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Experiment 12: Series and Parallel Pumps

Introduction to the Equipment

The apparatus consists of a tank and pipework which delivers water to and
from two identical centrifugal pumps. The unit is fitted with electronic sensors
which measure the process variables. Signals from these sensors are sent to a
computer via an interface device, and the unit is supplied with data logging
software as standard.

The speed of one of the pumps may be varied to allow the collection of
performance data over a range of parameters. Outlet pressures may be varied
to control the flow rate. Flow through the system may be set to allow single
pump operation, series pump operation or parallel pump operation.

Figure 1: Series and Parallel Pumps Demonstration Unit


Pumps
The two pumps are motor-driven centrifugal pumps. On pump 1 the speed of
the motor is adjustable to give a range of 0 to 100%, allowing operation as a
single pump for pump performance analysis. Pump 2 is an identical model but
is run at its design speed, which is equivalent to a setting of 80% on the
variable-speed pump for a 50Hz electrical supply, or 100% for a 60 Hz supply.
The pump bodies and cover plates are made from clear acrylic, allowing the
impellers to be observed.

Inlet valve

A manual ball valve controls the inlet (suction) head supplied to the pumps.
This valve should be fully open except when investigating the effect of inlet
pressure on pump performance and cavitation formation.
Hydraulics Lab - ECIV 3122 Experiment (12): Series & Parallel Pumps

Setting the flow path

The system may be configured to drive flow


using single, series or parallel pumps. The
system valves are as shown:

Valves should be set to configure the system as follows. The software should also be
set to the corresponding flow path to ensure that the correct calculations are
performed.

Single Pump:

Series Pumps:

Parallel Pumps:
Hydraulics Lab - ECIV 3122 Experiment (12): Series & Parallel Pumps

Exercise F

Objective
To investigate the result on discharge and total head of operating pumps in
series.

Theory
A single pump may be insufficient to produce the performance required.
Combining two pumps increases the pumping capacity of the system. Two
pumps may be connected in series, so that water passes first through one pump
and then through the second. When two pumps operate in series, the flow rate
is the same as for a single pump but the total head is increased. The combined
pump head-capacity curve is found by adding the heads of the single pump
curves at the same capacity.

Figure 2
Equipment Set Up

Ensure the drain valve is fully closed.


If necessary, fill the reservoir to within 10 cm of the top rim.
Check that both pumps are fitted with similar impellers (the impellers may be
viewed through the clear cover plate of each pump).
Ensure the inlet valve and gate valve are both fully open.
Set the 3-way valve for flow in series (the earlier experiments have all used
this valve set for flow in parallel).
Ensure the equipment is connected to the IFD7 and the IFD7 is connected to a
suitable PC. The red and green indicator lights on the IFD7 should both be
illuminated.
Ensure the IFD7 is connected to an appropriate mains supply, and switch on
the supply. Switch on the IFD7.
Run the FM51-304 software. Check that 'IFD: OK' is displayed in the bottom
right corner of the screen and that there are values displayed in all the sensor
display boxes on the mimic diagram.
Hydraulics Lab - ECIV 3122 Experiment (12): Series & Parallel Pumps

Procedure
Both pumps must be used at the same setting in this experiment, to ensure
identical performance. As the speed of Pump 2 is fixed at its design
operational point, Pump 1 should be set to match - select 80% for a 50Hz
electrical supply, or 100% for 60 Hz.
Allow water to circulate until all air has been flushed from the system.
If results are already available for a single pump across its full flow range,
load those results into the software now and jump to the section of this
exercise using two pumps. If results are not available then proceed as follows:
Single pump performance:
Close Pump 2 outlet valve and open Pump 1 outlet valve.
In the software, on the mimic diagram, set the 'Mode' to 'Single' by selecting
the appropriate radio button.
Rename the results sheet to 'Single'.
Select the icon to record the sensor readings and pump settings on the
results table of the software.
Close the gate valve to reduce the flow by a small amount. Select the icon
again.
Continue to close the gate valve to give incremental changes in flow rate,
recording the sensor data each time.
After taking the final set of data, fully open the gate valve.
Series pump performance:
Create a new results sheet using the icon. Rename this new results sheet to
'Series'. In the software, on the mimic diagram, set the 'Mode' to 'Series' by
selecting the appropriate radio button.
Open Pump 2 outlet valve, close Pump 1 outlet valve and wait for any air to
circulate out of the system.
Select the icon to record the sensor readings and pump settings on the
results table of the software.
Close the gate valve to reduce the flow by a small increment. Select the
icon again.
Continue to close the gate valve to give incremental changes in flow rate,
recording the sensor data each time.
After taking the final set of data, fully open the gate valve again.
Exercise G may be performed immediately after this experiment without
closing the software; otherwise, save the results and ensure they are available
for Exercise G when required. (It may also be advisable to save the results
from this exercise before starting exercise G even if continuing straight on, to
ensure that the data is not lost in the event of a computer failure. The results
sheet may be overwritten with the combined results once Exercise G has been
completed).
Hydraulics Lab - ECIV 3122 Experiment (12): Series & Parallel Pumps

Results

On a base of flow rate, plot a graph of total head gain for the single pump and
for two pumps connected in series. Calculate the difference between the total
head gain for single and series pumps.

Conclusion

Does the total head gain for the two pumps in series match the theoretical
prediction of twice the head gain for a single pump (assuming the two pumps
used gave identical performance)?
Give examples of applications where pumps might be connected in series

Figure 3 Figure 4

‫عند توصيل المضخات على التوالي فإن‬


‫الفرق واضح‬

.‫ تزداد‬H ‫قيمة‬
‫ يجب أن تكون قيمة‬،‫و لرؤية ذلك عمليا‬
‫التدفق التي نقارن عندها منخفضة (أي أن‬
‫ مفتوح قليال) حتى يكون‬outlet valve
‫ لمضخة واحدة و‬head ‫الفرق بين‬
‫الفرق غير واضح‬

‫ كما بالشكل‬،‫لمضختين على التوالي واضح‬


.‫المجاور‬

Figure 5
Low Flow High Flow
Hydraulics Lab - ECIV 3122 Experiment (12): Series & Parallel Pumps

Exercise G
Objective

To investigate the result on discharge and total head of operating pumps in


parallel.

Theory

A single pump may be insufficient to produce the performance required.


Combining two pumps increases the pumping capacity of the system. Two
pumps may be connected in parallel, so that half the flow passes through one
of the pumps and the other half through the second pump. When two pumps
operate in parallel the total head increase remains unchanged but the flow rate
is increased. The head-capacity curve is found by adding the capacities of the
single pump curves at the same head.

Figure 6
Equipment Set Up

Ensure the drain valve is fully closed.


If necessary, fill the reservoir to within 10 cm of the top rim.
Check that both pumps are fitted with similar impellers (the impellers may be
viewed through the clear cover plate of each pump).
Ensure the inlet valve and gate valve are both full y open.
Set the 3-way valve for flow in parallel
Fully open the Pump 1 outlet valve and Pump 2 outlet valve. Opening both
valves fully ensures that the outlet pressure on both pumps is equal.
Ensure the equipment is connected to the IFD7 and the IFD7 is connected to a
suitable PC. The red and green indicator lights on the IFD7 should both be
illuminated.
Ensure the IFD7 is connected to an appropriate mains supply, and switch on
the supply. Switch on the IFD7.
Run the FM51-304 software. Check that 'IFD: OK' is displayed in the bottom
right corner of the screen and that there are values displayed in all the sensor
display boxes on the mimic diagram.
In the software, on the mimic diagram, set the 'Mode' to 'Parallel' by selecting
the appropriate radio button
Hydraulics Lab - ECIV 3122 Experiment (12): Series & Parallel Pumps

Procedure

Both pumps must be used at the same setting in this experiment, to ensure
identical performance. As the speed of Pump 2 is fixed at its design
operational point, Pump 1 should be set to match - select 80% for a 50Hz
electrical supply, or 100% for 60 Hz.
Allow water to circulate until all air has been flushed from the system.
Exercise F should be performed before this experiment, and the results loaded
into the software if the software is not still open from that exercise. If the
software is still open from Exercise F then create a new results sheet by
selecting the icon.
Rename the current (blank) results sheet to 'Parallel'.
Select the icon to record the sensor readings and pump settings on the
results table of the software.
Close the gate valve to reduce the flow by a small increment. Select the
icon again.
Continue to close the gate valve to give incremental changes in flow rate,
recording the sensor data each time
After taking the final set of data, fully open the gate valve. Set Pump 1 to 0%
and switch off both pumps

Results

On a base of flow rate, plot a graph of total head gain for the single pump and
for two pumps connected in parallel. Calculate the difference between the
capacity for single and parallel pumps.

Conclusion

Does the total head gain for the two pumps in parallel match the theoretical
prediction of twice the capacity of a single pump (assuming the two pumps
used gave identical performance)?
Compare the graphs for pumps in series and pumps in parallel, and describe
the similarities and differences.
Give examples of applications where pumps might be connected in parallel.
Drawing on the conclusions of earlier exercises, contrast these with
applications where it would be more appropriate to connect pumps in series,
and also with situations where it would be more appropriate to select a single
pump of higher performance.
‫‪Hydraulics Lab - ECIV 3122‬‬ ‫‪Experiment (12): Series & Parallel Pumps‬‬

‫مالحظات‪:‬‬

‫عند توصيل المضخات على التوازي فإن قيمة ‪Q‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬


‫تزداد‪.‬‬
‫الفرق قليل‬ ‫و لرؤية ذلك عمليا‪ ،‬يجب أن تكون قيمة التدفق التي‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫نقارن عندها عالية (أي أن ‪outlet valve fully‬‬
‫‪ )opened‬حتى يكون الفرق بين ‪ flow‬لمضخة واحدة‬
‫الفرق واضح‬ ‫و لمضختين على التوازي واضح‪ ،‬كما بالشكل‬
‫المجاور‪.‬‬

‫‪Figure 7‬‬
‫‪Low Flow‬‬ ‫‪High Flow‬‬
‫تكون فقاعات الهواء التي تسبب ‪ cavitation‬عند إغالق ‪ inlet valve‬تدريجيا في تجربة ‪ 10‬أوضح منه في‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫تجربة ‪.9‬‬