Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

ISSN 2348–2370


Cooling Load Estimation using Hap for Commercial Building

Dept of Mechanical Engineering, SVITS, Mahbubnagar, Telangana, India.

Abstract: Human comfortness is essential now a day A. Heating

because of the improvement in life style and increasing There are different types of standard heating systems.
atmospheric temperature. Electrical air conditioning Central heating is often used in cold climates to heat private
machines are not most suitable for large buildings because houses and public buildings. Such a system contains a
of the higher power consumption and shorter life. Central boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air, all
air conditioning is more reliable for easy operation with a in a central location such as a furnace room in a home or a
lower maintenance cost. With large buildings such as mechanical room in a large building. The use of water as the
commercial complex, auditorium, office buildings are heat transfer medium is known as hedonics. The system also
provided with central air conditioning system. Educational contains either ductwork, for forced air systems, or piping to
and research institutions also need human comfortness, as distribute a heated fluid and radiators to transfer this heat to
the population of student community increase year by year. the air. The term radiator in this context is misleading since
The effective design of central air conditioning can provide most heat transfer from the heat exchanger is by convection,
lower power consumption, capital cost and improve not radiation. The radiators may be mounted on walls or
aesthetics of a building. This paper establishes the results of buried in the floor to give under-floor heat.
cooling load calculation of different climate conditions by
using CLTD method for a multi-story building which is a II. VENTILATION
part of an institute. Cooling load items such as, people heat Ventilating is the process of "changing" or replacing air
gain, lighting heat gain, infiltration and ventilation heat gain in any space to control temperature or remove moisture,
can easily be putted to the MS-Excel programme. The odors, smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria, carbon- dioxide,
programme can also be used to calculate cooling load due to and to replenish oxygen. Ventilation includes both the
walls and roofs. exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air
within the building. It is one of the most important factors
Keywords: HVAC, ASHRAE, CFM, CLTD Method. for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings [6]
Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into
I. INTRODUCTION mechanical/forced and natural types. Ventilation is used to
HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) refers remove unpleasant smells and excessive moisture, introduce
to the equipment, distribution network, and terminals that outside air, to keep interior building air circulating, and to
provide either collectively or individually the heating, prevent stagnation of the interior air.
ventilating, or air-conditioning processes to a building.
HVAC system design is a major sub discipline of A. Mechanical Or Forced Ventilation
mechanical engineering, based on the principles of A building ventilation system that uses powered fans or
thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. HVAC blowers to provide free air to rooms and its used to control
systems provide: indoor air quality, excess humidity, odours and
 Heating contaminants can often be controlled via dilution or
 Cooling replacement with outside air. Kitchens and bathrooms
typically have mechanical exhaust to control odour and
Air handling, ventilation, and air quality HVAC sometimes humidity.
accounts for 40 to 60 percent of the energy used in U.S.
commercial and residential buildings. This represents an B. Natural Ventilation
opportunity for energy savings using proven technologies Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with
and design concepts. The American Society of Heating, outside air without the use of a fan or other mechanical
Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. system. It can be achieved with opened windows.
(ASHRAE) supplies technical information to engineers and
other professionals. In addition, ASHRAE writes standards III. AIR-CONDITIONING
and guidelines in its field of expertise to guide industry in Air-conditioning is the process of removing heat from
the delivery of goods and services to the public. the space according to the human comfort conditions and its
simultaneous control of temperature, humidity, air
Copyright @ 2018 IJATIR. All rights reserved.
movement and the quality of air in space. Early test on Construction Materials: Materials and thickness of wall,
refrigeration discussed the application of using ice for roof ceiling, floor and partitions and their relative‟s position
preservation of food and the initial development of the in the structure.
concept of mechanical chemical refrigeration in 1978 in
Scotland by Dr. William Cullen. It was in 1844 that Dr. Surrounding Conditions: Exterior color of walls and roof
John Gorrie (1803- 1855), director of the U.S. Marine shaded by adjacent building or sunlight space- invented or
Hospital and Apalachicola, Florida, described his new vented, gravity or forced ventilation. Surrounding spaces
refrigeration machine. In the world built and used for conditioned or unconditioned- temperature of non-
refrigeration and air-conditioning. Refrigeration engineering conditioned adjacent spaces, such as furnace or boiler room,
became a recognized profession and in 1904 some 70 and kitchens, floors on ground, crawl space and basement.
members formed ASRE (American Society of Refrigeration
Engineers). The real “Father of air-conditioning” was Willis Window Sized and Location: wood or material sash,
H. Carrier (1876-1950) as noted by many industry single or double hung, type of glass single or multiple type
professionals and historians. of shading device. Dimension of reveals and over changes.
Doors- Location, types, size and frequency of use.

Stairways, Elevators and Escalators: Location

temperature of space if open unconditioned area.
Horsepower of machinery, ventilated or not.

People: Number, duration of occupancy, nature of activity

any special concentration. At times, it is required to estimate
the number of people on the basis of square feet per person,
or on average traffic

Ventilation: CFM per person, CFM per sq. ft, scheduled

ventilation (agreement with purchaser) Excessive smoking
orders, the refrigerant vapor back to liquid. In vapor
compression system compressor and condenser are used to
the conversion of refrigerant vapor (coming from the
evaporator) into liquid. In the absorption system also, the
Fig.1. condenser is used but the compressor is replaced by the
IV. PRINCIPLE OF WORKING combination of absorber generator.
A. Building Survey
Space Characteristics and Heat Load Sources: An IV. DESIGN METHODLOGY
accurate survey of the load components of the space to be A. Heating Load Estimate
air-conditioned is a basic requirement for a realistic Source of Heat:
estimation of cooling and heating loads, the compel and  Outside Heat
accuracy of this survey is the very foundation of the  Inside generated heat
estimation, and its importance cannot be over emphasized
 Outside source heat
[1] Mechanical and architectural drawings, complete fields
 A/C Machine Heat
sketches and in some cases photographs of important
aspects are part of a good survey. The following physical  Visitors Heat
aspects must be considered.
Outside Heat:
Orientation of Building: location of the space to be air-
 Solar Heat
conditioned with respect to Compass points- sun and wind
effects.  Machine AHU
 Visitors Heat
Reflective Surfaces: water, sand and parking lots etc.  Air Leakage
 Fresh air
Use if Space(s): Office, Hospital, departmental store,
specialty shop,machine shop and factory assembly plant etc. Solar Heat Load Come Through Radiation &
Physical Dimensions of Spaces (s): Length, width and  Radiation comes through glass window.
height.  Conduction through Wall.
 Air Conditioning system will be too much affected
Ceiling Height: Floor to floor height, floor to ceiling, if we fix it North or East
clearance between suspended ceiling and beams.  Orientation Layout of the building will be in
consideration at the time of heat load calculation:
Columns and Beams: size, depth also knee braces.
 Types of wall used material.
International Journal of Advanced Technology and Innovative Research
Volume. 10, IssueNo.03, March-2018, Pages: 0380-0383
Cooling Load Estimation using Hap for Commercial Building
 Window fixed side & Material. transfer function method is to use the one step procedure,
 Ground Floor not affected Heat which was first presented in the ASHRAE Handbook of
 1st floor & above lower floor‟s Condition, Fundamentals in the year 2005. This method is called the
roof material, floor Material. cooling load temperature differences (CLTD) method. In
 Roof: RCC, Asbestos sheet, false sealing this method, hand calculation is used to calculate cooling
material Leakage load.
 Exposed sun V. RESULT
 Infiltration In this study, a multi-story building an integrated part of
a research institution was considered for calculating cooling
 Leakage in side, Ventilation, IAQ [Indoor air
loads. Cooling load temperature difference (CLTD) method
quality] fresh air CFM/Person.
was used to find the cooling load for summer (month of
 Occupancy: Sensible heat from Visitors+ Latent
May) and monsoon (month of July). Cooling load items
heat added
such as, people, light, infiltration and ventilation can easily
 Heat load reduction: False ceiling.
be putted to the MS-Excel program. The program can also
be used to calculate cooling load due to walls and roofs.
Human beings inside a space require freshness to air. It
 The results show that the total cooling load for the AC
has been seen in studies by the ASHRAE, that, inadequate
required rooms is 168.03 tons for summer (month of
fresh air supply to a space leads to health problems for
May) and for monsoon (month of July) total cooling
people inside it. This is called ‘Sick building syndrome’.
load is 153.53 tons. The m2/ton for the TIIR building is
The ventilation is provide to the conditioned space in order
about 10.9 m2/ton for summer and 12 m2/ton for
to minimize odor, concentration of smoke, carbon dioxide
monsoon, which is approximately same, comparing
and other undesirable gases, so that freshness of air could be
with the standard value about 10 m2/ton.
maintained. The quantity of outside air used for ventilation
 The average sensible heat ratio of the building is 0.76
should provide at least one-half air change per hours in
for summer and 0.637 for monsoon. It shows that the
building with normal ceiling height. Also, if the infiltration
air quantity is larger than the ventilation quantity, then the cooling load calculation is properly done with well
accounted of latent heat came from the people and
latter should be decreased to at least equal to the infiltration
infiltration, especially in humid weather.
air. The outside air adds sensible as well as latent heat.
 The total dehumidify air of TIIR building is 1587
Total Room Sensible Heat Gain: Room sensible heat gain m3/min for summer and 946 m3/min for winter, for any
is a combination of all type of sensible heat gain at a office building the dehumidify air/m2 area should have
conditioned space i.e. in the range of 0.75 to 0.91 cmm for summer and 0.5 to
65 cmm for monsoon and the dehumidify air/m2 area of
RSHG = Sensible heat gain through walls, floors and the TIIR building are 0.86 cmm for summer and
ceilings + Sensible heat gain through glasses + Sensible heat 0.51cmm for monsoon.
gain due to occupants + Sensible heat gain due to
infiltration air + Sensible heat gain due to ventilation + VI. CONCLUSION
Sensible heat gain due to lights and fans. It is also seen that in this paper cooling requirement of
summer is about 9 % more as compare to monsoon for
Total Room Latent Heat Gain: Room latent heat gain is a climate condition of Rourkela. These all factors show that
combination of all type of latent heat gain at a conditioned the cooling load calculation of TIIR building is satisfactory.
space i.e.
RLHG = Latent heat gain due to infiltration + Latent heat [1] Cooling load calculation manual prepared by the
gain due to ventilations + Latent heat gain from persons + American Society of Heating, Refrigeratingand Air-
Latent heat gain due to appliances.. Conditioning Engineers, Inc., U.S. Department of Housing
and Urban Development.
In any building, heat is transmitted through external [2]ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals, Ch. 28.
walls, top roof, floor of the ground floor, windows and American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-
doors. Heat transfer takes place by conduction, convection Conditioning Engineers, U.S.A. (1997).
and radiation. The cooling load of the building is dependent [3]A Bhatia, HVAC Made Easy: A Guide of Heating and
on local climate, thermal characteristics of material and type Cooling Load Estimation, PDH online course M196
of building. For cooling load calculation, there are many (4PDH).
types of software such as DOE 2.1E, BLAST, Elite or HAP [4]Handbook of Air Conditioning System Design /Carrier
4.3 available which use the transfer functions method and Air Conditioning Co. by Carrier Air Conditioning Pty. Ltd.
heat balance method. These methods require a complex and [5]Andersson,B., Wayne P. and Ronald K., " The impact of
lengthy data input. Therefore, most of the designers do not building orientation on residential heating and cooling" ,
use these methods. They prefer a more compact and easy Energy and Buildings,1985; 8; 205-224.
method for calculating the cooling load of a building. A
more basic version for calculating a cooling load using the
International Journal of Advanced Technology and Innovative Research
Volume. 10, IssueNo.03, March-2018, Pages: 0380-0383
Author’s Profile:
A Raghavender B.Tech student in the Mechanical
Engineering from Sri Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology
And Science, MBNR.

Gannoju Prashanth B.Tech student in the Mechanical

Engineering from Sri Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology
And Science, MBNR.

Mohd Abdul Ateeq B.Tech student in the Mechanical

Engineering from Sri Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology
And Science, MBNR.

Mohd Abdul Arshad B.Tech student in the Mechanical

Engineering from Sri Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology
And Science, MBNR.

Dr. Kasoju Sudhakar Principal & Professor, Mechanical

Engineering from Sri Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology
And Science, MBNR.

International Journal of Advanced Technology and Innovative Research

Volume. 10, IssueNo.03, March-2018, Pages: 0380-0383