Sie sind auf Seite 1von 2


Free-Flow Speed
Field Measured (FFS) or Base (BFFS) is selected to show whether
the speed entered is field measured, or an estimated ideal free-
flow speed. If a field-measured free-flow speed is entered, no
adjustments are made. If an ideal free-flow speed estimate is
entered, additional data fields need to be coded to adjust for
the effects of median type, lane width, lateral clearance and
access points. Guidance on estimating speed is given on HCM
Page 21-5.

Median Type
Divided or undivided is selected as the type of median for the
analysis highway. Highways with two-way left-turn lanes
(TWLTL), barriers, curb or landscape designs are considered
divided. For Planning analyses, a divided highway is assumed.

The free-flow speed adjustment (FM) for median type is chosen
from HCM Exhibit 21-6. HCS automatically enters a default value
corresponding to which median type was selected.
i.e. Divided=0,Undivided=2.6

Lane Width
The average lane width for all lanes in the direction being
analyzed is entered.

The free-flow speed adjustment (FLW) for lane width is chosen
from HCM Exhibit 21-4
LW=3.6,FLW=0.0; LW=3.5,FLW=1.0; LW=3.4,FLW=2.1;
LW=3.3,FLW=3.1; LW=3.2,FLW=5.6; LW=3.1,FLW=8.1;

Lateral Clearance
The lateral clearance distance to fixed obstructions is entered.
Fields are provided for both left-side and right-side clearances.
The total lateral clearance is displayed as the sum of the two
sides. The left-side clearance will be assumed to be the
maximum for all undivided highways, since the effects of left-
side friction are accounted for in the median type adjustment.
For Planning analyses, maximum lateral clearances for both
sides are assumed.
The free-flow speed adjustment for lateral clearance is chosen
Access Points from HCM Exhibit 21-5.
Access points are entered to represent the total number of
intersections and driveways on the right side of the roadway in
the direction of travel, divided by the length of the analysis FA
section. Access points with significant influence should be The free-flow speed adjustment (FA) for access-point density is
considered, including those on the left side of a one-way chosen from HCM Exhibit 21-7.
highway at the analyst’s discretion. Where data on access points AP=3.6,FA=0.0; AP=6,FA=4.0; AP=12,FA=8.0; AP=18,FA=12.0;
are not available, the values from HCM Exhibit 12-4 may be AP>24,FA=16.0;
used with some judgment..
The average hourly traffic volume (V) including trucks, buses
and recreational vehicles is entered in vehicles per hour (vph).
This value will be adjusted to account for the number of lanes,
the peak-hour factor and the presence of heavy vehicles.

Peak-Hour Factor
The peak-hour factor (PHF) is used to adjust the traffic volume
for peak conditions. Multilane highways have been observed to
have peak-hour factors of 0.76 to 0.99. If local data are not
available, 0.85 and 0.92 are reasonable values for rural and
suburban multilane highways, respectively.

Number of Lanes
The number of lanes (N) on which the traffic flows in the
analysis direction. This value is used to express the computed
flow rate on a per-lane basis. For Planning analyses, level of
service is determined from HCM Exhibit 12-5 for both 4-lane
and 6-lane highways. For design analyses, a fractional value may
be computed when solving for Number of Lanes Required.
Designers should perform operational analyses for possible
choices for N

The type of terrain is selected from a list including Level, Rolling,
Mountainous and Grade. If Level, Rolling or Mountainous is
selected, no further grade information is needed. The
adjustment factors for trucks and buses, and RVs, are chosen
from HCM Exhibit 21-8. Refer to HCM Page 21-8 for descriptions
of horizontal and vertical alignments which constitute each of
these terrain categories. If Grade is selected, one field
combination will be coded for the percent and length of the
grade being analyzed. For Planning analyses, terrain type is
limited to level, rolling or mountainous.

Driver Population Adjustment Factor

The driver population adjustment factor is used in HCM
Equation 21-3 to account for the possible variation in traffic
flow for differing driver populations.

Trucks and Buses

The percent trucks and buses in the traffic stream is entered.

ET Recreational Vehicles
The passenger-car equivalent value for trucks and buses from The percent recreational vehicles in the traffic stream is
HCM Exhibit 21-8 for general terrain, HCM Exhibit 21-9 for entered.
upgrades and HCM Exhibit 21-11 for downgrades.
The passenger-car equivalent value for recreational vehicles
from HCM Exhibit 21-8 for general terrain, HCM Exhibit 21-10
for upgrades and for Level Terrain in HCM Exhibit 21-8 for