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Routing

Module 2

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Routing Overview

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Routing concepts

•Routing is a layer 3 process on the ISO’s


OSI model.
•Routing defines where traffic is
forwarded (sent).
•It’s required to permit different subnets
to communicate.
–Even if they should be on the same “wire”

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Routing concepts, example 1

•Computers wont communicate.

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Routing concepts , example 2

•Computers can now communicate.

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08/04/2015
Route flags

•Disabled : Router is disabled. Has no


influence in the routing process.
•Active : Route is active and used in the
routing process.
•Dynamic : Route has been created by
routing process, not through the
management interface.

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Route flags

•Connected : A route is created for each


IP subnet that has an active interface on
the router.
•Static : Route created to force forwarding
of packets through a certain destination.

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Static Routing

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Static routes

•Routes to subnets that exist on a router


are automatically created and known by
that router. But what happens if you need
to reach a subnet that exists on another
router? You create a static route!
•A static route is a manual way of
forwarding traffic to unknown subnets.

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Static routes

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Static routes

•Understanding the fields


–Flags : The state of each route, as explained in
previous slides
–Dst. Address : The destination addresses this
route is used for.
–Gateway : Typically, the IP address of the
next hop that will receive the packets destined
for “Dst. Address”.
–Distance : Value used for route selection. In
configurations where various distances are
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possible, the route with the smallest value is
08/04/2015
Limits of static routing

•Doesn’t scale well.


•Manual configuration is required every
time a new subnet needs to be reached.

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Limits of static routing,
example
Your network grows
and you need to add
links to remote
routers (and
subnets).
•Assume that all
routers have 2 LAN
subnets and 1 or
more WAN subnets.
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Limits of static routing,
example
How many static
routes to add on
router-1?
•Routers 3 to 5 : 9
•Router 2 : 2
•Router 6 and 7 : 4
Total of 15 static
routes to add
manually!!
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08/04/2015
Setting the default route

•The route 0.0.0.0/0


–Known as the Default route.
–It is the destination where all traffic to
unknown subnets will be forwarded.
–It is also a static route.

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Managing dynamic routes

•As mentioned before, dynamic routes are


added by the routing process, not by the
administrator.
•This is done automatically.
•You can’t manage dynamic routes. If the
interface to which the dynamic route is
linked goes down, so does the route!

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08/04/2015
Implementing static routing on
simple networks
Consider the following example.

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Implementing static routing on
simple networks
•Exercise:
Assuming ip addresses have been properly
entered, what commands would you use to
enable complete communications for both
subnets (LAN1 and LAN2)?

(Answer on next slide. Don’t peak )

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Implementing static routing on
simple networks
•router-1
/ip route
add gateway=172.22.0.18
add dst-address=10.1.2.0/24 gateway=10.0.0.2
•router-2
/ip route
add gateway=10.0.0.1

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Time for a practical exercise

End of module 2

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Laboratory

•Goals of the lab


–Gain connectivity to other POD LANs
–Validate use of default route
–View and explain route flags

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Laboratory : Setup

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Laboratory : step 1

•Delete the default route that was created


in module 1
•Ping other PODs’ computers. Note results
•Create static routes to other PODs’ LAN
subnets
•Ping other PODs’ computers. Note results

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Laboratory : step 2

•Open a Web browser and try accessing


Mikrotik’s Web page. Note results
•Create the default route using the
trainer’s router as the gateway
•Open a Web browser and try accessing
Mikrotik’s Web page. Note results

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End of Laboratory 2

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