Sie sind auf Seite 1von 196

Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems

Course 673 Technician Handbook

© 2009 Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc.


TOYOTA Technical Training

All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced or copied, in whole or in part by any means, without the written permission of
Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc.

Revision Date: June 22, 2009


Table of Contents
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems

Objectives Final Student Performances ................................................................ a

Section 1: Course Menu ....................................................................................... 3


Diagnostic Section 1 Topics .................................................................................. 5
Techniques and Electronic Control Units ........................................................................ 6
Tools How ECUs Work ................................................................................... 7
Logic Function .................................................................................. 7
Simple ECU Inputs ................................................................................ 8
Voltage ON/OFF (Switch) Input ........................................................ 9
Variable Voltage Input .................................................................... 10
Variable Resistance Input ............................................................... 11
Pulse Pattern Input ......................................................................... 12
Simple ECU Outputs ........................................................................... 13
Transistors as Switches .................................................................. 13
Pulse Width Modulation ...................................................................... 14
Duty Cycle ........................................................................................... 15
Power-Side Control ......................................................................... 16
Self Diagnosis ..................................................................................... 17
Differences in Self-Diagnosis .......................................................... 17
ECU Memory ...................................................................................... 19
Types of ECU Memory ................................................................... 19
Customization ..................................................................................... 20
Initialization ......................................................................................... 21
Why Initialize? ................................................................................. 21

Section 2: Section 2 Topics ................................................................................. 23


Overview of Why Use Multiplexing ......................................................................... 24
Multiplex Applications of Multiplexing ............................................................ 24
Communication Benefits of Multiplexing ................................................................... 24
Multiplexing ......................................................................................... 25
ECU Communication .......................................................................... 26
Signaling Between ECUs .................................................................... 27
Communication Protocols ................................................................... 28
Multiplex Topology .............................................................................. 29
Ring Topology ................................................................................. 30
Two Opens in a Ring Network ........................................................ 31
Open in a Star Network .................................................................. 32
Open in a Bus Network ................................................................... 33
Single Wire vs. Twisted-Pair ............................................................... 34
Advantage of Twisted-Pair Wiring .................................................. 35

Section 3: Section 3 Topics ................................................................................. 37


Signals & Electronic Communication .................................................................. 38
Waveforms Types of Waveforms ....................................................................... 38
Waveform Measurements ................................................................... 39
Amplitude ........................................................................................ 39

Technical Training i
Table of Contents
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems

Frequency ....................................................................................... 40
Pulse Width ..................................................................................... 41
Duty Cycle ...................................................................................... 42

Section 4: Section 4 Topics ................................................................................. 43


Measuring The Oscilloscope ................................................................................ 44
Signals PC Oscilloscopes ................................................................................ 45
Basic Operation .................................................................................. 46
Oscilloscope Scales ............................................................................ 47
Repair Manual Suggested Scales .................................................. 48
Repeating vs. Changing Patterns ....................................................... 49
Capturing Waveforms ......................................................................... 50
Scope Pattern Comparison ................................................................. 51
The Effect of Scale .............................................................................. 52
Trigger Function .................................................................................. 53
Other Trigger Uses ............................................................................. 54
Advanced DVOM Features ................................................................. 55
MIN/MAX Recording ....................................................................... 55
Peak MIN/MAX ............................................................................... 55
Relative Delta ................................................................................. 55
Frequency Measurement ................................................................ 56
Duty Cycle ...................................................................................... 56
Worksheet: DVOM Set-up & Advance Features ................................. 57
Instructor Demo: Using DVOM Resistance Setting ............................ 58

Section 5: Using Section 5 Topics ................................................................................. 59


a PicoScope™ Introduction to PicoScope™ ................................................................ 60
Connecting the Leads ..................................................................... 60
PicoScope Features ........................................................................... 61
Auto Voltage Scale ......................................................................... 61
Auto Setup ...................................................................................... 61
Manual Voltage Scale Settings ....................................................... 62
Manual Time Scale Settings ........................................................... 62
Turning the Trigger On ................................................................... 63
Setting the Trigger .......................................................................... 64
Start and Stop Capturing ................................................................ 65
Horizontal Zoom ............................................................................. 66
Rulers ............................................................................................. 67
Sample Rate ................................................................................... 69
Displaying Two Channels ............................................................... 70
Separating the A-B Traces ............................................................. 71
Printing, Saving and Sending Patterns ........................................... 72
Worksheet: In-class PicoScope: Basic Set-up .................................... 73
Worksheet: Using DVOM & PicoScope .............................................. 74
Instructor Demo: PicoScope & Power Window Circuit ....................... 74

ii Technical Training
Table of Contents
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems

Section 6: Using Section 6 Topics ................................................................................. 75


an Inductive The Inductive Clamp ........................................................................... 76
Clamp Polarity ............................................................................................ 76
Current Rating ................................................................................ 77
Preparation for Use ......................................................................... 78
Converting Measurements to Amps ............................................... 79
Amp Clamp Applications ..................................................................... 80
Diagnosing Short Circuits and Parasitic Draw ................................ 80
Diagnosing Motor Faults with an Oscilloscope ............................... 81
Worksheet: Inductive Current Clamp I: Measurement & Conversion . 82
Worksheet: Inductive Current Clamp II: A/C Blower Motor ................. 82

Section 7: Section 7 Topics ................................................................................ 83


Multiplex Circuit Additional Properties of MPX Protocols .............................................. 84
Diagnosis Communication Direction ................................................................ 85
Transmission Timing ....................................................................... 86
Collision Detection .......................................................................... 87
Data Casting ................................................................................... 88
Sleep Mode ..................................................................................... 89
Wakeup Function ............................................................................ 89
Body Electronics Area Network .......................................................... 90
Local Interconnect Network ................................................................ 91
LIN Characteristics ......................................................................... 91
LIN Replacing BEAN ...................................................................... 91
LIN Gateway Function .................................................................... 92
Controller Area Network ...................................................................... 93
Terminating Resistors ..................................................................... 93
Audio Visual Communication-Local Area Network ............................. 94
AVC-LAN Protocol .......................................................................... 95
Gateway ECU ..................................................................................... 96
CAN Gateway ECU ........................................................................ 96
Summary of Gateway ECU Functions ............................................ 97
CAN Gateway ECU Functions ........................................................ 98
Transmit/Receive Charts .................................................................... 99
BEAN Signal ..................................................................................... 100
BEAN Diagnosis ............................................................................... 101
Open Circuit .................................................................................. 102
Short Circuit .................................................................................. 103
Short Circuit Step 1........................................................................ 104
Short Circuit Step 2........................................................................ 105
Short Circuit Step 3........................................................................ 106
Short Circuit Step 4........................................................................ 107
Short Circuit Step 5........................................................................ 108
Short Circuit Step 6........................................................................ 109
Diagnosing a Large Network ........................................................ 110
Diagnosing with Techstream ........................................................ 111
Diagnosing a BEAN Open Circuit with an Oscilloscope ............... 112

Technical Training iii


Table of Contents
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems

Worksheet: BEAN Network Diagnosis .............................................. 113


Instructor Demo: BEAN Operation and Diagnosis ............................ 113
LIN Signal ......................................................................................... 114
LIN Diagnosis .................................................................................... 115
Worksheet: A/C LIN Interface ........................................................... 116
CAN Signal ....................................................................................... 117
CAN Diagnosis ................................................................................. 118
Short Between CANH and CANL ................................................. 118
Short to B+ or Ground ................................................................... 118
Opens ........................................................................................... 119
CAN Bus Check ............................................................................ 120
Location of DLC3 .......................................................................... 120
Terminating Resistors ................................................................... 121
Resistance Tests on CAN Circuits ................................................ 122
Worksheet: CAN Diagnosis ............................................................. 124
Instructor Demo: CAN Resistance Test Precautions ........................ 124
Worksheet: CAN Main Bus Faults ................................................... 125
Worksheet: CAN Sub Bus Diagnosis ............................................... 125
AVC-LAN Signal ............................................................................... 126
AVC-LAN Diagnosis .......................................................................... 127
AVC-LAN DTCs ............................................................................ 128
Worksheet: AVC-LAN Inspection ...................................................... 129
Other Multiplex Circuits ..................................................................... 130
A/C Servo Motor Circuits .............................................................. 130
BUS Connectors ............................................................................... 131
Pulse-Type Servo Motors ................................................................. 132
Worksheet: A/C Bus Servo Motor Operation & Diagnosis ................ 133

Section 8: Section 8 Topics ............................................................................... 135


Electronic Engine Immobilizer Function ............................................................ 136
Systems Engine Immobilizer Operation .......................................................... 137
Key Code Registration ...................................................................... 137
Master Keys and Sub Keys .............................................................. 138
Automatic Key Code Registration ..................................................... 139
Watch for Error Codes .................................................................. 139
Ending Automatic Registration ..................................................... 139
Configuration in Earlier Models ......................................................... 140
Configuration in Later Models ........................................................... 141
Immobilizer Reset ............................................................................. 142
Immobilizer Reset Support Chart ...................................................... 143
ECU Communication ID Registration ............................................... 144
Be Wary of Differences between Models .......................................... 145
Analyzing ECU Input and Outputs .................................................... 146
Transponder Signals ..................................................................... 147
Power and Ground Circuits ........................................................... 148
Terminal Values and Conditions ................................................... 149

iv Technical Training
Table of Contents
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems

Transponder Key Amplifier Terminal Values ................................. 150


ECM Terminal Values ................................................................... 151
Worksheet: Immobilizer .................................................................... 152
Power Distributor ............................................................................. 153
Protect Mode ............................................................................... 153
Mode Monitor Terminal ................................................................ 153
Smart Junction Box (MICON) ........................................................... 154
High Intensity Discharge (HID) Headlights ....................................... 155
Dynamic Laser Cruise Control Operation ......................................... 156
Laser Sensor ..................................................................................... 157
Indicators ......................................................................................... 158
Error/Cancellation Codes .................................................................. 158
Constant Speed Control .................................................................... 159
Decelerator Control............................................................................ 160
Follow-Up Control .............................................................................. 161
Accelerator Control ........................................................................... 162
System Diagram ............................................................................... 163
Distance Control ECU Waveforms .................................................... 164
Laser Radar Sensor Waveforms ....................................................... 165

Appendix Appendix ........................................................................................... 167


Transistors ........................................................................................ 168
Transistor Types ........................................................................... 169
How a Transistor Works ............................................................... 170
Transistor Switches ...................................................................... 171
Transistor Amplifiers ..................................................................... 172
Digital Circuits ............................................................................... 173
Analog-to-Digital Converter .......................................................... 174
Logic Gates ....................................................................................... 175
Normal CAN Signal ........................................................................... 176
CAN Shorts and Opens .................................................................... 177
Short CANH to CANL ................................................................... 177
Short CANH to B+ ......................................................................... 178
Short CANL to B+ ......................................................................... 178
Short CANH to Ground ................................................................. 179
Short CANL to Ground .................................................................. 179
Open in CANH or CANL (Main Bus) ............................................. 180
Open in CANH and CANL (Main Bus) .......................................... 181
BEAN Signals ................................................................................... 182
BEAN Short to Ground ................................................................. 183
Normal BEAN, Dual Trace ................................................................ 184
BEAN Open Circuit, Dual Trace ................................................... 185

Worksheets

Technical Training v
Table of Contents
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems

This page intentionally left blank.

vi Technical Training
Objectives
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems

Course 673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems


Final Student Performances

Terminal Objective (Terminal FSP)

Given all of the applicable tools, equipment, and appropriate vehicles, the technician will be
able to apply a number of diagnostic techniques to monitor and repair faults in advanced
computer and electronic circuits.

Technician Objectives (FSPs)

The technician will be able to:


1. Research information related to:
• The purpose and function of ECU terminals
• Inputs & Outputs
• Terminals of the ECU
• Power & Ground points
2. Identify inputs and outputs and determine how they affect ECU operation.
3. Differentiate between:
• Pulse width & duty cycle
• Frequency & duty cycle
4. Identify the consequences of the following to the diagnostic process:
• Initialization (Memory Loss)
• Customization (CBEST)
• Sleep mode vs. normal operation
5. Demonstrate proficient use of the advanced DVOM features.
• MIN/MAX function
• Peak MIN/MAX function
• Measure frequency
• Measure duty cycle
6. Apply advanced DVOM functions for quick diagnostic evaluations.
7. Practice using an Inductive Current Clamp with a DVOM to provide the ability to take
current readings without breaking into a circuit.
8. Utilize an inductive Current Clamp to evaluate system operation & determine
diagnostic strategy.
9. Practice conversion of voltage and amperage values to apply to inductive clamps that use
conversion factors for sensitivity.
10. Monitor AC blower motor current using a DVOM equipped with an inductive current
clamp, and monitor current using an oscilloscope and inductive clamp.

Technical Training a
Objectives
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems

11. Properly set-up an oscilloscope


• Auto features
• Voltage & Time Scale Settings
• Horizontal & vertical rulers
• Trigger point
• Horizontal & vertical zoom features
12. Apply the basic features of the oscilloscope used in combination with the
Techstream Unit.
13. Locate and back probe a dimmer-controlled interior lamp or LED, practice measuring
Voltage (V), Hertz (Hz), and percentage values (%) using a DVOM, and use an
oscilloscope to display the signal pattern.
14. Set oscilloscope voltage and time settings appropriate to the circuit measured.
15. Utilize oscilloscope patterns derived from a known good vehicle to verify normal
system operation.
16. Differentiate between different oscilloscope patterns.
17. Use an oscilloscope to confirm proper operation vs. a faulty circuit
• Duty cycle
• Frequency
• Amplitude
18. Use an oscilloscope to identify intermittent faults.
19. Capture, record, save and send oscilloscope waveforms.
20. Identify Body Electronics Area Network topology and network operation.
21. Perform fault diagnostics on a BEAN network.
22. Identify Local Area Network topology and network operation.
23. Monitor and diagnose the AC Control Assembly operation and LIN communication using
Techstream, an oscilloscope and TIS.
24. Identify Controller Area Network topology and network operation.
25. Use an ohmmeter and an oscilloscope to observe CAN High and CAN Low; diagnose a
short to ground and an open circuit on CAN High and CAN Low; and short CAN High to
CAN Low to observe the results.
26. Develop a strategy to diagnose a CAN Network fault using the EWD, a Techstream CAN
Bus Check, and the information provided.
27. Identify Audio Visual Communication-Local Area Network topology and network operation.
28. Create, monitor and diagnose an AVC-LAN System amplifier malfunction using
Techstream and an oscilloscope.
29. Monitor AC bus and servo motor operation using Techstream DATA LIST and an
oscilloscope to deduce communication problems with the AC System.
30. Reference service literature to determine if immobilizer reset is supported on a vehicle.
31. Use Techstream Data List to make determinations related to the ID Code of the
transponder chip embedded in the ignition key of the Immobilizer System.
32. Use an oscilloscope to observe Immobilizer System waveforms under varying conditions
and compare them to those found in the Repair Manual.

b Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems

Welcome Toyota Technicians

Technical Training 1
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

2 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Course Menu

Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems

• Electronic Control Units


• Overview of Multiplex Communication
• Signals & Waveforms
• Measuring Signals
• Using a PicoScope™
• Using an Inductive Clamp
• Multiplex Circuit Diagnosis
• Electronic Systems

• Transistors
A Appendix • CAN Waveforms
• BEAN Waveforms

Technical Training 3
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

4 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Section 1 Topics

Electronic Control Units • Electronic Control Units


• Logic Function
• Simple ECU Inputs
• Simple ECU Outputs
• Self-Diagnosis
• Memory
• Customization
• Initialization

Technical Training 5
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Electronic Control Units

Electronic Control Units


(ECUs) are small
computers programmed to
perform specific
automotive functions.

What are some typical


automotive ECUs?

ECUs use electronic components in


integrated circuits to perform their functions.

Electronic In the 1970’s, the decreasing cost and increasing power of computerized
Control Units microprocessors launched the personal computer industry. Because of their
speed and flexibility in carrying out complex functions, microprocessors were
adapted for hundreds of uses beyond personal computers.
The first microprocessors began appearing in automotive engine control
systems in the early 1980s. In automotive applications, they became known
as electronic control units (ECUs). Today, some vehicles may have
dozens of ECUs controlling a wide variety of vehicle systems, including:
• engine controls
• transmission
• braking
• steering
• air conditioning
• door locks
• suspension
• cruise control
• tire pressure monitoring
• and many other systems.

6 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

ECU Logic Function

ECUs have electronic logic circuits that “make decisions”


by evaluating conditions according to predetermined rules.

Light Control SW
Headlights
Light Control Body ECU
Sensor
Taillights

IF
Light control switch is in the AUTO position
Conditions

and
Light control sensor detects LOW ambient light
and
Ignition switch is ON
Decision

THEN
Turn headlights ON
Turn taillights ON

How ECUs An ECU is a small computer programmed to perform a specialized function in


Work the vehicle. As with any computer, it operates on the principle of input,
processing, and output.
Input – Information about conditions is supplied to the ECU as input signals.
Input can be provided by:
• sensors
• switches
• other ECUs.
Processing – The ECU analyzes the input signals. Based on its
programming, it determines what output signals to send, if any.
Output – Vehicle systems are controlled by the ECU output signals. These
signals may cause a motor to operate, a light to come on, or some other
operation of a vehicle component.

Logic Function For an example of the ECU’s logic function, consider the lighting control
system which is within the Body ECU. A simple lighting control system uses
three inputs – the light control switch, the light control sensor, and the ignition
switch.
When the condition of these three inputs matches the conditions
preprogrammed in the ECU, the ECU turns on the headlights and taillights.

Technical Training 7
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Simple ECU Inputs

Voltage ON/OFF Voltage Pulse Pattern

Combination Active
Switch Speed MRE A
Sensor IC
MRE B
Sensor

Variable Voltage
Variable Resistance

What are some other Oxygen


types or examples of Sensor
ECU inputs?
Temp
Sensor

Exhaust Gas

Simple ECU Signals from switches and sensors can supply information to the ECU in
Inputs several ways.
Voltage ON/OFF – A simple switch opens or closes a circuit. It is the
presence or absence of voltage in the circuit that signals the ECU.
Variable Voltage – Some sensors produce a voltage that changes
depending on the conditions the sensor is measuring. The amount of voltage
produced at any given moment provides information about the condition at
that time.
Variable Resistance – In other types of sensors, electrical resistance
increases or decreases as external conditions change. Sensing the changing
voltage as a result of changing resistance in the circuit signals the ECU what
the conditions are.
Variable Pulse Pattern – Another method for signaling the ECU about
changing conditions is to turn a circuit on and off rapidly at a particular
frequency. This works especially well for signaling rotational speed. It is the
frequency of the ON/OFF pulses that supplies information to the ECU.

8 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Voltage ON/OFF (Switch) Input

The ECU detects the state of a ground-side switch by reading the


circuit voltage.
When switch ON is detected, the ECU performs a function, such as turning on a lamp.
B+ B+

OFF: V = 12.6V ON: V = 0.1V


(open circuit voltage) (available voltage)

ECU * ECU *
0V 12.6v 5V 0.1v
12.6V 12.6V

Ground-side
switched
Voltage can also be measured
at the ECU terminal.
* Conceptual illustration only

Voltage ON/OFF The diagrams above illustrate a ground-side switch connected to an ECU.
(Switch) Input The ECU supplies battery voltage to the switch circuit and provides the
circuit’s load (a resistor). The ECU’s electronic circuits detect when the
voltage after the load is high (near battery voltage) or low (near ground
voltage).
While the switch is open, no current is flowing and the available voltage after
the load is near battery voltage. When the switch is closed, current flows and
most of the battery voltage is dropped across the load. The available voltage
after the load is now near ground voltage.
In this example, the switch controls a lamp, but is not actually part of the lamp
circuit. When the ECU senses a voltage drop in the switch circuit, it supplies
five volts to the transistor. This in turn closes the lamp circuit, lighting the
lamp.

SERVICE TIP You can detect the same high or low voltage the ECU is detecting by
measuring voltage at the appropriate ECU terminal. If the switch is closed
and the voltage remains high, you’ll know there is an open in the circuit
between the ECU and the switch.

NOTE The actual wiring inside the ECU is extremely complex. The ECU circuit
details shown in the diagrams above and the diagrams on the following
pages are to illustrate concepts, not actual internal connections.

Technical Training 9
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Variable Voltage Input

The oxygen sensor is a voltage generator.


The engine control module
interprets the voltage to make
Voltage
corrections to the air-fuel ratio.
V

Atmosphere

ECM

V > 0.45v : air-fuel ratio too rich


V = 0.45v : air-fuel ratio correct
V < 0.45v : air-fuel ratio too lean

Exhaust Gas

Variable Voltage An oxygen sensor is a voltage generator, producing between 0.1v and 0.9v
Input depending on the oxygen content of the exhaust gas compared to the
atmosphere.
The engine control module’s electronic circuits measure the amount of
voltage generated by the oxygen sensor, and use that information to control
the air-fuel ratio.

10 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Variable Resistance Input

A temperature sensor is a type of variable resistor.


Its resistance changes with temperature.

12.6V or 5V
An ECU can detect the change
V in the sensor’s resistance by
measuring voltage.

ECU

Variable A temperature sensor is a type of variable resistor whose resistance changes


Resistance Input with temperature. This type of sensor is often called a thermistor.
Two types of thermistor are:
Positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor – resistance increases
as temperature increases
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor – resistance
decreases as temperature increases
Thermistors are commonly used for engine coolant temperature sensors and
ambient temperature sensors. Modern Toyota vehicles use NTC thermistors
exclusively.

Technical Training 11
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Pulse Pattern Input

An active wheel speed sensor


generates a series of voltage pulses
as the wheel rotates.
MRE A

MRE B
Sensor IC
As rotation speed increases, pulses
are generated at a higher frequency.
The ECU measures the pulse frequency
to calculate vehicle speed.

Voltage Voltage

Lower Rotation Speed Higher Rotation Speed

Time Time

Pulse Pattern Another type of ECU input is a pulse pattern. When voltage rises
Input momentarily, then falls, the transient voltage reading is called a pulse. When
a component creates multiple pulses, the result is a pulse pattern (or pulse
train).
An active wheel speed sensor is a component that generates a pulse pattern.
A magnetic ring mounted on the wheel hub has alternating north-south fields
that are detected by the sensor pickup. As the wheel rotates, the alternating
magnetic fields are converted into a series of voltage pulses. The frequency
of the pulses increases with the wheel rotation speed.
When the pulse pattern is provided as ECU input, the ECU’s circuits are able
to measure the pulse frequency and calculate wheel RPM and vehicle
speed.

12 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Simple ECU Outputs

When the operating conditions are met, the ECU makes a


connection to power or ground to energize a circuit

ECU
NPN
B+
How a Transistor Works (NPN)
Transistor 5V
Collector
When voltage
Ground-side controlled circuit is applied to
the base…
...current can
ECU Base flow from the
collector to
PNP the emitter
B+
Emitter

Power-side controlled circuit See Appendix


A for More Info

Simple ECU The simplest way for an ECU to control a vehicle function is to turn a circuit
Outputs on or off. A circuit can be ground-side switched or power-side switched.

Transistors as Electronic circuits use transistors for switching circuits on and off. A
Switches transistor is a solid-state electronic component having a base, collector and
emitter. In the more commonly used NPN transistor, when sufficient voltage
is applied to the base, current flows from the collector to the emitter.
One of the advantages of the transistor is that a low voltage at the base is
able to control a large current flowing through the collector and emitter. In that
respect, a transistor is similar to a relay.
Some transistors also regulate current flow based on the amount of voltage
applied to the base. Within the transistor’s limits, a higher base voltage
results in a greater flow of current through the collector/emitter. This feature
is used in amplifier circuits where the low voltage signal from a microphone
regulates current flow in higher power speaker circuits

Technical Training 13
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Pulse Width Modulation


The ECU can open and close a circuit rapidly to control
component operation.
The process of varying the amount of time a circuit is ON is called pulse width
modulation.

Example

Voltage
Pulses The ECM regulates the injector
ON time by regulating the width of
the voltage pulse to the injectors.

Pulse
Width
Notice the pulse width increases at
higher load as the ECM increases
the injector ON time.

Pulse Width An ECU’s electronic circuits have the ability to open and close a circuit very
Modulation rapidly. The ECU can switch a circuit on for a fraction of a second at very
precise intervals.
When a circuit is switched ON and then OFF, the momentary change in voltage
creates a voltage pulse. (The pulse can be either a momentary increase or
decrease in voltage depending on whether the circuit is ground-side switched
or power-side switched and where the voltage is measured.)
When the voltage is viewed on an oscilloscope, the voltage pulse’s width
represents the amount of time the circuit is switched ON and can be as brief as
1 millisecond or less. In some circuits, the ECU uses the amount of ON time to
regulate component operation.
When the ECU varies the width of the voltage pulse (the ON time) to control a
component, the process is called pulse-width modulation.

NOTE In the above example, the frequency of the pulses changes as well as the
pulse width. In some circuits, the frequency of the pulses is constant.

14 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Measuring Duty Cycle


When the ECU modulates a circuit at a constant frequency, you can measure
the circuit’s duty cycle. Duty cycle is the percentage of ON time compared to
total cycle time.
Varying the duty cycle can
vary the brightness of a lamp
ECU
or the speed of a motor.
B+

5V If the percentage of ON
time decreases, the
lamp becomes dimmer.
1 cycle 1 cycle
(100%) (100%)
12 V 12 V

0V 0V

75% ON (grounded) 25% ON (grounded)

In a ground-side
controlled circuit,
measure after the load.

Duty Cycle The terms pulse-width modulation and duty cycle are often confused or
used incorrectly.
Pulse-width modulation is a function an ECU can perform to turn a circuit on
and off rapidly to regulate the amount of ON time. As the pulse width changes,
the frequency of the pulses might or might not change depending on the circuit
design and intended operation.
When a circuit is switched on and off rapidly at a constant frequency, duty
cycle measures the percentage of ON time compared to total cycle time. If the
circuit is ON 75% of the time, it is operating at a 75% duty cycle. When a circuit
is duty-cycle controlled, the pulse frequency does not change – only the
percentage of ON time.
An ECU varies the duty cycle to control the speed of a motor or the brightness
of a lamp by switching the circuit ON and OFF hundreds of times per second.
Human senses can’t perceive a lamp or motor being cycled on and off that
quickly. Nonetheless, the amount of power to the component increases or
decreases depending on how much of the time the circuit is ON versus OFF.
As OFF time increases, the net power supplied to a component decreases
resulting in the lamp becoming dimmer or the motor running slower. As ON
time increases, power increases and the lamp becomes brighter or the motor
runs faster.

NOTE When the circuit is ground-side controlled, voltage before the load is always
battery voltage, and voltage after the switch is zero, or near zero. To observe
voltage modulation, place the positive probe between the load and the switch
(which may be an ECU).

Technical Training 15
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Measuring Duty Cycle


Signals in a power-side controlled circuit are the opposite of
signals in a ground-side controlled circuit.

ECU

B+

If the percentage of ON
time decreases, the
lamp becomes dimmer.
1 cycle 1 cycle
(100%) (100%)

75% ON (powered) 25% ON (powered)

In a power-side
controlled circuit,
measure before the load.

Power-Side Most circuits in Toyota vehicles are ground-side controlled. When a pulse-
Control width modulated circuit is power-side controlled, the voltage modulation is
observable after the ECU and before the load. In this arrangement, the
circuit is ON when the voltage rises.
Note that if voltage is measured after the load, a very minute change in
voltage occurs as the circuit is modulated. At this point in the circuit,
voltage is zero when the circuit is open. When the circuit is closed, ground
voltage is present. The difference is usually less than 0.1V and may not be
observable depending on your scope settings.

16 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Self-Diagnosis

The ECU’s internal wiring can be arranged so it can detect


when an input circuit is open or shorted to ground.

Throttle Position ECM


Sensor
Under normal conditions, the
ECM senses more than 0V and
VTA less than 5V at VTA and VTA2.

VC 5V
With either a short or an open in
VTA2 the input circuit, voltage at VTA
and VTA2 becomes 0V and the
E2 ECU sets a DTC.

DTC P0120 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch “A”


Circuit Malfunction

2002 Tundra V8

Self-Diagnosis A significant reason ECUs have become so common in automobile systems


is their ability to perform self-diagnosis. ECUs can identify faults in circuits,
components, and even within the ECU itself. When a fault is detected, the
ECU can:
• Illuminate a warning light
• Set a diagnostic trouble code
• Begin operating in a fail-safe mode by:
◦ Disabling a system that is working incorrectly
◦ Using sensor data from alternate sources
◦ Applying alternate rules for operating the vehicle or subsystem
to maintain maximum safety

Differences in Self- An ECU’s self-diagnosis capabilities can range from very simple to highly
Diagnosis sophisticated. Each ECU has its own features and limitations, and very few
work in exactly the same way.
The example above is a throttle position sensor circuit. The electronics inside
the engine control module (ECM) are designed so that an open or a short to
ground on VTA or VTA2 can be detected and a DTC set. The circuit
arrangement inside the ECM is not able to distinguish a short from an open,
however. In either case, the voltage the ECM is monitoring goes to 0V.

Technical Training 17
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Self-Diagnosis

ECUs can be wired so they can detect the difference between


an open or short, and set a different DTC for each.

Throttle Position ECM


In this arrangement, what is
Sensor
the normal voltage at VTA1?
What is the voltage with a
VTA1 short in the circuit?
5V
VC
What is the normal voltage at
VTA2
VTA2?
E2
What is the voltage with an
open in the circuit?

DTC P0122 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch “A”


Circuit Low Input

DTC P0123 Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch “B”


Circuit High Input
2003 Tundra V8

Differences in Self- In this throttle position sensor circuit, the electronics inside the ECM are
Diagnosis (Cont’d) arranged slightly differently. In this arrangement, a short to ground on a VTA
line causes the monitored voltage to go to 0V. An open in a VTA line,
however, causes the monitored voltage to go to 5V.
Thus, this ECM can distinguish between an open or short on an input circuit
and can set a DTC for one or the other. The additional data supplied by the
ECM makes it easier and faster to diagnose and correct the problem.

18 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

ECU Memory

ECUs have different types of memory.

B+ ECU Memory
• DTCs
• Driver preferences RAM
• Vehicle operating characteristics (volatile)

ECU program logic ROM


(permanent)

ECU program logic, data EEPROM


(reflash) (reprogrammable)

ECU Memory Like other computers, ECUs have internal memory. Besides storing DTCs,
they can also store switch settings and component positions. Over time,
ECUs can acquire and store information about the vehicle’s operating
characteristics and driver/occupant preferences. The data stored in memory
can have a direct affect on how well the vehicle operates and the driver’s
perceptions of comfort and convenience.

Types of ECU Volatile memory chips are the type that require constant power to maintain
Memory what is stored in them. When the power is removed, their memory contents
are erased. These types of memory chips are used for ordinary
microprocessor memory. (RAM for example.)
Non-volatile memory chips retain their contents even when the power is
removed. These types of memory chips permanently store the
microprocessor’s operating instructions, or logic. (ROM for example.)
Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM) – A memory chip that can be
programmed once, but cannot be reprogrammed.
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM) – A programmable
chip that can be removed from its circuit and reprogrammed.
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) – A
programmable chip that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed without
removing it from the circuit.

Technical Training 19
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

ECU Customization

Because ECUs have memory, they can be programmed with


owner/driver preferences.

A Would you like the interior


light turned ON when the
doors are unlocked?
Main Body ECU

ECU Memory

A. Yes
Would you like the interior

B light turned ON when the


ignition is turned OFF?
B. Yes

C. 30 seconds

How long would you

C like the interior lights to


be left ON?

Customization No matter how carefully automobile manufacturers analyze the features that
new car buyers want, there will always be those who want a feature to work
differently. ECUs have made it much easier for owners to customize many of
the vehicle’s convenience features to suit their own preferences.
The settings for customizable features are stored in ECU memory. Needless
to say, if the memory is lost then any preferences the owner has chosen are
also lost. Memory can be lost when the ECU loses its connection to the
battery, and also when the ECU is replaced.

SERVICE TIP Before disconnecting the battery, make note of the owner’s customized
settings and restore those settings when service is complete.

NOTE When one driver changes a customized setting without informing other
drivers, another driver may view the change in operation as a malfunction. Be
sure to consider the potential role of customized settings on a customer’s
concern before beginning a problem diagnosis.

20 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

ECU Initialization

Initialization procedures can be very different depending on the ECU.

Examples

Headlamp Leveling ECU Driver’s Door Power Window


Initialization Initialization (Body ECU)

• Unload the vehicle • Turn ignition ON

• Jumper terminals 4 and 8 of DLC3 • Hold the switch to open the window

• Flash the headlights 3 times • Hold the switch to close the window
• Keep holding the switch until the
switch stops blinking

Completely
Closed

Initialization ECUs may need to be initialized when:


• A new ECU is installed
• Key components related to the ECU’s operation have been replaced
• Loss of power erases critical memory settings.
Initializing an ECU simply means preparing it for operation. If an ECU is not
initialized when required:
• The system may be inoperable or operate incorrectly
• Some system features may be disabled.

Why Initialize? When an ECU is installed, it becomes part of a system of interconnected


components. Many ECUs are designed to work in systems with optional
components in sometimes varying configurations.
Before the ECU can begin operation, it must learn the configuration of the
system it’s connected to, and sometimes obtain data from other components.
This takes place during initialization. When initialization is completed, the
ECU has acquired the information it needs to begin performing its function.
In quite a few vehicle systems, ECUs control motors, such as power window
motors and power back door motors. These systems require initialization in
particular so the ECU can synchronize itself with the motor to control the
opening and closing function properly. In systems with jam protection, this
feature may be inoperable until the ECU has been initialized.

NOTE Before determining an ECU is faulty, first verify that it doesn't just need to be
initialized.

Technical Training 21
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

22 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Section 2 Topics

Overview of Multiplex • Why Use Multiplexing?


Communication • How ECUs Communicate
• Communication Protocols
• Multiplex Topology
• Single Wire vs. Twisted Pair

Technical Training 23
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Why Use Multiplexing?

One multiplex circuit does the work of many conventional circuits.


• Fewer wires
• Lighter wiring harnesses
• Simpler, more reliable wiring
• Fewer components
• Fewer connections
• Lower cost
• Self diagnostics

Applications of Multiplexing (or MPX) is a method for communicating between multiple


Multiplexing components over a single one-wire or two-wire communication line.
Without multiplexing, inter-module communication requires dedicated, point-
to-point wiring between all components resulting in bulky, expensive,
complex, and difficult-to- install wiring harnesses. Using multiplexing reduces
the number of wires by combining many signals on a single wire.
Control modules use the data received to control functions such as anti-lock
braking, turn signals, power windows, dashboard displays, and audio
systems.

Benefits of In-vehicle networking provides a number of benefits:


Multiplexing • Each function requires fewer dedicated wires, reducing the size of the
wiring harness. This yields improvements in system cost, weight,
reliability, serviceability, and installation cost.
• Common sensor data, such as vehicle speed, engine temperature, etc.
are available on the network, so data can be shared, thus eliminating
the need for redundant sensors or multiple connecting wires.
• Networking allows greater vehicle flexibility because functions can be
added through software changes in the ECU. Without multiplexing,
systems require an additional module or additional terminals for each
function added.

24 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

What is Multiplexing (MPX)?

Multiplexing is a way to use one wire to communicate between many devices.


Conventional wiring between components
Light

Motor

Heater

Solenoid
Switch

Discrete signals

L M H S Light

Motor

ECU MPX ECU


communication
Heater
line

Solenoid
Switch

Multiplexing In conventional electrical circuits, each voltage signal between components


requires its own dedicated wire. The presence, absence, or amount of
voltage on the wire (supplied by a switch or a sensor, for example) controls
the operation of a component on the other end.
In a multiplex circuit, a computer chip on one end of a single wire can
transmit a series of coded voltage signals that can be interpreted by a
computer chip on the other end. The computer chips are inside electronic
control units (ECUs), and the coded voltage signals are data packets.
A data packet may instruct the receiving ECU to:
• Turn on a light
• Start a power window motor
• Activate a solenoid
Because the data packets are sent in series, multiplexing is also referred to
as serial communication or serial networking, and the communication line
is called a serial data bus.

Technical Training 25
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

How ECUs Communicate

ECUs communicate by sending voltage pulses in a coded sequence.

ECU Logic Circuit:


• Controls the ON/OFF signal
• “Reads” the data on the MPX line
• Performs self diagnosis
ECU
To communication line:
• Supply voltage when transistor is OFF
• Ground voltage when transistor is ON

Voltage
Supply
0v

Time

ECU In the ECU, a switching transistor in the logic circuit controls the transmitting
Communication of multiplex signals.
When the transistor is OFF, no current flows. Referring to the diagram above,
if you were to measure the available voltage on the communication line, you
would find supplied voltage.
When the transistor is turned ON, current flows and all of the available
voltage is dropped across the resistor. Now the voltage measurement on the
communication line (after the resistor) is ground voltage.
By turning the transistor ON and OFF in a timed sequence, the ECU can
send a message to another ECU, similar to sending a message in Morse
code. Part of the message, called a data packet, indicates which ECU the
message is addressed to. Other ECUs listening to these messages ignore
the ones not intended for them.

NOTE The ECU communication line is powered through a resistor that acts as a
load in the circuit. This is commonly called a pull-up resistor. If the circuit is
grounded, the resistor protects the ECU from damage.

26 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Signaling Between ECUs

When one ECU signals another, the one sending the signal is
not necessarily the one supplying the power to the circuit.

Sender Supplies B+
ECU ECU

12V
Sends
signal

Receiver Supplies B+
ECU ECU

12V
Sends
signal

Signaling In diagnosing ECU controlled circuits, don’t make the assumption that the
Between ECUs ECU sending a signal is the one supplying the circuit voltage. As shown in
the illustrations above, it’s possible for the ECU receiving a signal to be the
one providing power to the circuit.

Technical Training 27
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Communication Protocols
A “protocol” is the set of rules and standards for communication
between components.
BEAN CAN LIN AVC-LAN
Protocol
(TOYOTA Original) (ISO Standard) (Consortium) (TOYOTA Original)

Application Body Electrical Power Train Body Electrical Audio

Communication 500 kbps (HS)*


10 kbps 20 kbps 17.8 kbps
Speed 250 kbps (MS)
Communication Wire
AV Single Wire Twisted-pair wire AV Single Wire Twisted-pair wire

Single Wire Differential Single Wire Differential Voltage


Drive Type
Voltage Drive Voltage Drive Voltage Drive Drive

2.5v to 3.5v CANH 2v to 3v TX+


Voltage 10+ volts 8 volts
2.5v to 1.5v CANL 2v to 3v TX-

Configuration Ring/Daisy Chain Bus Star Star

Sleep/Wake-up Available Available Available N.A.

BEAN: Body Electronics Area Network * Up to 1 Mbps


CAN: Controller Area Network
LIN: Local Interconnect Network
AVC-LAN: Audio Visual Communication - Local Area Network

Communication The rules and standards for transmitting and receiving data packets between
Protocols ECUs are called a protocol. Some protocols provide faster exchange of
messages between components and more reliable operation than others. As
speed and reliability increases, so does the cost.

The chart above compares some of the characteristics of the different


protocols found in Toyota vehicles.
• BEAN is the earliest protocol used by Toyota. Based on early technology,
it is also one of the slowest protocols. BEAN is typically used for body
electrical systems such as lights, locks, windows, and air conditioning.
• AVC-LAN is another early protocol developed by Toyota as a faster
alternative to BEAN for audio, video, and navigation components.
• CAN, the ISO standard for automotive applications, is a high-speed
protocol for critical vehicle systems such as engine control, braking, pre-
collision, and SRS systems.
• LIN is an alternate, low-speed standard protocol developed in later years
and used by many manufacturers. Because it is a common standard, it is
slightly lower in cost, and because it is a newer standard, it is slightly
faster than BEAN. In later model Toyota vehicles, LIN replaces BEAN
for control of some body electrical systems such as windows and seats.

NOTE Network speeds are measured in bits per second (bps). A “bit” (represented
as ON or OFF, or 0 or 1) is the smallest unit of the code used in a data
packet. Kbps stands for kilobits (1000 bits) per second. Mbps stands for
megabits (one million bits) per second.

28 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Multiplex Topology

Bus Style Daisy Chain Style


All ECUs are connected to a single The ECUs are connected in a combination
common communication line. ring and bus form.

ECU ECU

ECU ECU
ECU ECU ECU ECU
ECU
ECU

Applies to CAN ECU Applies to BEAN

ECU ECU
Master
ECU
Applies to LIN
and AVC-LAN
ECU ECU

Star Style Each ECU is connected directly to a master


ECU with a central control function.

Multiplex Topology describes the pattern of physical connections between


Topology components on a network. This may also be called network architecture.
Multiplex networks can be configured in a variety of designs. Toyota networks
are arranged using primarily three styles: the bus, the ring, and the star.
• Bus. In the bus style, multiple ECUs are connected to a single common
communication line, allowing each ECU to transmit or receive signals
directly with any other ECU on the network.
• Ring. ECUs connected in a ring have two network lines to provide a
backup path for communication. If one communication line is
disconnected, the ECU can still receive network communications on the
other line.
• Star. The star style uses a central ECU called a master to control the
other ECUs in the network (slaves). In this configuration, slaves cannot
communicate directly with one another without passing the message
through the master.
• Daisy Chain. Sometimes a multiplex circuit can combine two design
types. An example is a BEAN circuit with both ring and bus topologies.

NOTE Components on a network are referred to as nodes. ECUs are not the only
possible nodes. Sensors with multiplex communication capability can also be
nodes on a network. Examples are steering angle sensors and yaw rate
sensors.

Technical Training 29
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Ring Topology

In a ring network, a single open circuit in the loop does not affect
performance.

Communication lines
(bus)

One open wire does not


affect network operation.

Ring Topology When network components are connected in a ring, every component has
two paths for sending messages to another component. The advantage of
ring topology is added reliability because the network continues to operate
normally in the event of an open wire anywhere in the multiplex circuit.

30 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Ring Topology

Two open connections in a ring network isolates part of the


multiplex circuit and sets a DTC.

Communication lines
(bus)

Two Opens in a When one ECU sends data to another, the receiving ECU typically sends
Ring Network back a message that it received the data.
When a ring network experiences two open wires in the ring, one or more of
the ECUs in the network become isolated from the others. An isolated ECU
does not receive messages and cannot acknowledge them. The lack of
response from an ECU may cause a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) to be
set.
By studying the network topology and identifying the location of the
unresponsive ECUs, you can determine which legs of the circuit contain the
open wires.

Technical Training 31
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Star Topology

A single open in a star network isolates only one component.

Master ECU

Open in a Star In a star network, the master ECU has a separate communication line to each
Network of the other ECUs. An open in any connection affects only one ECU and does
not affect the entire network.

32 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Bus Topology

The effect of an open in a bus network depends on the location.


An open on the main bus line isolates part of the network.

An open on a sub bus (branch line) isolates only the component on that
branch.

Open in a Bus In a bus network, each ECU is connected to a common communication line
Network called the main bus. An open in the main bus divides the network into two
segments. The ECUs that are still connected together in one segment can
communicate among themselves but cannot communicate with ECUs in the
other segment.
The connection between an ECU and the main bus is called a sub bus (or
branch line). An open in the sub bus isolates only the ECU on that branch.

Technical Training 33
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Single Wire vs. Twisted Pair

Communication Wire Feature


Twisted-pair Wire This communication line is a pair of twisted wires.
Communication occurs by applying Hi or positive (+)
and Lo or negative (-) voltages to the two lines in
order to send a signal (Differential Voltage Drive).

AV Single Wire This communication wire is thin and lightweight


compared with the Twisted-pair Wire.
for BEAN, LIN, etc. Voltage is applied to this line in order to drive the
communication (Single Wire Voltage Drive).

Differential Voltage Drive Single Wire Voltage Drive

Hi Hi

ECU ECU ECU ECU

Lo Lo

Single Wire vs. Communication over a multiplex line consists of a series of voltage pulses
Twisted-Pair that form a pattern of bits interpreted as data by the receiving ECU. In a
typical multiplex system, the voltage pulses are carried over a single wire.
In some multiplex systems (CAN and AVC-LAN for example), a pair of
twisted wires carry matching pulses—one positive and one negative. This
method reduces electromagnetic interference or noise and is more reliable in
circuits requiring a greater degree of transmission reliability.
For additional reliability and protection from voltage being induced by nearby
wiring, some systems use twisted-pair wires with added shielding (AVC-
LAN, for example).

34 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Advantage of Twisted-Pair Wiring

Single Wire Voltage Drive Differential Voltage Drive

3.5 V

4.0 V 2.5 V

0V 1.5 V
Data 0 1 0 1 Data 0 1 0 1

Noise Noise

Cancel
Each
Other
0 1 0 ?
Abnormality 0 1 0 1

Advantage of Electromagnetic interference from nearby wiring can induce unexpected


Twisted-Pair Wiring voltage spikes (noise) in a multiplex communication line which alters the
coded data being transmitted. The receiving ECU has a way of detecting the
data has been altered, but it then has to send a request to the sending ECU
to retransmit the data. This slows down communication between the ECUs.
To keep high-speed networks operating at high speed, twisted-pair wires
provide protection from induced noise. When a network that is wired with
twisted pair wiring experiences noise, the abnormality affects each wire in the
same way, so the effect of the interference is cancelled out.

Technical Training 35
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

36 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Section 3 Topics

Signals & Waveforms • Types of Waveforms


• Amplitude
• Frequency
• Pulse Width
• Duty Cycle

Technical Training 37
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Types of Waveforms
“Signaling” between circuits and ECUs relies on changes in voltage.
When changing voltage is displayed over time, the result is called a “waveform.”
Examples
Digital Analog
Voltage Voltage

Sine
Square
Wave
Wave

Voltage Time Voltage Time

Rectangular Triangular
Wave Wave

Time Time
Voltage Voltage

Pulse Complex
Wave Wave

Time Time

Electronic Electronic and computerized components communicate with each other using
Communication electrical signals. Signals can be as simple as the presence or absence of voltage
or current on a wire (ON/OFF signal). Signals can also be as complex as a series of
64 voltage pulses (bits) in a data packet containing precise instructions for a
receiving ECU to execute.
In all cases, it is changing voltage that contains the information for controlling
electronic components. When changing voltage is displayed on a graph of voltage
versus time, the resulting pattern is called a waveform.

Types of Electronic circuits produce many different common waveforms.


Waveforms Voltage smoothly changing between a low and a high value produces a sine wave.
It is often a change in the signal’s amplitude or frequency that conveys information.
A square wave is a digital version of a sine wave. (Digital circuits typically just turn
voltage on or off instead of smoothly changing voltage the way analog circuits do.)
When the amount of time the voltage is high is different from the time the voltage is
low, a rectangular wave results. In this type of signal, it can be the ratio between
the two times that controls the component.
When voltage changes momentarily and then returns to a steady state again, the
result is a single pulse, or a pulse wave. Both square and rectangular waves can
be viewed as a repeating sequence of voltage pulses. Any sequence of pulses may
be referred to as a pulse train.
Audio and video signals appear as randomly changing voltage. Data packets
flowing between ECUs also appear as random signals. These types of signals
produce complex waves.

38 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Amplitude

Amplitude: The difference in voltage between two points on a wave.

Voltage

14 v
Sine Wave 0v Peak-to-Peak
Amplitude = 28 v
-14 v
Time

Voltage

14 v

Square Wave 7v Peak-to-Peak


Amplitude = 14 v
0v
Time

Note: Voltage scales can vary.

Waveform Signaling between electronic components is determined by the


Measurements characteristics of waveforms and the ways in which they change. Therefore
it’s important to understand the different types of waveform measurements.

Amplitude Looking at a graph of a waveform, amplitude is simply the difference in


height (voltage) between two points on the graph. Two points often
compared are the highest and lowest points. This is peak-to-peak amplitude.
Many electronic circuits have a normal operating range. In a circuit with a
normal operating range of 0 to 5 volts, for example, waveforms will normally
have an amplitude of no more than 5 volts above zero. A signal on such a
circuit having a 12-volt positive amplitude could indicate a short to another
circuit.

Technical Training 39
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Frequency

Frequency: Number of times a repeating waveform cycles per unit of time.

Voltage Voltage

1 cycle Time 1 cycle Time

Cycle = 10 millisecond (ms) Cycle = 0.5 second


Frequency = 1 / .010 second Frequency = 1 / 0.5 second
= 100 times per second = 2 times per second
(100 hertz or 100 Hz) (2 hertz or 2 Hz)

Note: Time scales can vary.

Frequency When a waveform has a recurring pattern, the pattern repeats a certain
number of times per second. The number of times it repeats in a second is
its frequency in hertz.
•One hertz (Hz) equals one cycle per second.
•One megahertz (MHz) equals one million cycles per second.
In some applications, it is the frequency of a signal that contains the
information. A wheel speed sensor is an example. A passive wheel speed
sensor creates a sine wave as the wheel rotates. As the wheel rotates faster,
the sine wave’s frequency increases proportionately.
An active wheel speed sensor, on the other hand, creates a square wave. As
the wheel turns faster, the square wave’s frequency also increases.
In both cases, the ECU uses the signal’s frequency to calculate speed.

NOTE Revolutions per minute (RPM) is a type of frequency. 6000 RPM is equivalent
to 100 cycles per second (100 Hz).

40 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Pulse Width

Pulse Width: The time duration of a voltage change before it returns to a


normal level.
Because the pulse widths are different, some ECUs would
interpret pulse A as having a different meaning than pulse B.

Pulse A Pulse B
Voltage Voltage

Time Time Pulses can also


be negative.
Voltage
1 ms. pulse 3 ms. pulse

Time

Pulse Width One component can send a signal to another with a voltage pulse. In this
case, it is the duration of the pulse, or pulse width, that conveys information.
In late-model vehicles for example, tapping the horn switch quickly sends a
voltage pulse over the BEAN network to the Body ECU.
• A 13 ms. pulse causes the horn to sound for 106 ms.
• A 30 ms. pulse also causes the horn to sound for 106.ms.
• A 100 ms. pulse causes the horn to sound for 173 ms.
• An 8 ms. pulse does not cause the horn to sound at all.
In this example, the ECU sounds the horn for a pre-calculated length of time
based on the width of the pulse (duration of the voltage signal) from the horn
switch.

Technical Training 41
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Duty Cycle

Duty Cycle: The percentage of time that a circuit is ON.

Voltage 10 ms

• Ground-side controlled circuits are


ON when the voltage is low.

Time
75% 25%

10 ms
Voltage

• Power-side controlled circuits are


ON when the voltage is high.

Time
25% 75%

Duty Cycle When voltage alternates repeatedly between a high and a low value, the ratio
of time the voltage is high compared to the time it is low can be used to
control components. The ratio is called the duty cycle.
An example is in controlling the brightness of the dashboard illumination.
Older vehicles used a variable resistor to increase or decrease voltage to the
lamp to make it brighter or dimmer.
In electronic circuits, a modulator can turn a circuit on and off hundreds of
times per second. If the amount of time the circuit is ON equals the amount of
time the circuit is OFF, the lamp is receiving 50% of the power it would
receive if the circuit were just left ON.
When the ON time equals 50% of the complete cycle, it is referred to as a
50% duty cycle. Similarly, when the ON time equals 75% of the complete
cycle, it’s a 75% duty cycle

42 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Section 4 Topics

Measuring Signals • The Oscilloscope


• PC Oscilloscopes
• Basic Operation
• Oscilloscope Scales
• Repeating vs. Changing Patterns
• Scope Pattern Comparison
• Trigger Function
• Advanced DVOM Features
• WORKSHEET: DVOM Advanced Features

Technical Training 43
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

The Oscilloscope
The oscilloscope displays voltage in graphical form, indicating how the
voltage changes over time.

Voltage

Voltage
Time

• The vertical axis represents voltage.


• The horizontal axis represents time.

The Oscilloscope An oscilloscope’s basic function is to display a rapidly changing voltage


signal as a graph over time. Oscilloscopes have long been used to analyze
engine ignition and fuel systems where signal frequencies are related to
engine RPM.
With the introduction of automotive ECUs and multiplex circuits,
oscilloscopes have now become important tools in diagnosing body
electrical systems as well.

44 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

PC Oscilloscopes
Originally, oscilloscopes were In recent years, oscilloscopes have
standalone measuring devices. been created for use on PCs or laptop
computers.

Required test leads or cables are not shown for either scope.

PC Oscilloscopes Until recently, oscilloscopes have been standalone measuring devices with
some type of display to show the changing voltage pattern. Newer
oscilloscopes don’t have their own display, but instead connect to a
personal computer (PC) or a laptop computer where they can use the
computer screen to display the waveforms.

Technical Training 45
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Basic Operation

When the test leads are connected to the circuit:


• The scope repeatedly draws a
trace across the screen from left
to right.
• The trace moves up or down as
circuit voltage changes.

Voltage
A vertical control
determines the
voltage scale.

Time
A timebase control
determines how fast the trace
is drawn and the time scale.

Basic Operation An oscilloscope has test leads similar to a DVOM. The leads are connected
in a circuit where you want to measure a signal.
When operating, the scope draws a line, or trace, across the display screen
corresponding to the voltage it is reading. As voltage increases or
decreases, the line moves up and down the screen as it is traced.
To keep the line from going off the top or bottom of the display screen, a
vertical control adjusts the voltage scale so the trace stays on-screen.
A similar control adjusts the time scale.

46 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Oscilloscope Scales

Signal voltage and frequency can vary widely.


• To properly view a signal, the voltage and time scales must be set appropriately.

Square wave Same square wave, poor time scale

5 V/Div 5 V/Div

Volts per 12 V
Division

10 ms
5 ms

10 ms/Div 1 ms/Div
Time per
Division

Oscilloscope An oscilloscope screen is divided by horizontal and vertical lines called


Scales divisions. When setting the display screen’s voltage scale, you specify how
many volts you want each division to represent.
In the example above, the signal voltage changes by 12 volts from low to
high. The voltage scale in the screen in the illustration has only five
divisions. To keep the signal trace from disappearing off the top of the
screen, the technician has set this voltage scale to 5 volts per division (5
V/DIV). Other settings are possible (6 V/DIV, for example) that can also keep
the entire signal visible. Sometimes it requires a little experimentation to see
which scale makes the signal easiest to evaluate.
Setting the time scale appropriately is also important for being able to see a
signal. In the first example above, the time scale has been set to 10
milliseconds per division (10 ms/DIV). This scale makes the signal’s 20 ms
cycle very apparent.
In the second example, a time scale of 1 ms/DIV zooms too far in so that only
a tiny, unchanging snippet of the signal is visible.
Once again, other appropriate time scale settings are possible (20 ms/DIV,
for example) that can also display the signal characteristics clearly. If settings
aren’t specified for the signal you're monitoring, it may take some
experimentation to find the best time scale setting.

Technical Training 47
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Oscilloscope Scales

The Repair Manual provides the appropriate scales for specific signals.

Compressor Lock Signal

Terminal No. Tool Setting Condition


(Symbols)
J19-8 (LOCK) – 200 mV/DIV, Engine is running
J19-14 (GND) 10 ms/DIV Blower switch LO
A/C switch ON

CANH Communication Signal

Terminal No. Tool Setting Condition


(Symbols)
J19-11 (CANH) - 1 V/DIV, Ignition switch ON
J19-14 (GND) 10 μsec/DIV

2007 Tundra

Repair Manual When following troubleshooting procedures in the Repair Manual, specific
Suggested Scales settings for the voltage and time scales are often provided to eliminate the
need to experiment.
It's best to use these provided settings for comparing the signals you observe
on your scope display to those illustrated in the “Terminals of ECU” section of
the Repair Manual.

48 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Repeating vs. Changing Patterns

If the pattern is not repeating, the trace appears noisy at any scale.
The voltage does not follow a pattern.
As each new trace is drawn on the same
Trace 1
screen, the pattern appears “noisy.”

Start 100 ms
Trace 2

101 ms 200 ms

Trace 3 100 ms

20 ms/Div
201 ms 300 ms

Repeating vs. When a voltage signal is changing rapidly, the oscilloscope trace has to
Changing Patterns redraw itself on the screen many times per second. In the example illustrated
above, the time scale is set to 20 ms/DIV so the entire display represents 100
ms or 1/10 of a second. Therefore, the screen display will be retraced 10
times per second.
The signal this scope is measuring, however, is not the type that has a
repeating pattern. Looking at the first three 100 ms traces shown on the left,
each trace is different. When those traces are drawn on the same
oscilloscope screen all within 3/10 of a second, it’s impossible to see any
pattern in the overlapping traces. The result is what appears to be a “noisy”
signal. This type of signal pattern is common in audio systems.

Technical Training 49
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Capturing Waveforms

You can examine a non-repeating waveform by capturing it.

300 ms of signal captured in scope memory

Start 300 ms
101 ms 200 ms

100 ms view

Scroll to view

Capturing If it’s necessary to see exactly what’s happening in a signal that is not
Waveforms repeating, many oscilloscopes offer a capture feature. When a waveform
is captured, a designated time period of signal is recorded in memory so
it can be played back and examined in detail.
The specifics of how this feature operates vary with different model
oscilloscopes. In general, however, the more memory available for
recording, the longer the time period that can be captured and the greater
quantity of captures that can be kept in memory at one time.
Two of the advantages of PC oscilloscopes are a large memory and
removable storage media for saving captures.

50 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Scope Pattern Comparison

These patterns were captured 3 seconds apart.


Trace 1 CAN Network Signal (Low) Trace 2

Signals are not identical,


but they are good signals.

How do the traces above compare to


what is shown in the Repair Manual?

Hint: If in doubt, compare pattern to a known good vehicle.

Scope Pattern Multiplex communication signals are prime examples of signals that do not
Comparison have a repeating pattern. The timing and width of the voltage pulses vary
depending on the content of the messages the ECUs are trying to send over
the network. Compare the signal to a conversation between people. In natural
speech, you wouldn’t expect to see the same sentence repeated at a regular
frequency.
For that reason, when comparing scope patterns to specifications in the
Repair Manual, the comparisons are not likely to be exactly the same. In the
case of the CAN low signal, the key observation is that the voltage varies
between 1.5V and 2.5V and that the pulses indicating active communication
are visible.

Technical Training 51
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

The Effect of Scale

These are traces of the same signal.


Trace 1 CAN Network Signal (Low) Trace 2
0.5 0.3
V/DIV V/DIV

10 μsec/DIV 50 μsec/DIV
Repair Manual

Why do these traces


look so different?

When examining or comparing scope patterns, be aware of how small differences in scale can
completely alter the signal appearance.

NOTES:

52 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Trigger Function

A trigger function synchronizes the traces for a stable pattern.


• When the trace reaches the right edge
of the screen, it has to return to the left
side to start another sweep.
• To synchronize the traces, the trigger
delays the next sweep until the trigger
event occurs.

The trace ends with voltage


2v going negative
• If the next sweep starts
1v immediately, it won’t synch
with the signal already on
0v the screen.
-1 v • The display will drift or
appear noisy.
This trigger is set to
restart the sweep
when voltage crosses
1V going positive.

All scopes have a trigger function which is necessary for stabilizing the scope pattern.

NOTES:

Technical Training 53
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Other Trigger Uses

The trigger function can also delay capturing a waveform until:

A signal appears

Begin capturing when


voltage goes over 0.1 volt.

Begin capturing when


voltage goes over 2v.
An intermittent fault occurs

A trigger can also be set for capturing a waveform when a specified condition occurs.

NOTES:

54 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Advanced DVOM Features

MIN/MAX Relative Delta


Recording Mode 4 Stores the
current reading as a
1 Press
1 2 reference value and
to begin recording zeroes the display

3 4
2 Press
to pause recording

3 Press
and hold to toggle
between 100ms and
1ms sampling speeds

Advanced DVOM Some types of electrical measurements that are commonly made using an
Features oscilloscope can be made using the advanced features of many DVOMs. The
following are features of the Fluke 87.

MIN/MAX Recording When voltage is varying, sometimes the only measurements needed are the
upper and lower voltage readings. On a CANL communication line, for
example, communication signals create voltages between 1.5V and 2.5V.
With the MIN/MAX Recording feature, the DVOM records and displays the
minimum and maximum voltages to verify the voltage range.
MIN/MAX is also helpful for identifying transient voltage spikes. If a
momentary 12V spike were to appear on the CANL communication line, the
12V MAX reading would indicate a problem.

NOTE Set the voltage range before selecting MIN/MAX. If auto-ranging sets the
initial range too low, the MAX readings will be O.L.

Peak MIN/MAX By pressing the Peak MIN/MAX button (also called the “alert” button), you
can toggle the sampling speed between 100 milliseconds and 1 millisecond.
Any voltage signal lasting at least as long as the sampling speed is recorded.

Relative Delta The Relative Delta function allows you to select a reference value, and then
displays the difference between the current reading and the reference value.
This might be useful when looking for variations in voltage from a reference
value. In bench testing for resistance, touching the leads together and
selecting Relative Delta effectively deducts the resistance of the leads from
component resistance measurements.

Technical Training 55
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Advanced DVOM Features

Frequency and Positive Trigger


Duty Cycle 3 - 074.9 % 1 cycle

1 Press once
to measure frequency

Press again 2 1
to measure duty cycle 75% duty cycle

2 Press Negative Trigger


to toggle between
1 cycle
positive and negative
trigger for duty cycle

3 Changes between +
and – to indicate
trigger direction
25% duty cycle

Frequency If you only need to determine a signal’s frequency, you could use the
Measurement frequency measuring feature available with an advanced DVOM. It
measures frequency by counting how many times per second a varying
voltage or current reading crosses a selected threshold.

Duty Cycle Similarly, some DVOMs can calculate duty cycle by measuring the
percentage of time a signal is above or below a selected threshold during one
cycle. The result is displayed as a percentage.
The percent duty cycle reading assumes the first part of the cycle is the ON
portion. The value will be different depending on whether the cycle is
interpreted as starting with a positive-going (rising) or negative-going (falling)
voltage.
In a ground-side controlled circuit, the load is ON when the voltage is low.
Therefore you want to set the cycle to start when the voltage falls so the
percentage of ON time is measured properly. This requires setting the DVOM
for a negative trigger. While measuring duty cycle on the Fluke 87, you can
toggle between positive trigger and negative trigger by pressing the Peak
MIN/MAX button.

56 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Worksheet

DVOM Set-up & Advanced Features


Classroom Worksheet:
In this worksheet you will use a DVOM and
a signal generator to measure signals for
voltage, frequency and duty cycle.

Use this space to write down any questions you may have for your instructor.

NOTES:

Technical Training 57
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Demonstration
Instructor Demo
Using DVOM Resistance Setting
The instructor will demonstrate using a resistance measurement to measure
frequency and duty cycle in the SI circuit of a blower motor.
B+ Steering Pad
Switches
Blower
Motor
SI AC
IC* Amplifier

Varying duty cycle (voltage)


regulates motor speed
M

*The integrated circuit (IC) not only drops the voltage for the SI circuit,
it also protects the motor from a short in the SI circuit.

Use this space to write down any questions you may have for your instructor.

NOTES:

58 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Section 5 Topics

Using a
• Introduction • Sample Rate
PicoScope™
• Auto Features • Displaying Two Channels
• Voltage and Time Scale • Separating the A-B Traces
Settings • WORKSHEET: PicoScope
• Turning the Trigger On Basic Setup
• Setting the Trigger • WORKSHEET: Using
DVOM & PicoScope
• Start and Stop Capturing
• DEMO: PicoScope & Power
• Horizontal Zoom
Window Circuit
• Rulers

Technical Training 59
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Introduction to PicoScope™

• Oscilloscope software
on a PC
• Hardware connected to
PC via USB cable
• 1-channel, 2-channel and
4-channel models

Introduction to PicoScope™ is a brand of PC-based oscilloscope. The PicoScope


PicoScope™ hardware connects to a personal computer via a USB cable and requires
PicoScope software on the PC to display the scope signals. It is available in
1-channel, 2-channel and 4-channel models.

Connecting the Leads Each channel has a lead wire that can be connected to a circuit to be
monitored. Various lead connectors are provided for conveniently
connecting3 to pins, wires or terminals. The accessory kit also includes
inductive clamps for measuring current flow in wiring without disconnecting
the circuits.
When the leads and hardware are all connected, the PicoScope software
running on the PC controls all of the PicoScope’s measurement and display
functions.

60 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Auto Features

In Auto mode, the


scope selects a
voltage range that
best matches the
signal’s peak-to-peak
voltage.

The Auto Setup


button allows the
scope to select
both the voltage
and time scale.

PicoScope Features As with most software programs, the PicoScope software has a great variety
of features. This section introduces the features you will use most frequently.
To learn about additional features, refer to the PicoScope manual included
in the kit. It can also be referenced within the software program by clicking
on Help.

Auto Voltage Scale Because the frequency and amplitude of different signals vary widely, there
is not a single setting of voltage and time scale that will display all signals
well. One of the challenges in using a traditional oscilloscope is dialing in
the signal, which involves trying different voltage and time scale settings
until the signal is displayed clearly.
To dial in a signal more quickly, the Auto feature automatically selects the
voltage scale that best displays the signal's peak-to-peak voltage. This
provides a waveform that is completely captured within the display, and
allows the setting to be fine tuned if necessary.

NOTE The Auto voltage scale feature does not try to set an optimum time scale.
You will likely need to adjust the time scale to properly display the signal.

Auto Setup The lightning bolt icon selects Auto Setup which not only selects the voltage
scale, but also the time scale. These automatic settings usually bring a
signal into view, but are often not the best scales for observing it.

Technical Training 61
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Voltage & Time Scale Settings


Drop-down menus display the available
settings for the voltage and time scales.

Time choices
define seconds
per division. The
screen has 10
Voltage choices
divisions.
define the range
of the entire
screen.

Manual Voltage Scale To compare signals to those shown in the Repair Manual, you must
Settings manually set the voltage scale.
In the Repair Manual, the suggested voltage scale settings are expressed as
volts per division. The drop-down menu for selecting the voltage scale on
the PicoScope, however, offers choices that define the range of the entire
screen. Therefore it’s necessary to make a simple conversion.
If the Repair Manual suggests 2 V/Div and the PicoScope screen has 10
divisions, then the desired voltage range is 2 x10 = 20V. A +10V scale
would provide a range of 20 volts from -10V to +10v. If the signal actually
fluctuates between 0V and 12V, however, part of the waveform will be going
off the screen. In such a case, make an adjustment to the voltage scale
setting as needed to display the entire signal (+20V).

Manual Time Scale The PicoScope does not have an auto time setting, so you will have to
Settings manually select the appropriate scale. The drop-down menu in this case
does give choices in seconds per division, so no conversion is necessary
when using Repair Manual recommendations.
If you don’t have a recommended time scale and the signal is unfamiliar,
look at the waveform at a very high setting and a very low setting. Seeing the
signal from both extremes helps you determine the appropriate scale.

62 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Turning the Trigger ON


Setting the trigger
properly can
stabilize a signal
pattern, or set the
scope to capture a
signal only when
it goes in or out of
a specified range.

Turning the Trigger On If a pattern is sliding left and right or moving too fast to be seen, setting the
trigger can stabilize the waveform. With the trigger on, the signal is not
traced on the screen until a specified trigger event occurs.
The trigger mode can be set to:
Auto – The scope waits for a trigger event before capturing data. If there is
no trigger event within a specified time, it captures data anyway. It repeats
this process until you click the Stop button. Auto mode does not set the
trigger threshold automatically; you must do this manually.
Repeat: The scope waits indefinitely for a trigger event before displaying
data. Then it waits for another trigger event, and displays the data. It repeats
this process until you click the Stop button . If there is no trigger event, it
displays nothing.
Single: The scope waits once for a trigger event, then stops sampling. To
make it repeat this process, click the green START button.
The trigger can also be very useful in capturing spikes or other unusual
circuit activity. To capture an intermittent fault, set the trigger to start
capturing only when the voltage goes out of range.

Technical Training 63
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Setting the Trigger

B D F

A C E

A. Advanced Triggers – Access a selection of advanced triggers on certain scope


devices.
B. Trigger Channel - Selects a channel as a source for the trigger.
C. Rising Edge – Trigger when a signal crosses the threshold in the rising direction.
D. Falling Edge - Trigger when a signal crosses the threshold in the falling direction.
E. Threshold – The voltage level that the signal must cross to trigger a capture.
F. Pre-Trigger – The amount of data captured before the trigger event (as a
percentage of the total capture time).

Setting the Trigger When the trigger event occurs, the scope begins displaying the signal. The
three most important trigger settings are:
Threshold – Capture begins when the signal reaches this voltage. Not
having this threshold set appropriately is the easiest way to get
unsatisfactory trigger results. It must always be set manually.
Rising or Falling Edge – This selection specifies whether capture starts
when the voltage signal crosses the threshold voltage while rising or while
falling.
Trigger Channel – When measuring two or more signals simultaneously,
you must specify which channel to watch for the trigger event.

64 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Start and Stop Capturing

While capturing, the


display changes as
the signal changes.
When stopped, the last
capture is frozen.

Start or resume capturing

Stop capturing

Start and Stop When you have a lead connected and start the PicoScope software, the
Capturing screen displays a constantly updated real-time voltage reading. If the
voltage is changing rapidly, you will see a rapidly changing waveform.
Depending on the signal, you may be able to obtain the information you need
from examining the moving waveform. For example, on a CANH bus line,
you’re principally looking for a signal that fluctuates rapidly between 2.5V and
3.5V.
In some cases, however, you may need to freeze the signal so you can look
at the wave pattern more closely. To freeze the signal, click on the red
STOP icon in the lower left corner.
To resume capturing, click on the green START icon.

NOTE Pressing the spacebar on the keyboard also stops and starts capturing.

Technical Training 65
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Horizontal Zoom
1x zoom
Horizontal zoom
magnifies the graph
in the horizontal
direction.

8x zoom

The screen can be scrolled left and right to


locate and examine locations of interest.

Horizontal Zoom Notice the very compact waveform in the upper-right screen above. The time
scale setting in that example captured a large number of cycles. The long
time setting and large number of cycles were necessary in that case to
clearly show the recurring glitches in the signal.
To more closely examine these abnormalities in the signal, expand the
waveform using the horizontal zoom function. Depending on the point at
which the waveform is expanded, however, the abnormality may not be
visible. To see it, a scroll bar at the bottom of the screen (not shown above)
allows you to scroll left and right to view any part of the captured signal.
To return to the original view, reset the scale to x1.

66 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Rulers – Measuring Cycle Duration

510 ms 694 ms 184 ms

Calculates the time


between the rulers.

Drag the white box


to the right to move
the rulers onto the
screen.

Rulers
Calculates
frequency

1/Δ 5.43 Hz
5.43 Hz 1/Δ 20 Hz

Rulers The software provides rulers to make obtaining accurate time and voltage
measurements easier.
Vertical Rulers (Time) – To place a vertical ruler at any point on the screen,
click and drag the small white box in the lower left corner. Two rulers are
available. The ruler measurements and difference between them appear in a
box at the top of the screen.
A typical use for vertical rulers is to measure the duration of one cycle.
The duration of a cycle can be converted into frequency by dividing the
duration (must be in seconds) into 1. Example:

1
= 5.4 hertz (cycles per sec.)
.184 sec./cycle

Whenever the vertical rulers are used, the PicoScope automatically performs
the frequency calculation and displays the result in the lower right corner of
the screen.

Technical Training 67
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Rulers – Measuring Peak-to-Peak Voltage

Drag the blue box


down to move the
rulers onto the Calculates the voltage
screen. between the rulers.

Rulers

Rulers (Cont’d) Horizontal Rulers (Voltage) – To place a horizontal ruler at any point on the
screen, click and drag the small blue box in the lower left corner. Two rulers
are available. The ruler measurements and difference between them appear
in a box at the top of the screen.
Horizontal rulers are typically used for measuring a signal’s peak-to-peak
voltage.

68 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Sample Rate

The scope attempts to


capture the number of
samples per second specified
here.
Use the up/down arrows to
change the setting.
Settings range from 50 per
second (50 S) to 200,000,000
samples per second (200 MS).
The actual number of samples
could be different.

Sample Rate To display a voltage signal that is rapidly changing, the oscilloscope must
take sample voltage measurements very frequently. If samples are not taken
rapidly enough, the displayed signal will not accurately represent the actual
signal pattern.
In most cases, a fairly high sample rate displays the signal in detail. In
some cases, however, too much detail makes unimportant noise in the signal
visible. Reducing the sample rate may filter out the unwanted detail so the
fundamental wave pattern is clearer..

Technical Training 69
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Displaying Two Channels

B-Channel ruler

B-Channel trace

To turn on the B
channel, select a
voltage range
from the pull
down menu.

B-Channel
voltage scale

Displaying Two Viewing two signals at the same time can be very helpful in a variety of
Channels diagnostic situations. With a two-channel or four-channel scope, the
additional channels are turned on and off using each channel’s voltage scale
setting. To distinguish the different signals, they are color-coded.
Voltage scales are displayed on both the left and right sides of the screen.
You can set different voltage scales for each signal, but the time scale is the
same for all signals.

70 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Separating the A-B Traces

To separate the traces:

Click and drag the


voltage scale upward

Click and drag the


voltage scale downward

Or click here for


this dialog box

Separating the A-B In many cases, overlapping signals can make it difficult to analyze the
Traces waveforms. Separating the waveforms is as simple as clicking on the voltage
scale and dragging it up or down to reposition the signal on the screen.
Another way to offset the traces is to click on the colored box in the lower left
or right corner. This brings up a dialog box that allows adjustments to scale
and offset. To return to the default setting, click on the button with the
“return” arrow on it.

Technical Training 71
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Printing, Saving and Sending Patterns

Use the File menu to


print or save the current
waveform.

Once a file is saved, it can


be transmitted electronically
the same as any other file.

Printing, Saving and If your diagnostic efforts require you to print a waveform, use the File menu
Sending Patterns in the upper left corner to access the printer functions.
Use the same File menu if it’s necessary to save a captured pattern. Make
note of the folder where the saved file is stored so that you can retrieve it
later when needed.
Sending a saved waveform file is the same as sending any other file. Note
that if the recipient does not have PicoScope software, be sure to save the
waveform in a format they will be able to open.

72 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Worksheet (1 of 2)

In-class PicoScope: Basic Set-up


Classroom Worksheet:
In this worksheet, you will set up the
PicoScope to measure signals from a
signal generator and practice using the
PicoScope features to display signal
patterns.

Use this space to write down any questions you may have for your instructor.

NOTES:

Technical Training 73
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Worksheet (2 of 2)

Using DVOM & PicoScope


Shop Worksheet:
In this worksheet you will:
• Locate and back probe a dimmer-
controlled interior lamp or LED
• Practice measuring Voltage (V), Hertz
(Hz), percentage values (%) using a
DVOM
• Use the PicoScope to display the signal
pattern.

Instructor Demo
PicoScope & Power Window
Circuit
The instructor will demonstrate
measuring and displaying signals
using the PLS1 and PLS2 signals of
a Power Window System.

Use this space to write down any questions you may have for your instructor.

NOTES:

74 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Section 6 Topics

• Inductive Clamp
Using an
• Preparation for Use
Inductive Clamp
• Converting Measurements to Amps
• Amp Clamp Applications
• WORKSHEET: Inductive Clamp I -
Measurement & Conversion
• WORKSHEET: Inductive Clamp II - Monitor A/C
Blower Motor

Technical Training 75
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Inductive Clamp

An inductive clamp measures current flow without opening the


circuit.

Current flowing in a wire creates a An inductive clamp placed around


magnetic field around the wire. the wire measures the strength of
the magnetic field to determine
current flow.
Magnetic
field
Current
flow

Wire

Right hand rule determines the


direction of the magnetic field.

The Inductive An inductive clamp is an accessory that can be used with a DVOM or
Clamp oscilloscope to measure current. It may also be called an amp clamp or a
current clamp.
The inductive clamp operates on the principles of magnetism and induction.
Electrons flowing in a wire generate a magnetic field around the wire. If
another wire or conductor is placed in the magnetic field, the magnetic force
causes electrons in the second wire to flow. This is called electromagnetic
induction. The strength of current flow and the strength of the magnetic field
are directly proportional.
The inductive clamp takes advantage of this principle by placing a probe
around a wire where it can measure the strength of the magnetic field and
thus determine the current flow.

Polarity The direction of the induced magnetic field depends on the direction of
current flow through the wire. If you were to wrap your right hand around the
wire with your thumb pointing in the direction of current flow, your fingers
would then circle the wire in the direction of the magnetic field. This is called
the right hand rule.
Because the magnetic field has a polarity, it’s possible to obtain negative
readings if the clamp is placed on the wire backward. If this occurs, simply
reclamp the wire with the clamp flipped over.

76 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

High Current and Low Current Clamps

Use a high current inductive clamp For smaller wires and lower
on large wires and circuits with high current circuits, use the low
current flow. current inductive clamp.

Note: Each inductive clamp is


rated according to its maximum
current measuring capability.

Current Rating Each inductive clamp is rated according to its current measuring capability.
Ratings can vary from 10 amps to 2000 amps.
As a safety feature, low current clamps often have jaws that do not
accommodate very large gauge wiring. A typical low current clamp is rated
between 10 and 60 amps.
High current clamps have larger jaws for larger gauge wires. A typical high
current clamp is rated between 100 and 600 amps. Very high current clamps
may be rated between 1000 and 2000 amps. In general, the higher the
current rating is, the less precise the measurements are.

Technical Training 77
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Preparation for Use

After each use, capacitance in the clamp can store a charge


that will make the next reading inaccurate.

Clamp (jaws)

To dissipate the stored charge,


press to open the jaws and let
them snap shut several times.
Then zero the tool to cancel
the effect of any residual
magnetic field.

Preparation for Use Though there are a wide variety of inductive clamps for DVOMs and
oscilloscopes, their basic operation is similar for almost all models.
The clamp has a a set of jaws that can be opened and placed around a wire
to be measured. After each use, capacitance in the clamp can store a charge
that will make the next reading inaccurate. To dissipate the stored charge,
open the jaws and let them snap shut several times. Next, press the zero
button on the clamp to calibrate the reading and cancel the effect of any
residual magnetic field.

NOTE The inductive clamp has an internal battery. Turn the clamp OFF when not in
use to keep the battery from discharging completely.

78 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Converting Measurements to Amps

When an inductive clamp is used with a DVOM, the meter must be


set to measure voltage

Convert the voltage reading to amps using a The sensitivity switch on the
conversion factor. clamp specifies what
conversion factor to use.
10mV / 1A
45mV
100mV / 1A

OFF

(e.g. slide switch)

At 100mV / 1A, the 45mV


reading equals 45/100 = 0.45A

Note: Not all clamps have a sensitivity switch,


but all clamps have a conversion factor.

Converting An inductive clamp actually measures magnetic field strength, not current
Measurements to Amps flow. Therefore when an inductive clamp is used with a DVOM, the meter
is set to measure voltage.
Most amp clamps have a switch to set the clamp for high or low sensitivity
appropriate to the current being measured. The switch is labeled with a
millivolts-to-amps ratio needed to convert the DVOM millivolts reading into
amps.
Different clamps may express conversion factors differently:
•10mV / 1A and 100mV / 1A are based on common units of 1 amp.
•1mV / 100mA and 1mV / 10mA are based on common units of 1mV.
When expressed in common units of 1 amp, the conversion formula is:
mV measured
A =
100mV
(or 10mV, depending on scale)
When expressed in common units of 1 mV, the conversion formula is:
mA = mV measured X 100 mA
(or 10 mA, depending on scale)

Technical Training 79
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Amp Clamp Applications

Locating short circuits and finding parasitic draws:

85mV
Clamp a group
of wires at a time.

When current is found, narrow it


down to one wire.

85mV

Amp Clamp One of the disadvantages of the amp clamp is that current measurements are
Applications not very precise. Precision varies with the quality of clamp. Readings may be
20% to 50% off from actual when measuring current below 100 milliamps.
The great advantage of an amp clamp, however, is that you don’t have to
open the circuit to measure current. This is exceptionally helpful in diagnosing
short circuits and parasitic draws where the precise current value is not
important.
The problem with opening circuits while diagnosing shorts and parasitic draw
is that power interruptions can launch startup cycles for a variety of ECUs. It
can be some time before these ECUs quiet down. Until then, current may be
flowing temporarily in many circuits and masking the problem circuit.
Another problem with opening circuits is that cycling power may reset a
component that was drawing current and may temporarily “fix” the problem.

Diagnosing Short When diagnosing a short circuit or parasitic draw, the first objective is
Circuits and Parasitic identifying the circuit with unexpected current flow. Then your objective is
Draw tracing current flow through the wiring until the current flow stops or you find
the failed component.
• After determining the most likely place to begin, start by clamping a harness
or groups of wires to detect which has current flow.
• If current is found in the harness or group, test each wire individually to find
the active wire.
• Use the EWD to follow the wire through junction blocks and connectors to
find the problem source.

80 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Amp Clamp Applications

Diagnosing intermittent motor failures using an oscilloscope:


Starter Motor Current

Vehicle being
diagnosed:

Known good
vehicle:

Diagnosing Motor Faults The PicoScope and many other oscilloscopes have amp clamps available
with an Oscilloscope as optional equipment. One of the applications of an amp clamp and
oscilloscope is in diagnosing motor faults.
One of the problems with motors on the verge of failure is they exhibit
intermittent faults. Resistance in windings or contacts may fluctuate for an
extended period before degrading to the point of complete failure. These
fluctuations are not revealed in typical DVOM readings.
An oscilloscope’s high speed measurements, however, can detect
fluctuations in current caused by internal variations in motor resistance.
Comparing the current signal pattern to a known good vehicle can reveal if
a motor is starting to fail.

NOTE With many oscilloscopes, using an amp clamp does not require converting
millivolts to amps. The oscilloscope can be set to apply the correct
conversion factor and display the result in amps.

Technical Training 81
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Worksheets

Inductive Current Clamp I:


Measurement & Conversion
Classroom Worksheet:
Some Inductive Current Clamps use
a conversion factor for sensitivity. In
this worksheet you will practice
using the conversion factor to
convert voltage to an amperage
value.

Inductive Current Clamp II:


A/C Blower Motor
Shop Worksheet:
In this worksheet you will monitor the
A/C Blower Motor amperage using a
DVOM equipped with an Inductive
Current Clamp.

Use this space to write down any questions you may have for your instructor.

NOTES:

82 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Section 7 Topics

Multiplex Circuit • Additional Properties of • LIN Diagnosis


MPX Protocols • WORKSHEET: AC LIN
Diagnosis
• BEAN Networks Interface
• LIN Networks • CAN Diagnosis
• CAN Networks • WORKSHEETS: CAN Network
ECU ECU ECU

• AVC-LAN Networks Diagnosis (3)


DLC 3 Hi LO
• Gateway ECUs • AVC-LAN Diagnosis
• Transmit/Receive Charts • WORKSHEET: AVC-LAN
Inspection
• BEAN Diagnosis
• Other MPX Circuits
• WORKSHEET: BEAN
Network Diagnosis • WORKSHEET: A/C Bus Servo
Motor Operation
• DEMO: Diagnosing a
BEAN Circuit

Technical Training 83
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Additional Properties of MPX Protocols

Protocol: A set of rules and standards for communication between networked


components. Protocols establish the standards for a variety of possible network properties.

Properties: Conventions
Communication Direction: One-way, two-way
Transmission Timing: Periodic, event-driven
Collision Detection & Recovery: Retransmission delay, priority scheme
Data Casting: Broadcast, unicast, multicast
Sleep Mode & Wake-up Function: Available, not available

Additional The network protocols in Toyota vehicles include:


Properties of MPX • BEAN
Protocols • CAN
• LIN
• AVC-LAN
Each protocol defines the rules and standards necessary for components on
the network to communicate with one another. Their rules and standards
describe various network properties and their conventions.
This section discusses some of these properties and typical conventions in
more detail.

84 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Communication Direction

One-way or two-way
One-way communication Switch Signal (e.g. P/W Open)
(mainly used for Door Bus)
Data

Power Window Main Body


Master Switch ECU
Transmitter Receiver

Two-way communication
AC Compressor ON
Data

Data

Engine ECU A/C ECU


Transmitter
• Water Temp Transmitter
• Ambient Temp.
Receiver Receiver

Communication Communication direction is one of the considerations in multiplex network


Direction design. Toyota networks may communicate in either a one-way direction or a
two way direction.
The directional design provides for two different situations:
In one-way communication, one component transmits data to another and
waits for an acknowledgement. In the example above, the Power Window
ECU transmits data to the Main Body ECU that the power window switch is
open. The Main Body ECU only acknowledges receipt of the transmitted data.
Two-way data transmission involves data flowing in both directions – not
just data and acknowledgement, but actual data in both directions. In the
example above, the Engine ECU transmits data related to the A/C
compressor’s ON status and the A/C ECU acknowledges receipt of that data
and replies with additional data related to the water and ambient temperature.
BEAN communication direction can be either one-way or two-way. The CAN,
LIN, and AVC-LAN are all two-way communication networks.

Technical Training 85
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Transmission Timing
Periodic and event-driven
Periodic Transmission
Data which always needs to be updated is sent to participating ECUs periodically.
Water Temp.
Water Temp. W Engine W W W W Meter
Sensor ECU ECU

Event Transmission
Data is sent to participating ECUs when any of the relevant switches are operated.
ON
OFF Switch
S Operation S
Power Window Main Body
Master Switch ECU

If a switch is operated during periodic data transmission, a switch operation signal is inserted
between periodic data. Periodic data transmission resumes after event transmission.

W W S W W S W

S W
Power Window Engine Main Body Meter
Master Switch ECU ECU ECU

Page 86

Transmission Timing Another network property taken into consideration in design is the
transmission timing of the data. Data may be periodically transmitted or it
may be event-driven.
Periodic data, such as a water temperature signal or engine speed, is
transmitted at regular intervals. Event-driven data is transmitted when an
event occurs, such as when a switch is thrown.

86 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Collision Detection & Recovery

Retransmission delay or priority scheme

When two ECUs attempt to transmit data at the same time, a data collision occurs.

Data Data

ECU ECU ECU ECU ECU

Retransmission delay (BEAN)


Each ECU stops transmitting for a predetermined time interval. ECUs resume
transmitting one after the other, with the highest priority ECU going first. (10 kbps)
Priority scheme (CAN)
The ECU with the highest priority message is allowed to continue transmitting. Other
ECUs stop until the communication line is no longer busy. (250 to 500 kbps)

Collision Detection In a multi-master network (such as BEAN or CAN), collision detection is a


method of resolving data collisions that might occur when more than one ECU
transmits at the same time. Multiple access to the serial data bus allows
individual ECUs to function independently and transmit at any time they sense
an idle network. If a data collision occurs, the ECUs in some networks (such
as the BEAN) each wait for a slightly different predetermined time interval and
then resume data transmission. The sequence in which they restart is based
on their priority.
CAN uses a message priority method for resolving conflicts on the network.
When a data collision occurs, the ECU with the highest priority message
continues transmitting while the other ECUs stop. The other ECUs can
resume transmitting when they detect the communication line is not busy. By
not interrupting transmission of the priority message, the CAN protocol is able
to operate at faster speeds.
Both LIN and AVC-LAN networks are controlled by a master node, so no
collisions can occur and arbitration or collision management in the slave
nodes is not required.

Technical Training 87
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Data Casting

Broadcast, unicast and multicast


Broadcast Communication
Data is sent from an ECU to participating ECUs.

ECU ECU ECU ECU ECU


Transmit Receive Receive Receive Receive

Unicast Communication
Data is sent from an ECU to a certain ECU.

ECU ECU ECU ECU ECU


Transmit Receive

Multicast Communication
Data is sent from an ECU to a group of other ECUs.

ECU ECU ECU ECU ECU


Transmit Receive Receive

Data Casting Another attribute of network protocol is data casting. There are three basic
types of data casting methods used.
• Broadcast communication where every node on the network receives the
data.
• Unicast communication where data is only addressed to one node on the
network and the address is ignored by the other nodes.
• Multicast communication where data is transmitted from one node on the
network and addressed to a group of other nodes.
The Body Electronics Area Network can transmit data using all three types of
data casting methods.
The Controller Area Network transmits using broadcast and multicast
methods. Individual ECUs can ignore sent data but will send a receipt of data
transmission. A CAN Bus Check is a broadcast signal which checks to
confirm which ECUs are responding. Replies are returned in the order of
reception.
Local Interconnect Network transmits using the multicast method.
Audio Visual Communication-Local Area Network uses all three.

88 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Sleep Mode & Wakeup Function

Available or Unavailable
Not all systems have sleep mode. When a system with sleep mode judges that the
vehicle is not being used, it stops communication of all ECUs to reduce parasitic
current. (BEAN, CAN, LIN)

Sleep Wake-up
• IG-OFF During sleep, if any of the relevant switches
• All doors are closed are operated:
• After a predetermined time the system • Open the door
goes to sleep. • Unlock the door, etc.
the affected ECU sends a “wake-up”
message to other ECUs.
zz
ECU Wake-up ECU
signal

zz
zz
ECU ECU ECU ECU

What would keep the network from going to sleep?

Sleep Mode In the BEAN and LIN protocols, ECUs periodically transmit data. This activity
uses battery voltage and creates a normal parasitic draw. To reduce
parasitic draw when the vehicle is not being used, ECUs enter “sleep” mode
after a set time when the ignition is off and the doors are closed.
After the ignition has been turned OFF, a CAN node may also enter sleep
mode to reduce the power consumption. The transmitter portion of the
transceiver module is switched OFF, however the receiver part can remain
active to check for activity on the bus.

Wakeup Function When any network-related switch is operated, the associated ECU “wakes
up” and sends a wake up signal to all the other ECUs on the network.
In a LIN network, both the master and slaves are able to wake-up the
network.
AVC-LAN does not have a sleep mode and wake-up function.

SERVICE TIP • A dead battery from a parasitic draw can be caused by a BEAN, LIN, or
CAN network that is not going to sleep.
• A network can be kept awake if one of the ECUs on the network is receiving
constant input from a faulty switch or sensor.
• Circuits operating properly can also keep a network awake - an immobilizer
key left in the key cylinder (with ignition off) for example.

Technical Training 89
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Body Electronics Area Network (BEAN)

Topology:
• Daisy chain configuration to improve reliability in the event of open circuit
• Single-wire voltage drive (speed = 10 kbps)

Theft Deterrent MPX1 Bus MPX1


ECU

Power Seat MPX1 Bus MPX2


ECU

Body
MPX2 MPX1 MPX3 ECU
Driver Door
MPX1
ECU MPX2

Ring
MPX2
Passenger Door
ECU MPX1 MPX4
2004 Avalon

Body Electronics The Body Electronics Area Network (BEAN) is a proprietary network
Area Network developed by Toyota. It is a low-speed protocol typically used for ordinary
body electrical systems such as windows, doors, mirrors, seats, etc.
The BEAN uses a combination of the ring and bus styles to network its ECUs.
This style of connection is also called a daisy chain. The advantage of a ring
configuration is that the ECUs in the ring part of the network can continue to
communicate even if there is an open in one area because the transmission
can travel via two possible pathways.
Even in the ring configuration, if the communication line is cut at more than
one point, communication becomes impossible. In recent Toyota systems,
however, a back-up bus is provided to maintain limited communications. A
backup bus usually links the combination switch, front Controller, and Main
Body ECU.
Several BEAN networks may be connected to each other via a Gateway ECU
or to other networks via the Gateway
BEAN also provides the capability for customizing certain system settings
using Techstream.

90 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Local Interconnect Network (LIN)

Master-Slave Protocol:
• Master sends request for data to the slave
• The slave responds with data requested
• Slaves cannot transmit unless requested (except for “wake-up” message)
• Slaves cannot communicate with each other

Master
ECU
Slave Slave
ECU ECU

LIN
Slave Slave
ECU ECU

(e.g. Power Window Master Switch, Sliding Roof ECU, etc.)


Speed = 20 kbps

Local LIN was developed by a consortium of European car manufacturers as a


Interconnect lower cost alternative to CAN. Though its maximum transmission speed is
only 20 kbps, its cost is two to three times lower per node. It is typically used
Network to control sensors and actuators in non-critical systems such as windows,
doors, seats and air conditioning systems.

LIN Characteristics The LIN protocol uses an AV (automotive vinyl) single wire in a star topology
to create a master-slave configuration. Because each of the slaves are
connected directly to the master, nodes may be added to the network without
requiring hardware or software changes.
In the master-slave configuration, slaves can only communicate with the
master, and can send data only after receiving a data request from the
master.
Because each slave is separately connected to the master, a failure in any
part of the network does not affect the rest of the network.

LIN Replacing BEAN was developed by Toyota as a proprietary network before industry-
BEAN wide automotive networks were available. Because LIN has now appeared as
an industry standard and is also a low-speed, low cost network similar to
BEAN, it is replacing BEAN in most newer Toyota vehicles.

Technical Training 91
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Local Interconnect Network (LIN)

Topology:
• Master ECU is connected to the CAN network
• Master serves as a gateway for up to 64 slaves
• Single-wire voltage drive

ECU ECU
CAN

(e.g. Main Body


ECU ECU) ECU
Master
ECU
Slave Slave
ECU ECU

LIN
Slave Slave
ECU ECU

LIN Gateway LIN has a multiple slave network architecture with a message identification
Function for multi-cast transmission between any network node. It shares some of the
features of an AVC-LAN network except that a LIN master ECU contains a
gateway function which has the capability to interface with higher-level
networks such as CAN. This feature extends the benefits of networking all the
way down to the individual sensors and actuators.

92 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Controller Area Network (CAN)


Topology
• Bus style with terminating resistors at each end
• Sub-bus lines connect ECUs and sensors to the main bus line
• Twisted-pair differential voltage drive
J/C No. 1 J/C No. 2
Airbag Sensor
Assembly Meter ECU

Yaw Rate Sensor


Steering Angle
Sensor Deceleration Sensor

Main Body
DLC3
Air Conditioner ECU
Amplifier
Certification ECU
SIL CAN-L
CAN-H
Engine ECU (ECM) EPS ECU
Skid Control ECU

Terminating Resistors (120 ohm)


: CAN Main Bus Line (High)
: CAN Sub-Bus Line (High)
: CAN Main Bus Line (Low)
CAN HS = 500 kbps (max 1 Mbps) : CAN Sub-Bus Line (Low)
CAN MS = 250 kbps : Serial Communication Line

Controller Area The Controller Area Network (CAN) was originally developed specifically for
Network automotive applications by Bosch and later adopted as a standard by the
International Standards Organization (ISO). It has since been adapted for use
in elevators and medical device applications.
Similar to BEAN, multiple ECUs are connected to a common CAN bus.
However, CAN is not designed for use in a ring topology, and is limited to a
maximum of 13 ECUs on a single network. To accommodate more ECUs,
multiple CAN networks can be linked by Gateway ECUs.
CAN uses twisted-pair wiring to carry matching high and low voltage signals
for reliability and speed. It comes in two varieties– HS (high-speed, 500 kbps)
and MS (medium-speed, 250 kbps).

Terminating Resistors The CAN bus uses 120 ohm resistors at each end of the bus to prevent
signals from bouncing back and corrupting communications. Since each bus
has two resistors between CAN high and CAN low, the resistance between
the two CAN bus lines is approximately 60 ohms.

Technical Training 93
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Audio Visual Communication –


Local Area Network (AVC-LAN)
Topology:
• Master-slave configuration using differential voltage drive
• Broadcast, unicast, and multicast communication
Multi Display (Master)

Audio Head Unit


Television
Gateway ECU
Camera ECU
BEAN AVC-LAN
Steering Pad Stereo Component
Switch Tuner Navigation ECU

Driver Side J/B Stereo Component Audio and Rear


ECU Amp. A/C Panel Switch

Speed = 17.8 kbps

Audio Visual AVC-LAN is a unified standard developed by six companies including Toyota
Communication - Motor Corporation. The intention was to standardize signals such as audio
signals, visual signals, switch indication signals and communication signals.
Local Area Network The purpose for the standardization was to avoid the incompatibility that
resulted when products from more than one manufacturer were combined in a
single multimedia system.
When the AVC-LAN is linked to other networks, a Gateway ECU (or a
gateway function integrated in another ECU) is needed.

94 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Audio Visual Communication –


Local Area Network (AVC-LAN)
Control:
• Each component has an ID. The one with the lowest ID is the master.

Multi Display (Master)

ID: 110

Audio Head Unit


Television
Gateway ECU
ID: 190 Camera ECU ID: 280
BEAN AVC-LAN
Steering Pad Stereo Component
Switch Tuner Navigation ECU
ID: 1F0 ID: 178

Driver Side J/B Stereo Component Audio and Rear


ECU Amp. A/C Panel Switch
ID: 440 ID: 1F4
Note: IDs are hexadecimal numbers

AVC-LAN Protocol An AVC-LAN system consists of audio units and ECUs that are connected in
parallel. Each of these units has a switch to connect the unit to the
communication bus.
When the ignition switch is turned to the ACC position, the vehicle’ s AVC-
LAN System Master Unit sends a registration request on the system’s LAN
circuit. At that time, the mode control portion of the system transmits a
physical address back to the Master Unit. The physical address is a three-
digit code designation for each of the components of the system (such as the
Navigation ECU, Television Camera ECU, Stereo Component Amplifier, etc.)
The mode control portion of the system provides communication traffic control
and transmits output ON, and output OFF instructions to each of these units
when switching from one operation unit within the system to another.
All of the components in the system transmit a logical address from each unit.
The logical address is a two-digit code (in hexadecimal) that is assigned to
each function for that unit (such as command switch, speaker beep, etc).
The mode control portion of the system then verifies the connection and
operation of each of the components.

NOTE The numeric IDs are given in hexadecimal numbers. Hexadecimal is the
base-16 number system used by computers where A = 10, B=11, C=12,
D=13, E=14, and F=15
In vehicles with a multi display (ID = 110 or 118) , the multi display is the
master. In vehicles without a multi display, the radio receiver (ID = 190) is the
master.

Technical Training 95
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Gateway ECUs
Some ECUs have an integrated gateway function.
If different types of networks connect to one ECU, you can assume it has a gateway function.
Yaw Rate Sensor Seat Belt Control Skid Control Clearance
Skid Control ECU Assembly Steering Sensor
ECU ECU* Warning ECU

CAN
Movement Control
Navigation ECU* Bus (HS)
Network
Network
Gateway
Gateway Front Heater
LIN Rear Heater Television
AVC-LAN Radio Receiver Stereo Component
ECU
ECU Control Panel Control Panel Display* Assembly Amplifier Assembly

ECM A/C Amplifier Center Airbag Combination DLC3


Multi-Display*
Assembly Sensor Assembly Meter Assembly
CAN
V Bus (HS)

Immobilizer Code Steering Lock


ECU ECU
LIN

Main
Main
Body
Body Multiplex Tilt and Outer Mirror Tire Pressure
Certification ECU Driver Seat ECU Bus Buffer ECU
ECU
ECU Telescopic ECU Control Warning ECU
(with
(with
gateway
gateway CAN
function)
function)
LIN MS Bus
CAN
Power Window
ECU
Sliding Roof ECU
*: Option LIN
2009 Land Cruiser
AVC-LAN

Gateway ECU Components on networks using different protocols can’t communicate directly
with one another because they don’t “speak the same language.” To translate
and relay messages between networks, Gateway ECUs were developed.
A Gateway ECU also serves as the interface between vehicle networks and
the diagnostic tester (via the DLC3 connector).
In many systems, a major ECU (such as the Main Body ECU) may include a
gateway function within it. If different types of networks connect to one ECU,
you can assume it also serves as a Gateway ECU.

CAN Gateway ECU A vehicle may have multiple Controller Area Networks for a variety of
reasons.
• A CAN bus can have no more than 13 nodes. To link more than 13
components using CAN requires two or more networks.
• CAN buses may be different speeds (HS or MS).
• Multiple buses are often intentionally used so that a failure in one bus
doesn’t disable components on other CAN buses.
To link multiple CAN buses together, a CAN Gateway ECU can be used.

96 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Gateway ECU Functions

Communication: Provides communication Diagnosis: Stores DTCs for BEAN


link between multiple buses of the same networks.
protocol.

BEAN Gateway BEAN BEAN Gateway BEAN


ECU ECU ECU ECU
ECU ECU

DLC3

Interface: Translates messages from one Customize: Enables the customize feature
protocol to another. of BEAN networks.

BEAN BEAN
ECU ECU Gateway
DLC3
ECU
Gateway
BEAN
ECU

ECU Audio ECU


CAN AVC-LAN

Summary of The Gateway ECU connects buses of different protocols and DLC3, and
Gateway ECU manages communications between them. It also provides signal conversion
Functions between the BEAN, CAN, and AVC-LAN networks.
Gateways also regulate the exchange of data between networks of the
same protocol, such as two BEAN networks. Separate BEAN networks
ensure that a failure in one network won’t disable all BEAN components.
BEAN networks are connected to the DLC3 via the gateway and the gateway
communicates with the diagnostic tester. The gateway does not interpret the
messages; it simply transfers the Diagnostic Requests onto the BEAN and
then transfers Diagnostic Responses from the BEAN onto ISO 9141 (the
diagnostic protocol). If a malfunction occurs in the BEAN communication,
DTCs are stored in the gateway memory.
The gateway acts as a kind of firewall to prevent the entire system from
being affected if one bus fails.
The gateway enables the customize feature of BEAN networks.

Technical Training 97
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

CAN Gateway ECU Functions

A CAN Gateway ECU has fewer but more specialized functions.

Data destined for


components on the
other bus is relayed. ECU ECU

DTCs are stored in the


CAN Gateway ECU. CAN Gateway ECU ECU
ECU

ECU ECU

Data not intended for ECU


components on the other
bus is not forwarded.

CAN Gateway ECU Compared to other Gateway ECUs, the CAN Gateway ECU’s functions are
Functions simplified:
•Forward data from one bus to the other when the data is addressed to
components on the other bus.
•Restrict transmission of data to the other bus when the data is not
addressed to any components on that bus.
•Store DTCs for failure in components or communication lines.

98 Technical Training
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Transmit/Receive Charts

Air Conditioning System Diagram DLC3 Multiplex


Network Body A/C Amplifier
ECU
AVC-LAN Gateway
ECU
BEAN
Accessory CAN Combination Front
Meter Assy ECM
ECM Meter Assy Controller

Transmitter Receiver Line Signal


Heater Relay Control Signal
Magnetic Clutch Control Signal
Rear DEF Relay Control Signal
ECM BEAN/CAN
Idle Up Signal
A/C Amplifier Pressure Sensor Signal
External Variable Control Solenoid Current Signal
Multiplex Network BEAN Diagnostic Tool Response
Body ECU
Diagnostic Data
Accessory Meter BEAN / AVC- Indicator ON demand signal
Assy LAN

Transmit/Receive The transmit/receive charts in the Repair Manual can be very helpful in
Charts understanding the operation of a multiplex circuit. The example above is just
a portion of the chart for the air conditioning system of a 2005 Avalon.
These charts can be found in the System Diagram section of the Repair
Manual for each system using multiplex communication.

Technical Training 99
673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Communication Signal

BEAN Signal BEAN uses a single wire voltage drive protocol. The BEAN communication
signal varies from zero to a nominal 10 volts. The circuit is at rest when at
zero volts

100 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Diagnosis

Check DTC information


Examples
Communication line disconnection or open at 2 points
DTC No. Detection Item Detecting Condition
B1200 MPX Body ECU communication stop Communication with Gateway ECU
B1271 Combination meter ECU communication stop stopped 10 sec. or more

Communication line short


When a +B short circuit is detected
Short to B+ in door system communication bus
B1214 in the door system communication
malfunction
bus
When a body ground short circuit is
Short to GND in door system communication bus
B1215 detected in the door system
malfunction
communication bus

2008 Avalon

BEAN Diagnosis The Gateway ECU monitors communication on the BEAN and stores a DTC
when it detects a network communication error (DTC B12XX). The Gateway
ECU outputs only B12XX DTCs.
Note that DTCs indicating “communication stop” typically mean there is a
disconnection or open circuit that is isolating one more ECUs from the
network. You can determine the possible locations of the open circuit by
examining the wiring diagram and analyzing which ECUs are offline.
Because short circuits disable the entire network, those DTCs do not identify
a particular ECU. The diagnostic procedure for shorts involves disconnecting
portions of the circuit until communication resumes. You then know the short
is in the disconnected portion of the circuit.

Technical Training 101


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Diagnosis – Open Circuit


Communication line disconnection or open at 2 points
DTC No. Detection Item Detecting Condition
Communication with Gateway ECU
B1271 Combination meter ECU communication stop
stopped 10 sec. or more

Defective combination meter


Possible Causes ECU power supply or ground

Body
Body ECU
ECU Wire harness Meter ECU
open circuit

Failure in
Combination
Meter ECU

Connector
disconnected
A/C
A/C ECU
ECU Defective inner Gateway
Gateway ECU
ECU
communication
line in each ECU
: Communication Circuit

Open Circuit Components connected to the BEAN in a ring style (daisy chain) have two
paths for data flow around the ring, so a single open in the network does not
stop communication. Two opens in the communication line, however, will
isolate one or more ECUs.
In the example above, the Combination Meter ECU has become isolated.
The potential problem areas are:
• A loss of power or ground to the Meter ECU
• Failure inside the Meter ECU
• Meter ECU connector disconnected
• Two opens in the wire harness leading to the Meter ECU
• Failures in the internal communication lines of the two ECUs connected to
the Meter ECU

102 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Diagnosis – Short Circuit


Communication line short
DTC No. Detection Item Detecting Condition
Short to GND in door system When a body ground short circuit is detected in the
B1215
communication bus malfunction door system communication bus

Body
Body ECU
ECU Meter
Meter ECU
ECU

The entire network is


down due to the short.

A/C
A/C ECU
ECU Gateway
Gateway ECU
ECU

: Communication Circuit

Short Circuit When a communication line is short-circuited to B+, the entire line is 12V, and
if short-circuited to ground, it’s 0V. Being unable to vary the voltage on the
line, the Gateway ECU cannot communicate with any ECUs so it is
impossible for it to determine the location of the short.
To locate the short, disconnect each ECU one by one and check what DTC is
output.

Technical Training 103


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Diagnosis – Short Circuit (Step 1)

Begin by disconnecting the first ECU, then checking if network


communication resumes.
If network communication resumes
after removing the Meter ECU, the
short is in this ECU.

Meter ECU
Body
Body ECU
ECU

“B”

“C” “A”

“D”

A/C
A/C ECU
ECU Gateway
Gateway ECU
ECU

If communication does not resume, the short : Communication Circuit


is still in some other part of the network.

Short Circuit Step 1 Working around the ring starting with the first ECU past the Gateway, begin
disconnecting ECUs one by one. When the ECU with the short is
disconnected, network communication will resume.
To determine when the network is communicating again, you can connect a
DVOM or oscilloscope to the BEAN circuit at the Gateway ECU. When
voltage or a signal reappears on the circuit, the most recent component
disconnected is the one with the short..
Another way to check for communication is to examine DTCs after an ECU is
disconnected. In this example, the Meter ECU is disconnected first.
If DTC 1215 (communication line short) is still present, then the Meter ECU is
not the problem; the short is still in the part of the circuit connected to the
Gateway ECU. Continue to the next step.
• If DTC 1271 (Meter ECU stop) occurs, then the short circuit is no longer
present in the network and it is working again. This means the short must be
in the disconnected Meter ECU. Replace it.

NOTE Don’t disconnect the Gateway ECU because that’s where the DTCs are
stored. When DLC3 is connected to the Gateway ECU, disconnecting the
Gateway from the rest of the network sets DTCs for all the other ECUs
because the Gateway can no longer communicate with any of them.

104 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Diagnosis – Short Circuit (Step 2)

If the fault is not found, disconnect the next ECU and recheck for
communication.
If communication resumes after the Body ECU is disconnected,
the short is in harness B” or in the Body ECU. Reconnecting the
Meter ECU will tell you where the short is (Step 3).

Body ECU Meter ECU

“B”

“C” “A”

“D”

A/C
A/C ECU
ECU Gateway
Gateway ECU
ECU
If communication does not resume, the short is still
in some other part of the network. Reconnect the : Communication Circuit
Meter ECU, then disconnect the A/C ECU (Step 4).

Short Circuit Step 2 Continuing trouble shooting this example, disconnect the next ECU after the
Meter ECU and check if the communication signal reappears.
If checking DTCs:
• If DTC 1215 (communication line short) is still present, then the harness “B”
and the Body ECU are not the problem. The short is in the part of the network
still connected to the Gateway ECU. Continue to step 4.
• If DTC 1271 (Meter ECU stop) and DTC 1200 (Body ECU stop) occur, then
the short circuit is no longer present in the network. Since you already ruled
out a problem with the Meter ECU, this means the fault must be in the
disconnected harness “B” or in the Body ECU. To diagnose which, continue to
step 3.

Technical Training 105


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Diagnosis – Short Circuit (Step 3)

If fault is found, isolate the location by reconnecting the first ECU and
rechecking for communication.

If communication stops when the Meter ECU is


reconnected, that means the short is in the harness
that was just reconnected to the network.
Body ECU
Meter
Meter ECU
ECU

If communication
continues, the short is “B”
in the Body ECU that
is disconnected from “C” “A”
the network.
“D”

A/C
A/C ECU
ECU Gateway
Gateway ECU
ECU

: Communication Circuit

Short Circuit Step 3 To determine if the problem is in harness “B” or the Body ECU, reconnect the
Meter ECU.
If communication stops, the short is in harness “B”. If communication
continues, the short is in the Body ECU.
If checking DTCs:
• If DTC 1215 (communication line short) occurs again instead of DTC 1200
(Body ECU stop), then the short has been reconnected to the part of the
circuit connected to the Gateway ECU. It has to be in harness “B”. Replace it..
• If DTC 1200 (Body ECU stop) remains, the short circuit has been isolated
from the network. The only part not connected to the network is the Body
ECU. Replace it.

106 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Diagnosis – Short Circuit (Step 4)

If the fault wasn’t found, continue isolating the problem by


disconnecting the next ECU and rechecking for communication.

Body ECU
Meter
Meter ECU
ECU

If communication
resumes, the short is in
harness “C” or the A/C “B”
ECU. Reconnect the
Body ECU and recheck “C” “A”
for communication (Step
5) “D”

Gateway
Gateway ECU
ECU
A/C ECU
If communication does not resume, the short is still in : Communication Circuit
part of the network connected to the Gateway ECU

Short Circuit Step 4 Not having found the fault yet, disconnect the next ECU after the Body ECU
and recheck for network communication.
If communication resumes, the fault is in either harness “C” or the A/C ECU
because these two components have been removed from the network. Go to
step 5 to determine which component is at fault.
If communication does not resume, reconnect the Body ECU, and go to step
6.
If checking DTCs:
• If DTC 1215 (communication line short) is still present, then the harness “C”
and the A/C ECU are not the problem because they are no longer connected
to the Gateway ECU. Continue to step 6.
• If DTC 1200 (Body ECU stop) and B1262 (A/C ECU stop) occur, then the
short circuit is no longer present in the network. This means it must be in the
disconnected harness “C” or in the A/C ECU. To diagnose which, continue to
step 5.

Technical Training 107


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Diagnosis – Short Circuit (Step 5)

If fault is found, isolate the location by reconnecting the


previous ECU & rechecking DTCs.

Body
Body ECU
ECU Meter
Meter ECU
ECU

If DTC 1215, then


the short is in the
“B”
part of the network
that was just
“C” “A”
reconnected to the
Gateway ECU. “D”

Gateway
Gateway ECU
ECU
A/C ECU
: Communication Circuit
If DTC 1262 (A/C ECU stop), then the short is in A/C ECU.

Short Circuit Step 5 To determine if the problem is in harness “C” or the A/C ECU, reconnect
the Body ECU and check for communication.
If communication does not resume, the short is in harness “C” that was
just reconnected to the network.
If communication does resume, the short is in the S/C ECU that is still
disconnected from the network.
If checking DTCs:
• If DTC 1215 (communication line short) occurs again, then you’ve
reconnected the short to the communication circuit. Since you already
ruled out the Body ECU as the problem, it must be in harness “C”. Replace
it.
• If only DTC 1262 (A/C ECU stop) is present, then the short circuit is no
longer present in the network. This means it must be in the disconnected
A/C ECU. Replace it.

108 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Diagnosis – Short Circuit (Step 6)

If the fault wasn’t found, it is in harness “A” or “D,” or in the


Gateway ECU.

Body
Body ECU
ECU Meter
Meter ECU
ECU

All other parts of the


circuit have been
“B” eliminated except
“A”, “D” and the
“C” “A” Gateway ECU.

“D” Test the two


harnesses for a
short. If no short is
found, replace the
A/C
A/C ECU
ECU Gateway
Gateway ECU
ECU Gateway ECU.

: Communication Circuit

Short Circuit Step 6 The only remaining locations for the short are in harness “A” or “D,” or in the
Gateway ECU.
• Test wire harnesses “A” and “D” for a short, and replace if needed.
• If the short is not in either wire harness, replace the Gateway ECU.

Technical Training 109


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Diagnosis by Split-Half Method

When many ECUs are connected to the bus, disconnect half the bus to
save time.

ECU
ECU “A”
“A” ECU
ECU “B”
“B” ECU
ECU “C”
“C” ECU
ECU “D”
“D” ECU
ECU “E”
“E”

Disconnect Disconnect

Gateway
Gateway ECU
ECU ECU
ECU “I”
“I” ECU
ECU “H”
“H” ECU
ECU “G”
“G” ECU
ECU “F”
“F”

Diagnosing a Large Disconnecting ECUs one at a time can be time consuming if the network has
Network a large number of ECUs. To save time, isolate half the network by
disconnecting an ECU nearest the Gateway, and another farthest away.
• If communication resumes, the short is in the disconnected part of the
network.
• If communication does not resume, the disconnected ECUs are normal and
the short is in the other half.
Knowing which half of the network to diagnose, proceed by disconnecting and
connecting ECUs one at a time until you find the trouble location.

110 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Diagnosis

If there is no multiplex communication system DTC, check the relevant


ECUs using Techstream.

Data List – Check switch or sensor to find:


• Switch or sensor malfunction
• Malfunction in an ECU input circuit

Active Test – Check actuator to find:


• Actuator malfunction
• Malfunction in an ECU output circuit

Diagnosis with When diagnosing a problem for which there are no BEAN communication
Techstream DTCs (B12xx), use Techstream to test the ECUs related to the problem for
proper function.
• Data List enables you to test the inputs to the ECU. If the ECU is not seeing
the correct switch or sensor values, you can isolate the problem to the
switch/sensor, switch/sensor circuit or the ECU itself.
• Similarly, Active Test enables you to test the ECU outputs. This can narrow
a problem down to an actuator circuit, an actuator or the ECU.

NOTE Because BEAN is a slow-speed network, the Data List may update very
slowly. To speed results, make a custom list of just those data items being
monitored.

Technical Training 111


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Diagnosing a BEAN Open Circuit

When the signals at two points in the same BEAN


circuit are not identical, there is an open between
those two points.

Diagnosing a BEAN When a BEAN network is operating normally, oscilloscope probes can be
Open Circuit with an placed at any point on the network and the signal patterns will be perfectly
Oscilloscope identical. That’s because the network is continuous and the signal at any
point is the same.
However, an open circuit in a bus segment of a BEAN network separates the
network into two parts. Similarly, two opens in the ring portion of the network
also separate the network into two parts. Now the network is no longer
continuous.
Though separated into two different networks, the ECUs on each half
continue to communicate with each other. Being separate networks, however,
the communication on each half is now unique. The oscilloscope trace on one
half is different from the trace on the other half.
Knowing this can help you two ways in diagnosis.
• If you find the signals on two points of a BEAN network are different, you
know those points are divided by an open circuit (or two).
• As you move one of the probes closer to the other, when the signals
become identical, you have just passed over the location of the open
circuit.

112 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Worksheet

BEAN Network Diagnosis


Classroom Worksheet:
This worksheet introduces you to
BEAN network operation and fault
diagnosis.

Instructor Demo
The instructor will demonstrate how to
use the PicoScope for diagnosing a
BEAN network.

Use this space to write down any questions you may have for your instructor.

NOTES:

Technical Training 113


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

LIN Communication Signal

LIN Signal Similar to BEAN, LIN also uses the single wire voltage drive protocol with a
signal voltage range between zero and a nominal 12 volts. The circuit is at
rest at the higher voltage.

114 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

LIN Diagnosis

Diagnosis is similar to BEAN:


• For shorts, disconnect connectors and recheck DTCs.
• For opens, follow the DTCs.

Immobilizer
Immobilizer Code
Code
ECU
ECU
LIN (Certification Bus)
Main
Main Body
Body
ECU
ECU
(Instrument
(Instrument Smart
Smart Key
Key ECU
ECU Steering
Steering Lock
Lock
Panel
Panel Assembly
Assembly ECU
ECU
Junction
Junction
Block)
Block)
LIN (Door Bus)

Power
Power Window
Window Sliding
Sliding Roof
Roof
ECU
ECU Control
Control ECU
ECU

2008 Highlander HV

LIN Diagnosis Diagnosing a LIN circuit is similar to diagnosing a BEAN circuit, except LIN
does not use a ring or daisy chain configuration.
When a communication line is shorted to ground, the network cannot
communicate with any ECU. To isolate the location of the fault:
• Disconnect connectors and recheck DTCs to isolate the part of the circuit
with the short.
With an open, DTCs guide you to the circuits to check. Possible causes are:
• Connector disconnected
• Defective ECU power supply or ground
• Open in wire harness
• ECU failure

Technical Training 115


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Worksheet

A/C LIN Interface


In this worksheet you will monitor and
diagnose the A/C Control Assembly
operation, and LIN communication using
the Techstream unit, TIS and a
PicoScope.

Use this space to write down any questions you may have for your instructor.

NOTES:

116 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

CAN Communication Signal

CANH: 2.5v to 3.5v

CANL: 2.5v to 1.5v

CAN Signal CAN uses the two-wire differential drive protocol. The signal on the CAN High
(CANH) wire ranges from 2.5v to 3.5V, while the signal on the CAN Low
(CANL) wire ranges from 2.5v to 1.5V. Note that the two signals are mirror
images with CANH going high (to 3.5V) at the same moment CANL goes low
(to 1.5). When both signals are 2.5V, the circuit is at rest.

Technical Training 117


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

CAN Diagnosis – Shorts


Short between CAN-H and CAN-L: Short CANH to ground:

No ECUs can communicate. No ECUs can communicate.

ECU ECU ECU ECU ECU ECU


Main
Bus Sub
Bus

Short

Short to B+ (CANH or CANL): Short CANL to ground:


Communication is not reliable. Communication is not reliable.

ECU ECU ECU ECU ECU ECU

B+ Note hyperlinks to circuit traces.

CAN Diagnosis The CAN bus uses twisted-pair wiring for reliability. At each end of the CAN
bus, the wires are connected together by a 120 ohm terminating resistor. The
purpose of the resistors is to reduce noise in the circuit. The resistors may be
located inside ECUs or junction connectors.

Short Between CANH When the bus wires are shorted together at any point on the bus, it is
and CANL impossible to generate a differential voltage on each wire for communication.
Thus, the entire bus goes down.

NOTE Even when the network is down, each ECU continues to attempt
communication. If you isolate an ECU from the short and the problem is not in
the ECU, an oscilloscope will show it still generating CAN signals.

Short to B+ or Ground When a connection to B+ brings CANH high, or when a connection to ground
brings CANL low, there is still the appearance of communication on the
circuit. In the first case, CANL can still be brought low to create a voltage
differential, and in the second case, CANH can still be brought high. Though
communication on the circuit is compromised, ECUs may still appear in the
CAN bus check in either case.
On the other hand, bringing CANH low by grounding it, or bringing CANL high
with a short to B+ renders the circuit incapable of generating a voltage
differential. These are the cases when the ECUs do not show up in the CAN
bus check.

Wave forms for various short circuit conditions appear in the appendix.

118 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

CAN Diagnosis – Opens


Open on both CAN-H and CAN-L: Open on just CAN-H or CAN-L:

On Main Bus: Communication is not On Main Bus: Communication is not


reliable on each half of the network. reliable.

ECU ECU ECU ECU ECU ECU

Open Open in CANH or CANL

On Sub Bus: Affected ECU can’t On Sub Bus: Communication with the
communicate. affected ECU is not reliable.

ECU ECU ECU ECU ECU ECU


Open

Note hyperlinks to circuit traces. Open in CANH or CANL

Opens When an open occurs on the CAN bus, the effect depends on whether the
open is on the main bus line or a sub bus line. An open on the main bus
affects the entire bus, but an open on a sub bus line only isolates the ECU(s)
on that sub bus.

NOTE Despite an open, the ECUs connected together are still trying to
communicate, but the break in the network introduces considerable noise into
the signal. Therefore, communication becomes unreliable.

Wave forms for various open circuit conditions appear in the appendix.

Technical Training 119


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

CAN BUS Check

CAN Bus Check Using Techstream to perform a CAN bus check quickly identifies any ECUs
that are not communicating. Comparing these ECUs to the multiplex circuit
diagram from the EWD can potentially help identify possible problem
locations before performing vehicle diagnostics.

Location of DLC3 When analyzing the multiplex circuit diagram to locate the ECUs that are not
communicating, also note the location of DLC3. A problem between the
network and DLC3 can make it appear the entire network is down.
Also, when the vehicle has more than one CAN network, DLC3 is directly
connected to only one of them. By analyzing the ECUs that are
communicating, you can determine which CAN network is experiencing
trouble.

120 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

CAN Terminating Resistors

Know where the HS Bus MS Bus


terminating
resistors are
located.
Disconnecting
them will cause
network
communication
to become
unreliable.

Terminating Resistors The CAN high and CAN low communication lines are connected at each end
by a terminating resistor. This resistor helps to stabilize voltages on the lines
and prevent “echoes.”
The terminating resistors are almost always inside two of the ECUs on the
network. (In some vehicle models, a terminating resistor may be located
inside a junction connector.)
As the illustration above shows, disconnecting either of the ECUs containing
an HS bus terminating resistor would create an open in the CAN bus and take
the bus down.
All of the other components on the CAN HS bus are connected by sub bus
lines. Therefore these ECUs can be disconnected from CAN without creating
an open in the main bus line.

Technical Training 121


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

CAN Resistance Tests

Check Bus Line (CANH – CANL) Check Bus Line (CG – CANH/L)

A OK! (54 to 69 Ohm) CG – CANH OK!


B NG (70 Ohm or more) CG – CANL (200 Ohm or more)
C NG (Less than 54 Ohm)
NG Short of CAN Bus line to CG
B Open in CAN Bus Line
OK!
C Short in CAN Branch Line
Check Communication Malfunction DTC
A (Past DTC)
Check Bus Line (CANH/L - BAT)

CANH – BAT OK!


CANL – BAT (6k Ohm or more)

NG Short of CAN Bus line to BAT Does 60 ohms between CANH and
CANL mean the network is OK?
OK!

Resistance Tests on CAN diagnostic procedures in the Repair Manual call for various resistance
CAN Circuits tests that can be useful in identifying shorts and opens in the bus line. To
perform resistance testing on the CAN bus, the ignition must first be cycled
OFF.

NOTE After turning the ignition off, it may take up to several minutes for capacitors
to fully discharge and the resistance reading to stabilize. Any readings
obtained before the circuit has stabilized will not be accurate.
Resistance measurements will change slightly when Techstream is
connected to the network via DLC3.

122 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

CAN Resistance Tests

ECU ECU ECU

• CANH to CANL
DLC 3 Hi LO
• CANH to BAT

CG CANH • CANL to BAT

• CG to CANH
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
• CG to CANL
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

CANL BAT

Resistance Tests on When it comes time in the diagnostic process to measure the resistance
CAN Circuits between CANH and CANL, it doesn't take but a few extra moments to obtain
all the other resistance measurements, too. Doing so can provide a more
complete picture of the bus status before arriving at a conclusion regarding
the source of a problem.

NOTE Before making resistance measurements between the CAN bus and B+ or
ground, disconnect the negative battery cable. This prevents obtaining
resistance readings through alternate paths.

When analyzing resistance measurements, more than one reading may be


out of spec. For example, there may be a 73 ohm reading between CANH
and CANL and a 0.3 ohm measurement between CANL and CG.
If the only measurement taken was the out-of-spec resistance of CANH to
CANL, the diagnostic flow chart on the previous page would indicate an open
circuit. In reality, an open circuit would create a very high ohm reading. By
making the other measurements, the 0.3 ohm reading between CANL and CG
suggests a short to ground. This would most likely be the problem rather than
the slightly out-of-spec 73 ohm reading between the bus lines.

NOTE When testing resistance at the DLC3 connector, keep in mind that in models
with a more than one CAN bus, the DLC3 terminals may be testing only one
of the buses. To test other CAN buses, it may be necessary to use a
different connector.

Technical Training 123


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Worksheets (1 of 3)

CAN Diagnosis
Classroom Worksheet:
In this worksheet you will build a
strategy to diagnose a CAN network
fault using the EWD, a Techstream
CAN bus check, and the information
provided.

Instructor Demo
CAN Resistance Test Precautions
In the shop, the instructor will
demonstrate how improper methods
can result in incorrect CAN resistance
measurements.

2006 RAV4 Multiplex


>> Circuit Diagram (PDF)

Use this space to write down any questions you may have for your instructor.

NOTES:

124 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Worksheet (2 & 3 of 3)

CAN Main Bus Faults


Shop Worksheet:
In this worksheet you will:
• Use an ohmmeter and a PicoScope to
observe CAN High and CAN Low
• Diagnose a short to ground and an open
circuit on CAN High and CAN Low
• Short CAN High to CAN Low to observe
the results.

CAN Sub Bus Diagnosis


Shop Worksheet:
In this worksheet you will use the EWD
and Techstream’s CAN Communication
Bus Check to develop a strategy to
diagnose CAN sub bus faults.

Use this space to write down any questions you may have for your instructor.

NOTES:

Technical Training 125


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

AVC-LAN Communication Signal

Differential Voltage Drive


TX+ and TX- are both pulled high.
• TX+ (similar to CANH) The rulers show the differential
• TX- (similar to CANL) voltage is greater than 120mV.

2v
to
3v

(+5V Scale, 5ms per division, x4 zoom)

AVC-LAN Signal AVC-LAN uses differential voltage drive similar to CAN. However, the high
and low voltage signaling circuits – similar to CANH and CANL - are referred
to as TX+ and TX- in AVC-LAN devices.
Also similar to CAN, the ends of the TX+ and TX- lines are joined by 120 ohm
resistors.
Whereas the CAN bus line idles at 2.5V, the AVC-LAN idles at around 2V.
When communicating, AVC-LAN pulls the voltage high on both TX+ and TX-.
The line voltages have to differ by more than 120mV for the AVC-LAN system
to recognize communication.

126 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

AVC-LAN Diagnosis
Starting Diagnostic Mode (with Multi Display)

Vehicle
Procedure
Condition

Method 1 TAIL

+
While pressing the “INFO”
button, alternately turn the
light control switch from
OFF to TAIL 3 times
• SPD 0 km/h OFF

• ACC or IG ON* Method 2


While in the display
adjustment screen,
alternately touch the upper
*To quit the diagnostic and lower parts of the left
mode, turn to IG OFF.
side of the screen 3 times

Note: On some vehicles 2010 and beyond, AVC-LAN DTCs can be retrieved using Techstream.

AVC-LAN Some vehicle models have AVC-LAN that functions independently of any of
Diagnosis the other vehicle networks. The AVC-LAN in other models, however, may
communicate with other vehicle networks through a Gateway ECU or other
ECU with a gateway function. Before diagnosing the AVC-LAN, first be sure
any other networks the AVC-LAN connects to are functioning properly.

Technical Training 127


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

AVC-LAN DTCs

Code: 01-E0
Logical
Address DTC

Sub-Code: 110-00- 4
Physical Occurrence
Address Connection Count
Confirmation #

Logical Address DTC Physical Address Connection


Confirmation #
Navigation ECU E0 = “Registration 178
01 = Communication control complete” signal from Navigation ECU • The number of minutes after
58 = Navigation ECU master device cannot power-up when the DTC
80 = GPS Receiver 110 occurred
be received
Multi Display
Multi Display
01 = Communication control 190
Occurrence Count
34 = Front passenger monitor Radio and Player
• The number of times the
Stereo Component Amplifier 440
DTC has been detected
01 = Communication control Stereo Component
61 = Cassette tape player sw. Amplifier
63 = On-dash CD changer
Note: AVC-LAN codes are vehicle specific. Always check the Repair Manual for the vehicle being serviced.

AVC-LAN DTCs AVC-LAN has a fairly robust self-diagnostic capability with diagnostic trouble
codes consisting of five parts:
Logical Address. The logical address code ( a hexadecimal number) does
not refer to a component; it refers to a function within a component. The
Navigation ECU, for example, has a Navigation ECU function (logical address
= 58) and a GPS Receiver function (logical address = 80). Other components
have their own unique functions with their own unique logical addresses. An
exception is the Communication Control function which every AVC-LAN
component has. This function’s logical address is 01.
DTC. The DTC is a hexadecimal number that defines the specific problem.
For each DTC, the Repair Manual has an explanation of the meaning and the
corrective action or additional diagnostic steps.
Physical Address. This hexadecimal number corresponds to specific AVC-
LAN components such as the Navigation ECU, audio head unit, stereo
amplifier, multi-display, etc.
Connection Confirmation Number. Upon power-up, the AVC-LAN master
ECU checks all the slaves once per minute. The connection confirmation
number increases by one after every check. When a DTC is detected, the
connection confirmation number is included with the DTC information to
indicate when the fault occurred in relation to power-up. This can be useful in
determining the sequence in which DTCs occurred.
Occurrence Count. Provides a count of the number of times a DTC has
been detected.

128 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Worksheet

AVC-LAN Inspection
Shop Worksheet:
In this worksheet you will create,
monitor and diagnose a Stereo
Component Amplifier malfunction
involving an AVC-LAN circuit.

Use this space to write down any questions you may have for your instructor.

NOTES:

Technical Training 129


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Other Multiplex Circuits


BUS connectors in air conditioning servo motor circuits
illustrate the advantages of a simple multiplex circuit.
BUS Connector
With Bus Connectors Communication/Driver IC
A/C Amplifier

Communication IC

CPU

One 3-wire harness


A/C Pulse-type
M M M M
Servo motors

Without Bus Connectors


A/C Amplifier Servo motors
Drive IC

CPU

Drive IC

A/C Four 5-wire


M M M M harnesses

Other Multiplex Although BEAN, LIN, CAN, and AVC-LAN are the most frequently used
Circuits multiplex protocols in automobiles, other automotive systems may gain the
advantages of multiplex communication by implementing their own special
purpose protocols.
Dynamic laser cruise control is one example of a circuit that uses serial
communication that is not BEAN, LIN, CAN or AVC-LAN. The laser sensor
and Distance Control ECU use their own special purpose multiplex protocol
because of the complex communication required between them.
The significance of knowing this is that when you encounter a circuit
described as “serial”, you’ll know to expect a fluctuating communication
signal on that line instead of a fixed voltage.

A/C Servo Motor An air conditioning servo motor circuit is another good example of using
Circuits multiplex circuits to reduce wiring. The typical connection between the A/C
amplifier and an ordinary servo motor requires five wires:
• Two wires to the motor – necessary so forward or reverse current can be
supplied to control motor direction.
• Three wires to the sensor circuit to determine motor position and direction.
To reduce the wiring between the servo motors and the A/C amplifier, pulse-
type servo motors use a communications chip built into the servo motor
connector. This chip, called a BUS connector, communicates with the A/C
amplifier using serial data (multiplex) communications. In this configuration,
only three wires are needed:
• Power
• Ground
• Communication signal

130 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BUS Connectors
BUS Connectors with built-in communication/driver ICs allow the
use of pulse-type servo motors and require less harness wiring.
BUS Connector
With Bus Connectors Communication/Driver IC
A/C Amplifier

Communication IC

CPU IC

One 3-wire harness


A/C Pulse-type
M M M M
Servo motors

Bus
Connector

Note: If the color-coded connectors are


not matched to the correct servo
motors, the wrong motors will operate.

BUS Connectors The BUS connectors are sequentially arranged on a single harness to yield a
bus network topology. Each BUS connector controls its motor’s operation by
translating serial data from the A/C amplifier on the communication signal line.
It then interprets pulses from the A, B, and GND contacts on the servo motor,
converts them into serial data and transmits position information back to the
A/C amplifier.
All the BUS connectors share the same communication line, so the serial data
flowing to and from the connectors must include a connector ID. This ID
enables the connector to ignore A/C amplifier signals meant for another servo
motor, and enables the A/C amplifier to determine which connector is
transmitting its motor position information. Because of this, if the connectors
are not matched to the correct servo motors, the wrong motors will
operate.

NOTE Some newer vehicles have as many as 12 AC servo motors operating on three
unique BUS connector networks. In these vehicles, this special purpose
multiplex protocol saves a considerable amount of wiring, contributing greatly
to lighter weight, less expense, and greater reliability.

131 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Pulse-Type Servo Motors

Pulse-type servo motors transmit two ON/OFF signals to communicate


damper position and movement direction.

Contact Points Printed Circuit Board

Servo Motor A

A B
B
GND GND

Conduction
High
A Low

B High
Low

Pulse-Type Servo Also called pulse pattern type servo motors, these motors use a printed
Motors circuit board that rotates with the motor shaft to signal motor direction and
position. As the motor turns, the contact points at A and B open and close a
circuit to create a coded pulse pattern that indicates the position of the
damper doors.
Because the output signals from the motor are digital (ON/OFF), the
communication chip that relays these signals does not need to perform
analog-to-digital conversion. This makes the communication chip much
simpler, smaller, and less expensive.

132 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Worksheet

A/C Bus Servo Motor


Operation & Diagnosis

Shop Worksheet:
In this worksheet you will monitor Bus
Connector and Servo Motor operation
using Techstream DATA LIST and a
PicoScope to deduce communication
problems with the A/C System.

Use this space to write down any questions you may have for your instructor.

NOTES:

Technical Training 133


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

134 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Section 8 Topics

Electronic
• Engine Immobilizer
Systems
• WORKSHEET: Immobilizer System
• Power Distributor
• Smart Junction Box (MICON)
• HID Headlights
• Dynamic Laser Cruise Control

Technical Training 135


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Immobilizer Function

Prohibits the engine from starting unless


an authorized ignition key is used.

ID code stored in key must


match code stored in ECU.

Transponder Key Cylinder


DLC3
Chip Communication
Ignition

Ignition Transponder ECM


Key Key ECU
Transponder Key
Coil Security Fuel
Transponder Key
Amplifier Indicator
Light Disabled until ECM
receives “OK” from
Blinks until authorized Transponder Key ECU
key is in key cylinder.

Engine Immobilizer The engine immobilizer system is designed to prevent the vehicle from
Function being stolen. When the immobilizer system is set, the ECM disables the
fuel delivery and ignition systems. Only an authorized key can unset the
immobilizer.
The Transponder Key ECU assembly stores the codes of authorized
ignition keys. When an authorized key is used to start the engine, the ECU
sends a signal to the ECM to unset the immobilizer and permit fuel delivery
and ignition.

136 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Immobilizer System Operation

ECU Logic Security


Indicator Light
1. Detects unlock warning
switch is on when key is
in ignition 4 3 Unlock Warning Switch
8 (Key Cylinder)
2. Activates antenna coil 2 1
Transponder 6
3. Faint electric wave sent Key Transponder
Amplifier Key ECU
4. Key ID code returned
Antenna 5
5. ID code signal amplified 7 Front Door
Coil Courtesy Light
and sent to ECU
Switch (LH)
6. ECU compares key ID ECM
code to registered codes.
If codes match:
7. Cancels immobilizer
8. Turns off indicator light

Engine Immobilizer When a key is inserted in the key cylinder, the Transponder Key ECU
Operation detects the unlock warning switch is closed and sends a signal to activate
the antenna coil in the transponder key amplifier. The antenna generates a
faint electric wave activating the transponder chip in the key grip to
transmit its ID code.
The transponder key amplifier receives and amplifies the ID code signal,
then transmits it to the Transponder Key ECU. The ECU compares the
key’s ID code to the registered codes stored in its memory. If the codes
match, the ECU sends a signal to the ECM to unset the immobilizer and
switches off the security indicator light.

Key Code For the immobilizer system to operate, authorized keys must be registered
Registration with the Transponder Key ECU. The system provides three types of key
code registration procedures.
New Key Registration. This procedure is used if the registered master
keys are lost, and when the Transponder Key ECU must be replaced for
other reasons. An initial set of keys can be automatically registered
immediately after the new ECU is installed.
Additional Key Registration. New keys (up to a certain total number of
keys based on vehicle model) can be added to those already registered in
the Transponder Key ECU.
Key Code Erasure. For lost keys, key codes can be erased. This
procedure erases all codes except the master key. The remaining
authorized keys must be reregistered.

Technical Training 137


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Security Indicator Light

No key or unregistered
key (keeps blinking)

… …
Immobilizer is set

Key recognized

Master key indication


(light goes off)
… …
Immobilizer is set Immobilizer is unset

Sub key indication


(on for 2 sec.)

… …
Immobilizer is set Immobilizer is unset

Master Keys and The difference between a master key and a sub key is that a sub key cannot
Sub Keys be duplicated. This is a security feature that helps customers feel safer about
leaving a key with parking attendants.
You can distinguish between a master key and sub key by observing the
security indicator light when the key is inserted in the ignition switch.
• When a master key is placed in the ignition switch. The indicator light
turns off.
• When a sub key is placed in the ignition switch, the indicator light
remains illuminated for 2 seconds before turning off

138 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Automatic Key Code Registration


Indicator codes during automatic key code registration:
Blinking: Everything is Code 2-2: Key has already
operating normally been registered

Code 2-1: Registration failed Code 2-3: Maximum number of keys


(bad key) already registered

Automatic Key Code When the Transponder Key ECU is replaced, the new unit is preset to
Registration automatically register keys. To take advantage of automatic key code
registration:
• After replacing the transponder key ECU, insert the first key into the
ignition key cylinder. It takes about one second for the transponder key
ECU to register the key’s code.
• Remove the key and insert the next key.
• Repeat until all keys have been registered.

Watch for Error Codes If an error occurs during automatic key code registration, the security light
blinks a two-digit code:
Code 2-1: Key code registration failed, most likely because a code could not
be read from the key’s transponder chip. The key should be discarded.
Code 2-2: The key has already been registered.
Code 2-3: The maximum number of keys have already been registered.

Ending Automatic Automatic key code registration ends automatically after the maximum
Registration number of keys have been registered. If registering fewer than the maximum
number of keys, the automatic registration process has to be terminated
manually.
• Use Techstream to end automatic key code registration.
• Turn the ignition switch ON and OFF five times within 10 seconds to
force automatic key code registration to end.

NOTE Failing to terminate key code registration can result in abnormal system
operation.

Technical Training 139


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Configuration in Earlier Models


In earlier models, the
immobilizer functions are
built into the ECM.

2001 Avalon

Configuration in Engine immobilizer was introduced in the 1998 model year. The first vehicles
Earlier Models with this feature have the immobilizer functions built into the Engine Control
Module. This configuration exists in model years as late as 2004.

140 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Configuration in Later Models

In later models, the


immobilizer functions are
controlled by a separate
Transponder Key ECU.

2007 Tundra

Configuration in In later models, a separate Transponder Key ECU was added to control the
Later Models immobilizer functions in place of the ECM. The advantage of a separate,
special ECU is that it is less expensive to replace than an ECM in the event of
lost keys or an ECU malfunction.

Technical Training 141


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

TIS Immobilizer Reset

Immobilizer reset is not


supported on all vehicles.
Refer to the Support Chart
for more information.

Immobilizer Reset Because of the original system design for the immobilizer function, losing all
the keys to the vehicle meant that the ECM or Transponder Key ECU had to
be replaced. Later systems were modified so that the ECM or Transponder
Key ECU could be reset to accept registration of new keys.
Resetting the immobilizer to accept new keys requires obtaining a passcode
through TIS. For security reasons, only Master Technicians and MDTs are
authorized to request an immobilizer reset passcode. For theft prevention and
security monitoring, each time a passcode is requested, it is logged into a
national database.
Once a passcode is obtained, it’s entered into the ECU through Techstream
or a scan tool. When the ECU is successfully reset, the master key in the
ignition becomes registered to the vehicle and all previous key codes are
erased.

142 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Immobilizer Reset Support Chart


From TIS Immobilizer Reset Page

Immobilizer Reset The blue boxes on the support chart indicate which vehicle models have the
Support Chart immobilizer reset feature. The legend at the top of the chart describes
applicable TSBs.
Immobilizer systems that do not have immobilizer reset are indicated by the
white boxes. In these vehicle models, either the Transponder Key ECU or
ECM must be replaced if all the keys to the vehicle are lost. In these cases,
whether the ECM or Transponder Key ECU must be replaced depends on the
system configuration. If the vehicle has a separate Transponder Key ECU,
then that is the component that must be replaced. If the immobilizer functions
are controlled within the ECM, then the ECM must be replaced.
PANT Bulletin GI03-09 (referenced next to the white square in the legend)
describes conditions under which the ECU or ECM replacement cost can be
subsidized.

Technical Training 143


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

ECM Communication ID Registration


In vehicles with a separate Transponder Key ECU, the ECM Communication ID
must be registered whenever the ECM or Transponder Key ECU is replaced.

CG

TC
DCL3
SST

Example Procedure:
1. Using SST, connect TC to CG. 3. Turn the ignition switch OFF and
disconnect TC and CG.
2. Turn the ignition switch ON (do not
start the engine) and leave it for 30 4. Check that the engine starts.
minutes. 2005 Avalon

ECU For security reasons, immobilizer systems with a separate Transponder Key
Communication ID ECU are designed so that the vehicle will not start if either the ECM or ECU
have been replaced. This security is provided by a unique ECU
Registration communication ID stored in both the ECM and Transponder Key ECU.
Therefore, when either unit is replaced, the ECU communication ID has to be
registered between them.

NOTE The code registration procedure described above is an example that may not
apply to all vehicles. Be sure to refer to the Repair Manual for the correct
procedure for the vehicle being serviced.

144 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

DTC Check/Clear

Immobilizer diagnostic methods and procedures may vary


between vehicle models. Examples:
Vehicle Model To check DTCs w/check To clear DTCs w/o Techstream Techstream
wire on DLC3 supported?
2005 Avalon • TC to CG • Remove the EFI No. 1 fuse Yes

2006 Sequoia • TC to CG for DTC 99 • Remove the ECU-B fuse and


• CG to OP3 for other DTCs EFI No. 2 fuse from the No
engine room J/B for 1 minute
or more.
2006 Tacoma • Not supported • Not supported Yes

2006 Tundra • CG to OP3 • Remove the ECU-B fuse from Yes


the driver side J/B for 1
minute or more.
CG OP3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

DLC3 9 10 111213 1415 16

TC

Be Wary of While the concepts of immobilizer components and operation are similar
Differences between among all systems, the specifics of each system can vary significantly. The
example above demonstrates how different the diagnostic methods and
Models procedures can be between different models.
The bottom line is that when diagnosing the immobilizer system, it’s
especially risky to assume that one vehicle model is the same as another.
Always refer to the repair manual for the specifics of the vehicle being
serviced.

Technical Training 145


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Transponder Key ECU

Input Signals:
• KSW
• CODE
• EFII
• CTY
Output Signals:
• VC5
• TXCT
• IND
• EFIO

2007 Tundra

Analyzing ECU Input In diagnosing an engine immobilizer malfunction, you may need to verify the
and Outputs Transponder Key ECU is receiving the correct input signals and is sending
the correct output signals. Remember that in earlier model vehicles without a
Transponder Key ECU, you’ll be verifying the immobilizer system signals
flowing into and out of the ECM.
You can identify the inputs and outputs using the system description and
looking at the wiring diagram and TERMINALS OF ECU section of the Repair
Manual. For our example, we’ll be using the 2007 Tundra to illustrate
diagnostic concepts. Note that these may not translate exactly to other
vehicle models.
Inputs:
KSW – ignition key cylinder unlock warning switch
CODE – key ID code from transponder key amplifier
EFII – ECM communication input signal
CTY – front door courtesy switch LH (required for registration only)
Outputs:
VC5 – five-volt power supply to transponder key amplifier
TXCT – communication signal to transponder key amplifier
IND – security indicator light signal
EFIO – ECM communication output signal

146 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Transponder Signals

KSW

VC5

TXCT

CODE

2007 Tundra

Transponder Signals KSW. When a key is inserted in the key cylinder, the key switch closes. The
voltage on KSW drops to zero, alerting the Transponder Key ECU.
VC5. The Transponder Key ECU immediately supplies power to the
transponder key amplifier so it can operate.
TXCT. The Transponder Key ECU commands the transponder key amplifier
to begin pulsing for the key code.
CODE. The amplifier sends the code to the Transponder Key ECU.
After the transponder key amplifier transmits the key code, the Transponder
Key ECU stops requesting the code and shuts off the power to the amplifier.

NOTE The example is for a 2007 Tundra. This does not work exactly the same for
all models.

Technical Training 147


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Transponder Key ECU – Power & Ground

Power & Ground


+B to GND: (J26 disconnected)
• Always – 11V to 14V

IG to GND: (J26 disconnected)


• Ignition OFF – below 1V
• Ignition ON – 11V to 14V

GND to Body ground: (J26 disconnected)


• Always – below 1Ω 2007 Tundra

Power and Ground Several of the Transponder Key ECU’s terminals are for power and ground
Circuits circuits. Diagnosis also involves testing at these terminals to be sure the ECU
is receiving the proper voltage and has a good ground.

148 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Transponder Key ECU – Input & Output

Input
KSW to GND: (J26 disconnected)
• No key in cylinder – 10KΩ or higher
• Key In cylinder – below 1Ω

CTY to GND: (J26 connected)


• Door closed – 10KΩ or higher
• Door open – below 1Ω

Output
IND to GND: (J26 connected)
• Immobilizer set (blinking) – alternates
between 11V to 14V and below 1V
• Immobilizer unset (off) – below 1V

VC5 to GND: (J26 connected)


• No key in cylinder – below 1V
• Key In cylinder
• 4.6V to 5.4V until Transponder Key
ECU receives key code (<0.5 sec.)
• Below 1V after key code received 2007 Tundra

Terminal Values and An understanding of the system’s operation and inputs and outputs, makes
Conditions diagnosis at the terminals easier.
KSW. This ground-side switch closes when a key is inserted in the key cylinder.
With no key in the cylinder, a continuity test between the terminal and ground
would show an open circuit. With a key in the cylinder, the circuit would show
continuity to ground and very low resistance.
CTY. This ground-side switch opens and closes according to the driver door
position. Resistance testing shows an open circuit when the door is closed, and
a closed circuit when the door is open.
IND. This terminal supplies power to the indicator light. It has battery voltage
when the lamp is ON, and zero volts when the lamp is OFF. When the lamp is
blinking, the voltage alternates.
VC5. The TERMINALS OF ECU specifies that this terminal supplies nominal 5V
power to the transponder key amplifier only when there is a key in the key
cylinder. Power is only supplied until the Transponder Key ECU receives the key
code, then it is switched off. This may take less than 0.5 second.

NOTE If the oscilloscope trigger is not set up properly, it’s possible to miss seeing the
VC5 signal because the voltage switches on and off so quickly.

Inserting a key that has no transponder chip (or a faulty chip) forces VC5 to stay
powered, providing adequate time for measuring voltage. Another option is to
wrap the key-grip in foil to block its signal.

Technical Training 149


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Transponder Key Amplifier


VC5 to AGND: (J20 connected)
• No key in cylinder – below 1V
• Key In cylinder
• 4.6V to 5.4V until Transponder Key
ECU receives key code (<0.5 sec.)
• Below 1V after key code received

CODE to AGND: (J20 connected)


• No key in cylinder – below 1V
• Key In cylinder – Waveform 1 (<0.5 sec.)

TXCT to AGND: (J20 connected)


• No key in cylinder – below 1V
• Key In cylinder – Waveform 2 (<0.5 sec.)

AGND to Body ground: (J20 connected)


• Always – below 1Ω 2007 Tundra

Terminal Values and While testing the Transponder Key ECU terminals, you would also test the
Conditions (cont’d) CODE, TXCT, and AGND terminals at the J26 connector, if warranted.
CODE. This is a communication signal sent to the Transponder Key ECU
transmitting the key’s ID code. The waveform shows a digital signal
appearing as a momentary burst of data (less than 0.5 second) shortly after
the key is inserted in the key cylinder.
TXCT. This is the communication signal from the Transponder Key ECU to
the transponder key amplifier. This waveform is also digital and appears as a
momentary signal transmitted shortly after the key is inserted in the key
cylinder.
AGND. Because this is the ground circuit for the transponder key amplifier, it
should show continuity to ground.

Transponder Key At the transponder key amplifier, the values for terminals VC5, CODE, TXCT,
Amplifier Terminal and AGND should be identical to those at the corresponding ECU terminals.
Values By verifying the correct values are on the other ends of the wires, you
eliminate the possibility of problems in the wire harness between the two
components.

NOTE If the correct signal is verified on the CODE terminal of the Transponder Key
ECU, it is not necessary to test the CODE terminal of the transponder key
amplifier. Since the CODE signal is output by the amplifier, verifying the ECU
is receiving it proves both that the signal is being output at the amplifier and
the wiring between the two components is intact.

150 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Engine Control Module


EFIO to GND: (J26 connected)
• Ignition switch OFF – below 1V
• Ignition switch ON – Waveform 3

EFII to GND: (J26 connected)


• Always – Waveform 4

2007 Tundra

ECM Terminal Values The TERMINALS OF ECU description indicates that EFII and EFIO are
communication circuits. Therefore you expect to see digital data signals on
these lines.
Since EFII is the input signal from the ECM, a good signal at the Transponder
KEY ECU verifies the ECM is transmitting and the wire to the ECM IMO
terminal is intact.
Similarly, a good signal at the IMI terminal of the ECM verifies the
Transponder Key ECU is transmitting and the connection between the two is
good.

Technical Training 151


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Worksheet

Immobilizer
Shop Worksheet:
In this worksheet you will:
• Use Techstream DATA LIST to make
determinations related to the ID Code of
the transponder chip embedded in the
ignition key
• Use a PicoScope to observe
Immobilizer System waveforms under
varying conditions and compare them to
those in the Repair Manual.

Use this space to write down any questions you may have for your instructor.

NOTES:

152 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Power Distributor
Contact Semiconductor
Power Relays Fuses Relays
Distributor

Front

2006 Highlander HV
Mode Monitor
Terminal

Contact Relays Semiconductor Relays


• RDI Fan No.1 Relay • Head Light Relay LH • Back-up Light Relay
• RDI Fan No.2 Relay • Head Light Relay LH • Horn Relay
• IGCT Relay • DRL No.2 Relay • AC Water Pump Relay
• C/OPN Relay • DRL No.4 Relay • Battery Fan Relay
• A/F Relay • Rear Defogger Relay

Power Distributor In some vehicle models, a power distributor replaces the conventional relay
box (engine room J/B). Whereas conventional relay boxes use contact-type
mechanical relays, a power distributor replaces some of the mechanical
relays with semiconductor relays. A semiconductor relay is a completely
electronic circuit, reducing the size and weight of these components.

Protect Mode A feature of many power distributors is a protect mode. To protect


semiconductor relay circuits in the event of overcurrent or overheating, the
power distributor stops current flow through the circuit's semiconductor relay
when an abnormality occurs. The power distributor soon restores current to
the relay, but if the problem still exists, the power distributor again stops the
semiconductor relay current flow. The power distributor continues this
ON/OFF operation (protect operation) at a fast cycle until the problem is
corrected.

Mode Monitor Terminal Some models feature a mode monitor terminal on the power distributor.
When the power distributor is operating normally, the voltage at the mode
monitor terminal is approximately 6V. When the power distributor is
operating in protect mode, the mode monitor terminal voltage is
approximately 1V. Though this indicates protect mode is operating, it does
not indicate which circuit is experiencing a problem.

Technical Training 153


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Smart Junction Box (MICON)

MICON is short for


“Microcomputer
Controlled.”

These specialized
electronic circuits
can perform various
functions such as
converting electrical
signals into
multiplex data.
They are typically
located inside a
relay block or MICON
junction block.

2005 Avalon

Smart Junction Box Junction boxes sometimes have programmable electronic circuits inside
(MICON) enabling them to carry out specific electronic tasks. These special circuits are
represented inside junction boxes on electrical wiring diagrams with the label
MICON (short for “microcomputer controlled” circuit).
The specific function of any particular MICON is not described in the Repair
Manual or EWD, and in fact is not important to diagnosis. Where measuring
MICON signals is called for in a diagnostic procedure, the normal values are
provided in the Repair Manual.

154 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

High Intensity Discharge (HID) Headlights


High-voltage arcing inside the metal halide
bulb causes the metal atoms to emit light.

Headlight Unit

Light Control ECU

Headlight High Voltage


Relay Generation Circuit

Light
Voltage Xenon Gas Light
Approx. 20,000V
Bulb
Approx. 85V
Light Control
ECU
Time

Extremely high voltage starts the arc, Light Mercury


then a lower voltage sustains it. Evaporation

High Intensity High intensity discharge (HID) headlights produce a very bright light using an
Discharge (HID) electric arc to excite atoms of xenon gas, mercury and metal halide. The light
an HID headlight produces is very white and twice as bright as a comparable
Headlights halogen bulb, but consumes almost half the power.
Starting these lamps requires as much as 20,000 volts for the xenon gas to
begin glowing. As the bulb warms up, the mercury evaporates and separates
into mercury and halide atoms, creating an even brighter light.
A light control ECU under each headlight provides:
• High starting voltage necessary to ignite the lamp
• Active control of current and voltage after startup to maintain optimum light
output
• A fail-safe function to stop headlamp operation in the event of an electrical
fault or missing bulb.

CAUTION High voltages in this circuit can damage test equipment and cause injury.
Observe the safety precautions listed in the Repair Manual when servicing
components in or near the HID headlight system.

NOTE The HID bulb and HID ECU service parts for 2004 – 2005 model year are
NOT compatible with 2006 and later model year vehicles. Installing a 2004 or
2005 model year HID Bulb or HID ECU on a 2006 or later model year vehicle
may cause an intermittent operation/flickering of the HID bulb.
In most cases, when replacing the HID bulb, the HID ECU does NOT need to
be replaced. In the event of HID ECU replacement, order the following part
numbers: 81107-51050 (2004 – 2005 model year) or 81107-47150 (2006 –
2008 model year). (Refer to T-SB-0030-08 for more information.)

Technical Training 155


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Dynamic Laser Cruise Control

Operates in one of two modes:


• Constant Speed Control Mode (same as conventional cruise control)
• Vehicle-to-Vehicle Distance Control Mode (uses the four controls shown below)

Constant Speed Decelerator Follow-up Accelerator


Control Control Control Control

Set
Distance

No vehicle ahead Closing in on Maintaining set Resuming set


vehicle ahead distance from speed
vehicle ahead

Dynamic Laser The Dynamic Laser Cruise Control has two operating modes.
Cruise Control The constant speed control mode operates the same as conventional cruise
Operation control. The driver chooses a set speed and the cruise control works to
maintain that speed.
In the vehicle-to-vehicle distance control mode, Dynamic Laser Cruise
Control employs a laser sensor to detect a slower-moving vehicle in the same
lane and reduces the vehicle speed as necessary to maintain a fixed distance
from the vehicle ahead. When the other vehicle is no longer in the path of
travel, the cruise control accelerates to resume traveling at the set speed.

156 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Laser Sensor

The Laser Sensor CPU:


• Uses data from the reflected laser beams to
calculate information on the vehicle ahead
CPU
• Does not react to stationary objects

Laser Receiver

16°

Laser Emitter

Note: When installing, removing or changing the laser sensor, be sure to adjust the laser beam axis.

Laser Sensor The laser sensor’s principle components are the laser emitter, laser receiver,
and the CPU.
• The laser emitter radiates laser beams forward.
• The laser receiver receives the laser beams reflected by the vehicle ahead.
• Based on the duration and input angle of the reflected beams, the CPU
calculates the information on the vehicle ahead, and transmits this
information to the Distance Control ECU. The CPU is designed so that it does
not react to stationary objects.

Technical Training 157


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Indicators and Error/Cancellation Codes


Constant Speed Control Error/Cancellation Codes
Any of the following cancels cruise
control. Cruise control is prohibited until
Operating the conditions are remedied or the MAIN
switch is turned on again.
Vehicle-to-Vehicle
Distance Control
• Malfunction in the laser
Ready sensor or control system

Operating (no vehicle ahead) • Laser sensor dirty

Operating (vehicle ahead)


• Adverse environmental condition
Distance Setting (weather, sunlight)

Long Middle Short

Indicators The driver is able to set the following parameters and sees the related
indicators on the display:
Mode – Constant speed control mode or vehicle-to-vehicle distance control
mode.
Distance – Long, middle, or short. (The actual distance represented by each
setting is based on vehicle speed. At 55 mph, the distances would be
approximately 245 ft., 165 ft., and 100 ft.)
Set Speed – Above approximately 25 mph. (In vehicle-to-vehicle distance
control mode, the set speed cannot exceed approximately 85 mph.)

Error/Cancellation Certain conditions will cancel cruise control operation and display a code on
the cruise control indicator.
Codes
The C1 code is set when the laser sensor is dirty.
The C2 code is set when:
• The wipers operate at HI or LO speed (including AUTO mode).
• The laser sensor receives a strong light from the front of the vehicle, such
as sunlight.
• The measurement becomes extremely unstable due to poor weather
conditions.
The following conditions set the E3 code:
• Malfunction in the laser sensor
• Displacement of the axis of the laser sensor
• Other malfunction in the dynamic radar cruise control system

158 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Constant Speed Control


• The Distance Control ECU signals the ECM to maintain the
set vehicle speed.
• The ECM compares actual speed with the set speed and
regulates the throttle to maintain the set speed.

Vehicle
Laser Sensor Speed Signal
(SPD)
Throttle Position
Sensor
CAN
Distance Control ECM
ECU

Cruise Control
Switch
Throttle
Control
Motor

While no vehicle is detected in the path ahead, the system operates similarly to conventional cruise
control.

NOTES:

Technical Training 159


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Decelerator Control
• A deceleration request is sent to the ECM. The ECM closes the throttle valve.
• If further deceleration is needed, a brake request is sent to the ECM. The ECM
sends a brake request to the Skid Control ECU.
• If deceleration is not adequate, the VSC warning buzzer sounds to alert the driver
to apply brakes.
Vehicle
Laser Sensor Speed Signal
(SPD)
Throttle Position
Sensor
CAN
Distance Control ECM Throttle Control
ECU Motor

Brake Actuator VSC Warning


• Skid Control ECU Buzzer

Stop Light
Control Relay Stop Light

Decelerator control occurs when a slower moving vehicle is detected in the path ahead.

NOTES:

160 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Follow-Up Control
• With the distance control switch, the driver selects between long,
middle, and short following distance.
• When the set distance is achieved, the ECM regulates the throttle
to maintain the set distance between vehicles.

Vehicle
Laser Sensor Speed Signal
(SPD)
Throttle Position
Sensor
CAN
Distance Control ECM Throttle Control
ECU Motor

Long
Distance Control
Switch Middle
Set
Distance
Short

Note: The actual following distance varies depending on vehicle speed.

Follow-up control maintains the set distance between the vehicles.

NOTES:

Technical Training 161


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Accelerator Control
• When there is no longer a vehicle ahead, an
acceleration request is sent to the ECM.
• The ECM regulates the throttle to reach and maintain
the set speed.

Vehicle
Laser Sensor Speed Signal
(SPD)
Throttle Position
Sensor
CAN
Distance Control ECM Throttle Control
ECU Motor

Accelerator control resumes the set speed when the slower moving vehicle is no longer in the path
ahead.

NOTES:

162 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

System Diagram
Distance Control Distance Control
Laser Sensor
ECU Switch VSC Warning Buzzer

Steering Angle Brake Actuator Stop Light


Sensor • Skid Control ECU Control Relay

CAN
Stop Light

• Combination Meter Yaw Rate & DLC3


(SPD) Decelerator Sensor
• Stop Light Switch
• Cruise Control Switch
• Accelerator Pedal Throttle Control Motor
Position Sensor ECM For signal flow, locate
Gateway
• Throttle Position Automatic Transmission the Transmit/Receive
Sensor • Shift Solenoid Valves
ECU Chart in the Repair
• Park/Neutral Position
Switch Manual.

BEAN

Combination Meter Combination Switch


• Cruise MAIN Indicator Light • Wiper Control Switch Rain Sensor
• Master Warning Light • Taillight Control Switch
• Constant Speed Indicator
Light
• LCD
• Buzzer 2005 Avalon

Communication between the laser sensor and the Distance Control ECU is serial data, although it
is not part of the vehicle’s standard multiplex networks.

NOTES:

Technical Training 163


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Distance Control ECU Waveforms

• LRDD – GND
• Ignition ON

• LRRD – GND
• Ignition ON

2005 Avalon

These are waveforms for the serial data flowing between the laser sensor and the Distance Control
ECU.

NOTES:

164 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Laser Radar Sensor Waveforms

• LRDD – SGND
• Ignition ON

• LRRD – SGND
• Ignition ON

2005 Avalon

These are the same serial data signals as before, except now measured at the laser sensor and
viewed at different voltage and time scales.

NOTES:

Technical Training 165


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

166 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Appendix

Appendix
Transistors CAN Waveforms
• Bipolar Transistor • Normal CAN Signal

A • NPN and PNP Transistors


• How a Transistor Works
• Transistor Switches
• Short Circuits
• Open Circuits
BEAN Waveforms
• Transistor Amplifiers • Normal Bean Signal
• Digital Circuits • Short to Ground
• Analog to Digital Converter • Dual Trace
• Logic Gates • Open Circuit

Return to Simple
<< ECU Outputs

Technical Training 167


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Bipolar Transistor

A bipolar transistor is a solid-state electronic device.


• Used in electronic circuits as an electronic switch,
to amplify weak signals, and for converting signals
between analog and digital.
• Also used to construct logic gates which are
essential components of microprocessors.

Collector

Base

Emitter Collector

Base
Emitter
Return to Simple
<< ECU Outputs

Transistors The invention of the transistor in the late 1940’s launched the electronics age.
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in radios, amplifiers and many other
electrical devices, offering faster operation, lower power consumption, and
lower cost in a compact form.
The transistor turned out to be a very versatile invention that could be used
for:
• Switching devices
• Current regulators
• Amplifiers
• Logic circuits
• Analog-to-digital (A-to-D) signal converters
In the late 1950’s, the invention of the integrated circuit enabled transistors
and other electronic components to be miniaturized and mass produced. In
the 1960’s, it was these miniature, low-cost integrated circuits that made
complex electronics possible and ushered in the computer age.
Today, transistors are still available as discrete components with three wires
sticking out of them for use in simple electronics. The near-microscopic
transistors in modern computer chips, however, are far more numerous with
a typical chip containing over 200 million transistors.

168 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

NPN and PNP Transistors


Transistors are manufactured from silicon – an insulator.
• The silicon is “doped” with a small amount of impurities to create material having
a few extra electrons (n-type) or a small deficiency of electrons (p-type).
• The different types are sandwiched together to create a transistor.

N-P-N transistor Construction Diode Representation Symbol

Collector Collector
Collector N-type

Base Base
Base P-type

Emitter N-type Emitter


Emitter
P-N-P transistor Emitter

Emitter Emitter
P-type Base

Base Base
N-type Collector

Collector Return to Simple


P-type <<
Collector ECU Outputs

Transistor Types A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is either a NPN or PNP type. Both work
similarly.
Although the bipolar junction transistor was the first to be mass produced, it
has one undesirable characteristic. Its low input impedance between the
base and emitter makes it difficult to match impedances in multi-stage
amplifiers.
Most modern transistors are field-effect transistors (FETs). Although field
effect transistors work somewhat differently, they accomplish the same
functions that bipolar transistors do, but offer high input impedance. Various
types of FETs include junction (JFET), insulated gate (IGFET) and metal-
oxide-semiconductor (MOSFET).

Technical Training 169


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

How a Transistor Works

No current flow When current is applied


The few extra electrons in the N-type Applying sufficient voltage to the
material migrate to the P-type layer base overcomes the depletion layer
creating an electrically neutral region called enabling current to begin flowing.
the depletion layer. This layer acts like an
insulator.
Current flow
+12V N Collector +12V N
Depletion layer
P Base +5V P
Depletion layer
GND N Emitter GND N

Even with voltage applied to the collector,


current cannot flow.

Return to Simple
<< ECU Outputs

In an NPN transistor, the voltage at the collector must be higher than the voltage at the base, and
the voltage at the base must be higher than the voltage at the emitter.
NOTES:

170 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Transistor Switches

A transistor can be used to switch another circuit in


the same way as a relay, allowing a small current to
control a circuit with much greater current flow.

12V 12V

5V

5V

Return to Simple
<< ECU Outputs

A common transistor application is as a switch.


NOTES:

Technical Training 171


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Transistor Amplifiers
Keys to Operation
• Voltage at the base regulates current
flow through the transistor. NPN Bipolar Transistor
Amplifier Circuit
• A minimum voltage at the base is
required to start current flow. 12V Without Rc, voltage on
the output line would
• Increasing the voltage at the base always be 12v.
lowers transistor resistance and
increases current flow through the Rc
collector-emitter.
Rb
Input Line
Amplified output
signal voltage
Weak input (phase shifted)
signal voltage

Transistor resistance varies with


voltage applied to the base. Return to Simple
<< ECU Outputs

Within a specified range, varying the current flow at the base varies the current flow through the
transistor. This allows the transistor to be used as an amplifier.
NOTES:

172 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Digital Circuits

Digital circuits require only two values – ON and OFF.


Examples:
In a BEAN circuit, 0V = OFF and 10V = ON
In a CANH circuit, 2.5V = OFF and 3.5V = ON
In a CANL circuit, 2.5V = OFF and 1.5V = ON

In many discussions of digital communication, the


actual voltages used for ON and OFF in different
networks is not important.
Therefore, 0 and 1 are used to represent the OFF and
ON voltages.
0 1 0 0 1 0

Voltage

Return to Simple
Time << ECU Outputs

In a digital circuit, a transistor is ON when the proper voltage is applied to the base. Otherwise, the
transistor is OFF.
NOTES:

Technical Training 173


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Analog to Digital Converter


The transistor turns ON when the threshold voltage reaches 5V and
turns off when the voltage drops below 5V, converting the analog
signal into a digital signal.

B+
Transistor threshold
voltage (5V)

Alternating (analog)
voltage signal input

Return to Simple
Digital signal output << ECU Outputs

Analog to Digital An NPN transistor requires a minimum voltage applied at the base in order
Converter for current to flow. Called the threshold voltage, it turns the transistor ON.
This property allows a transistor to convert analog signals at any particular
frequency into digital signals with the same frequency, by outputting a digital
pulse each time the analog wave reaches its peak. This type of circuit is
called an analog-to-digital converter, or an A-to-D converter.

NOTE There are cases in which you may be troubleshooting an A-to-D converter
circuit and find you have an analog input signal but no digital output. In this
situation, verify that the peak voltage of the analog wave is sufficient to reach
the transistor’s threshold voltage.

174 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Logic Gates
Transistors are used to build logic gates. Logic gates are
essential to how microprocessors function.
A logic gate is an electronic circuit that outputs either
an ON or OFF signal depending on:
• The input values to the circuit
• The circuit’s logic rules
Logic Gate Symbols

NOT AND OR XOR

NAND NOR XNOR

Logic Gate Truth Table


INPUTS OUTPUTS
A B AND NAND OR NOR XOR XNOR
0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 Return to Simple
1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 << ECU Outputs

Logic Gates One of a computer’s remarkable capabilities is in its seeming ability to make
“decisions.” In reality, however, a computer can only evaluate situations it is
programmed to recognize. At the most fundamental level, that programming
is accomplished using logic circuits.
Logic circuits use transistor-controlled logic gates to convert specific
combinations of inputs into predetermined outputs. As an example, consider
the simple logic of the automatic light control system:
IF
Light control switch is in the AUTO position, and
Light control sensor detects LOW ambient light, and
Ignition switch is ON
THEN
Turn headlights ON
Turn taillights ON
To make this circuit operate, we need a logic circuit that has three inputs and
two outputs. When all three inputs are ON, then both outputs should be
turned ON.
To build this type of circuit, we would need a specific combination of logic
gates. It takes an average of 17 transistors to build a single logic gate.

Technical Training 175


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Normal CAN Signal

CANL CANH

Return
<<

Normal CAN The characteristics of a normal CAN signal are:


Signal • CANH and CANL idle at 2.5V.
• Data signals appear in periodic bursts.
• CANH signal ranges between 2.5V and 3.5V.
• CANL signal ranges between 2.5V and 1.5V.
• The CANH and CANL signals are mirror images of each other.

176 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Short CANH to CANL

CANL CANH

Return
<<

CAN Shorts Shorts and opens in CAN communication circuits tend to produce signature
and Opens waveforms. Understanding circuit behavior during certain types of
malfunctions and being able to identify the waveforms they create makes
CAN diagnosis easier.

Short CANH to When CANH and CANL are shorted together, it is impossible to generate a
CANL differential voltage on the two lines. The matching high and low voltage
pulses sent by the ECUs cancel each other because the lines are connected.
This condition is indicated by a flat line at 2.5 volts.

Technical Training 177


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

CAN Short to B+

CANL CANH
Short CANH to B+

CANL CANH

Return
Short CANL to B+
<<

Short CANH to B+ Shorting CANH to B+ boosts the circuit’s idling voltage from 2.5V to battery
voltage. Though the ECUs in the circuit are unable to raise CANH voltage
above B+, they are able to lower CANL enough to create a voltage differential
and the appearance of communication.
The apparent signal on the CAN bus may be enough to cause one or more
ECUs to show up in a CAN bus check. Despite that, communication on the
circuit is still not reliable.
Detecting this condition does not require an oscilloscope. If you were to test
CANH and CANL with a DVOM, CANH average voltage would be
approximately B+, while CANL average voltage would be between 6V and
10V.

Short CANL to B+ When CANL is connected to B+, the circuit’s idling voltage becomes battery
voltage. The ECUs cannot drag the CANL line voltage lower because it is
connected directly to B+, nor can they raise the CANH line voltage above B+.
The voltage spikes on the line are not interpreted as communication and
none of the ECUs appear in the CAN bus check.
Measuring CANH and CANL with a DVOM would likely show both lines very
close to B+.

178 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

CAN Short to Ground

CANL Short CANH to Ground CANH

CANL Short CANL to Ground CANH

Return
<<

Short CANH to Grounding the CANH side of the CAN bus brings the idling voltage of both
Ground lines to 0V. With CANH tied to ground, the ECUs cannot generate a positive
voltage on the line. On the CANL line, the ECUs can’t create a pulse lower
than 0V. The spikes on the line are not interpreted as communication and
none of the ECUs appear in a CAN bus check.
Measuring with a DVOM would show an average 0V on each line, indicating
the circuit is grounded.

Short CANH to When CANL is grounded, the ECUs are still able to generate a differential
Ground voltage on CANH. These signals may be interpreted as communication and
one or more ECUs can appear in the CAN bus check even though
communication is not reliable.
In this case, measuring with a DVOM would show ground voltage on CANL,
and a slightly positive voltage on CANH.

NOTE When a connection to B+ brings CANH high, or when a connection to ground


brings CANL low, there is still the appearance of communication on the
circuit. In the first case, CANL can still be brought low to create a voltage
differential, and in the second case, CANH can still be brought high. Though
communication on the circuit is compromised, ECUs may still appear in the
CAN bus check in either case.
On the other hand, bringing CANH low by grounding it, or bringing CANL high
with a short to B+ renders the circuit incapable of generating any kind of
voltage differential. These are the cases when the ECUs do not show up in
the CAN bus check.

Technical Training 179


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Open in CANH or CANL (Main Bus)

CANL Open in CANH CANH

CANL Open in CANL CANH

Return
<<

Open in CANH or With an open in either CANH or CANL on the main bus, part of the circuit
CANL (Main Bus) looses its connection with one of the terminating resistors. The purpose of
the resistors are to help keep signals from “bouncing” and generating noise.
Though these waveforms show apparent communication, you can tell the
circuits have a problem because:
• Idling voltage is NOT 2.5V.
• CANH voltage range is NOT 2.5V to 3V.
• CANL voltage range is NOT 2.5V to 1.5V.

180 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Open in CANH and CANL (Main Bus)

CANL CANH

Return
<<

Open in CANH and With opens in both CANH and CANL on the main bus, the circuit is divided
CANL (Main Bus) into two parts, each having only one terminating resistor. As in the previous
example, this introduces noise into the circuit.
Also, because the two halves of the network are separated, the
communication signals occurring on one half are different from those
occurring on the other half. Comparing the CANH signals (or CANL signals)
on each half would show them to be different from each other.
This can be exploited in diagnosis by systematically moving one probe
toward the other in the circuit and comparing waveforms. When the
waveforms become identical, the probes are now on the same half of the
network, and the open is between the current and previous test points.

Technical Training 181


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Normal BEAN Signal

BEAN Signals The characteristics of a normal BEAN signal are:


• Signal idles at 0V.
• Data signals appear in periodic bursts.
• Signal peak is 10 to 12V.

182 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Short to Ground

BEAN Short to When the BEAN communication bus is shorted to ground, the ECUs are
Ground unable to raise the line voltage to send signals. The line voltage is flat-lined at
0V.
A diagnostic process for locating a short to ground is to view the BEAN
waveform with an oscilloscope while disconnecting parts of the network.
When the short to ground is removed from the network, normal
communication resumes.
For example, if communication returns when half the circuit is disconnected,
the location of the short to ground is in the part of the network that was
disconnected. Continue isolating sections of the network until you find the
exact location of the short to ground.

Technical Training 183


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

Normal BEAN, Dual Trace

Probes
Probesare
areplaced
placedatattwo
twodifferent
differentpoints
pointson
onaanormal
normal
BEAN
BEAN communication line to illustrate thatthe
communication line to illustrate that thesignals
signals
are
areidentical
identicalatatall
allpoints
pointsininthe
thenetwork.
network.

NOTES:

184 Technical Training


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

BEAN Open Circuit, Dual Trace

IfIfthe
theBEAN
BEANnetwork
networkisisdivided
dividedby
byone
oneorormore
moreopens,
opens,
the
the signals in the isolated networks are nolonger
signals in the isolated networks are no longer
identical.
identical.

NOTES:

Technical Training 185


673 Electronic & Computer Controlled Systems Technician Handbook

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

186 Technical Training