

Single turbochargers alone have limitless variability. Differing the compressor


wheel size and turbine will lead to completely different torque characteristics.
Large turbos will bring on high top-end power, but smaller turbos will provide
better low-end grunt as they spool faster. There are also ball bearing and journal
bearing single turbos. Ball bearings provide less friction for the compressor and
turbine to spin on, thus are faster to spool (while adding cost).

Advantages

 Cost effective way of increasing an engine’s power and efficiency.


 Simple, generally the easiest of the turbocharging options to install.
 Allows for using smaller engines to produce the same power as larger
naturally-aspirated engines, which can often remove weight.


 Disadvantages

 Single turbos tend to have a fairly narrow effective RPM range. This makes
sizing an issue, as you’ll have to choose between good low-end torque or
better high-end power.
 Turbo response may not be as quick as alternative turbo setups.

2. Twin-Turbo
Just like single turbochargers, there are plenty of options when using two
turbochargers. You could have a single turbocharger for each cylinder bank (V6,
V8, etc). Alternatively, a single turbocharger could be used for low RPM and
bypass to a larger turbocharger for high RPM (I4, I6, etc). You could even have
two similarly sized turbos where one is used at low RPM and both are used at
higher RPM. On the BMW X5 M and X6 M, twin-scroll turbos are used, one on
each side of the V8.

Advantages

 For parallel twin turbos on ‘V’ shaped engines, the benefits (and drawbacks)
are very similar to single turbo setups.
 For sequential turbos or using one turbo at low RPM and both at high RPM,
this allows for a much wider, flatter torque curve. Better low-end torque, but
the power won’t taper at high RPM like with a small single turbo.

Disadvantages

 Cost and complexity, as you’ve nearly double the turbo components.


 There are lighter, more efficient ways of achieving similar results (as
discussed below).

3. Twin-Scroll Turbo

Twin-scroll turbochargers are better in nearly every way than single-scroll turbos.
By using two scrolls, the exhaust pulses are divided. For example, on four cylinder
engines (firing order 1-3-4-2), cylinders 1 and 4 might feed to one scroll of the
turbo, while cylinders 2 and 3 feed to a separate scroll. Why is this beneficial?
Let’s say cylinder 1 is ending its power stroke as the piston approaches bottom
dead centre, and the exhaust valve starts to open. While this is happening, cylinder
2 is ending the exhaust stroke, closing the exhaust valve and opening the intake
valve, but there is some overlap. In a traditional single-scroll turbo manifold, the
exhaust pressure from cylinder 1 will interfere with cylinder 2 pulling in fresh air
since both exhaust valves are temporarily open, reducing how much pressure
reaches the turbo and interfering with how much air cylinder 2 pulls in. By
dividing the scrolls, this problem is eliminated.

Advantages

 More energy is sent to the exhaust turbine, meaning more power.


 A wider RPM range of effective boost is possible based on the different
scroll designs.
 More valve overlap is possible without hampering exhaust scavenging,
meaning more tuning flexibility.

Disadvantages

 Requires a specific engine layout and exhaust design (eg: I4 and V8 where 2
cylinders can be fed to each scroll of the turbo, at even intervals).
 Cost and complexity versus traditional single turbos.

COMPARISON OF TWIN TURBO AND TWIN SCROLL TURBO

4. Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT)

Perhaps one of the most exceptional forms of turbocharging, VGTs are limited in
production (though fairly common in diesel engines) as a result of cost and exotic
material requirements. Internal vanes within the turbocharger alter the area-to-
radius (A/R) ratio to match the RPM. At low RPM, a low A/R ratio is used to
increase exhaust gas velocity and quickly spool up the turbocharger. As the revs
climb, the A/R ratio increases to allow for increased airflow. The result is low
turbo lag, a low boost threshold, and a wide and smooth torque band.

Advantages

 Wide, flat torque curve. Effective turbocharging at a very wide RPM range.
 Requires just a single turbo, simplifying a sequential turbo setup into
something more compact.

Disadvantages

 Typically only used in diesel applications where exhaust gases are lower so
the vanes will not be damaged by heat.
 For gasoline applications, cost typically keeps them out as exotic metals
have to be used in order to maintain reliability. The tech has been used on
the Porsche 997, though very few VGT gasoline engines exist as a result of
the cost associated.
5. Variable Twin-Scroll Turbocharger

Could this be the solution we’ve been waiting for? While attending SEMA 2015 I
stopped by the BorgWarner booth to look into the latest in turbocharging, among
the concepts is the variable twin-scroll turbo as described in the video above.

Advantages

 Significantly cheaper (in theory) than VGTs, thus making an acceptable case
for gasoline turbocharging.
 Allows for a wide, flat torque curve.
 More robust in design versus a VGT, depending on the material selection.

Disadvantages

 Cost and complexity versus using a single turbo or traditional twin-scroll.


 The technology has been played with before (eg: quick spool valve) but
doesn’t seem to catch on in the production world. There are likely additional
challenges with the technology.

6. Electric Turbochargers

Aeristech’s patented Full Electric Turbocharger Technology is a new enabling


technology that will help vehicle manufacturers meet stringent future emissions
legislation whilst providing excellent response throughout the engine operating
range, even at low engine rpm and vehicle speed.FETT is the ultimate solution for
extreme engine downsizing and improved engine efficiency using a single stage
turbocharger.

Throwing a powerful electric motor in the mix eliminates nearly all of the
drawbacks of a turbocharger. Turbo lag? Gone. Not enough exhaust gases? No
problem. Turbo can’t produce low-end torque? Now it can! Perhaps the next phase
of modern turbocharging, there are undoubtably drawbacks of the electric path as
well.

Advantages

 By directly connecting an electric motor to the compressor wheel, turbo lag


and insufficient exhaust gases can be virtually eliminated by spinning the
compressor with electric power when needed.
 By connecting an electric motor to the exhaust turbine, wasted energy can be
recovered (as is done in Formula 1).
 A very wide effective RPM range with even torque throughout.


 Disadvantages

 Cost and complexity, as you now must account for the electric motor and
ensure it remains cool to prevent reliability issues. That goes for the added
controllers as well.
 Packaging and weight become an issue, especially with the addition of a
battery on board, which will be necessary to supply sufficient power to the
turbo when needed.
 VGTs or twin-scrolls can offer very similar benefits (though not at quite the
same level) for a significantly lower cost.

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