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2.

3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems


2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 1, page 1 of 2
1. Express the force F in terms of x, y, and z components.
y

F = 200 lb

2 Calculate the x component.


45°
F = 200 lb
120°
60° O
3 = 180° 120° = 60°
x
z
120°
1 View of plane formed by the x axis and F. x
d O
F = 200 lb
4 d = (200 lb) cos 60° = 100 lb
5 The component points in the negative direction, so

Fx = 100 lb Ans.

120°

O x
2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 1, page 2 of 2
6 View of plane formed by the y axis and F
y

7 y component

F = 200 lb Fy = (200 lb) cos 45° = 141.4 lb Ans.


Fy
45°

8 View of plane formed by the z axis and F.

F = 200 lb

9 z component

Fz = (200 lb) cos 60° = 100 lb Ans.

60°
z
Fz O
10 F = Fxi + Fyj + Fzk

= { 100i + 141.4j + 100k} lb Ans.


2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 2, page 1 of 2
2. Express F in terms of x, y, and z components.
y
F = 50 N

40°

O A
35°
B
z x

1 View of plane formed by OA, F, and the y axis.


y

2 Fy = (50 N) cos 40° = 38.3 N Ans. F = 50 N

Fy 40° 3 FOA = (50 N) sin 40° = 32.14 N

A
O
FOA
2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 2, page 2 of 2
4 View of xz plane from above

6 FBA = (32.14 N) sin 35° = 18.4 N


FBA 32.14 N

7 Fz = 18.4 N 35°
x
negative direction y O B
Fx
z
5 Fx = (32.14 N) cos 35° = 26.3 N Ans.

8 F = Fxi + Fyj + Fzk

= {26.3i + 38.3j 18.4k} N Ans.


2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 3, page 1 of 2
3. Express F in terms of x, y, and z components.
y
O
z
25°
B
x
70° A

F = 8 kN

1 View of the plane formed by OA, F, and the y axis.


3 FOA = (8 kN) sin 70° = 7.518 kN
y
O FOA
A

2 (8 kN) cos 70° = 2.74 kN


70°
Fy
4 Fy = 2.74 kN Ans.

Negative direction F = 8 kN
2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 3, page 2 of 2

5 View of the xz plane from above.

6 Fx = (7.518 kN) cos 25° = 6.81 kN

O Fx
B x
y 25°
7 Fz = (7.518 kN) sin 25° Fz

= 3.18 kN Ans.
7.518 kN
z

8 F = Fxi + Fyj + Fzk

= {6.81i 2.74j + 3.18k} kN Ans.


2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 4, page 1 of 4
4. Determine the x, y, and z components of the 26-N force shown.
Also determine the coordinate direction angles of the force.
y

F = 26 N 12
5
13

A O
20°
x

B
z
1 View of the plane formed by OA, F, and the y axis.
y 2 Fy = (26 N)( 5 )
13
F = 26 N
= 10 N Ans.
12
5
13 Fy

3 FOA = (26 N)( 12 )


A O 13
FOA
= 24 N
2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 4, page 2 of 4
4 View of the xz plane as seen from above 7 Determine the x coordinate direction angle, .
y
(24 N) sin 20° = 8.21 N
5 Fx = 8.21 N Ans.
Fx y, O
x
F = 26 N Fx = 8.21 N
Negative direction

20° 6 Fz = (24 N) cos 20° = 22.6 N Ans.

Fz O
A
x

24 N B
z
8 View of the plane formed by the x axis and the force F.
A
8.21 N 9 The direction angle is measured
O x
z from the the positive part of the
axis. Here it is , not .

10 = 180°
26 N
= 180° cos-1 8.21 N
26 N
= 180° 71.59°

= 108.4° Ans.
2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 4, page 3 of 4

11 Determine the y coordinate direction angle, .


y

F = 26 N
Fy = 10 N

A O
x

B
z
12 View of the plane formed by the y axis and the force F.
y

13 = cos-1 10 N
26 N
26 N 10 N = 67.4° Ans.

O
2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 4, page 4 of 4

14 Determine the z coordinate direction angle, . 15 View of the plane formed by the z axis and the force F.
y

26 N = cos-1 22.6 N
16
26 N
F = 26 N = 29.6° Ans.
z O
22.6 N

A O
x

Fz = 22.6 N
B
z 17 Observation: the calculations for , , and can be
summarized by the general formulas
Fx
cos =
F

Fy
cos =
F

Fz
cos =
F
The algebraic signs of Fx, Fy, and Fz must be included
when using these formulas.
2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 5, page 1 of 3
5. Determine the magnitude and coordinate direction angles
of the resultant of the three forces acting on the mast. 1 Express F1 in rectangular components.
y

F3 = 40 N 2 (100 N) sin 80° = 98.48 N y


O
3 F1z = (98.48 N) cos 20° = 92.54 N x
O
F2 = 60 N
30°
80°

80° 20°
x z
20°
z
F1 = 100 N

F1 = 100 N
4 F1y = (100 N) cos 80° = 17.36 N
5 F1x = (98.48 N) sin 20° = 33.68 N

6 In vector form,

F1 = {33.68i 17.36j + 92.54k} N (1)


2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 5, page 2 of 3
7 Express F2 and F3 in rectangular components.
y
F3 = 40 N

8 F2y = (60 N) sin 30° = 30 N

O
F2 = 60 N
10 F3y = 40 N 30°
9 F2x = (60 N) cos 30° = 51.96 N

11 In vector form,

F2 = {51.96i + 30j} N (2)

F3 = {40j} N (3)

12 Use Eqs. 1, 2, and 3 to compute the resultant, R.

R = F1 + F2 + F3
= {33.68i 17.36j + 92.54k} N + {51.96i + 30j} N + {40j} N
13 Collect coeffiecients
of i, j, and k. = {33.68 + 51.96}i N + { 17.36 + 30 + 40}j N + {92.54k} N

= {85.64i + 52.64j + 92.54k} N


2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 5, page 3 of 3

14 Magnitude of resultant
y
R= (85.64 N)2 + (52.64 N)2 + (92.54 N)2

= 136.6 N Ans.

15 Coordinate direction angles


O
Rx 85.64 N
cos = =
R 136.6 N

Ry 52.64 N
cos = R =
136.6 N

Rz 92.54 N x
cos = = z
R 136.6 N

Solving for the angles gives

= 51.2° Ans.

= 67.4° Ans.

= 47.4° Ans.
2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 6, page 1 of 4
6. Determine the magnitude and coordinate direction angles
of the resultant of the forces acting on the eye-bolt.

F1 = 650 N y
12
13 5

30°
1 Express F1 in rectangular components.

F1 = 650 N
F2 = 800 N y
O 5
2 F1y = (650 N)( ) = 250 N 12
70° 50° 13
F3 = 300 N 13 5
z
30°
x 3 (650 N)( 12 ) = 600 N
13

4 F1x = (600 N) cos 30° = 519.6 N O x


z
5 F1z = (600 N) sin 30° = 300 N

6 In vector form,

F1 = { 519.6i + 250j 300k} N (1)


2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 6, page 2 of 4
7 Express F2 in rectangular components.
10 Since we are not given 2, we cannot compute F2y from the formula
y
F2y = F2 cos 2

But since we know the magnitude F2 = 800 N, we can solve for F2y
from the formula for the magnitude of a vector in terms of its
rectangular components:
2

F2 = F2x2 + F2y2 + F2z2

O F2 = 800 N Substituting for F2, F2x, and F2z gives

70° 50° (800 N) = (514.2 N)2 + F2y2 + (273.6 N)2


z
and solving for F2y gives

x F2y = ±548.4 N

Alternatively, we could have solved for 2 by using the identity


8 F2x = (800 N) cos 50° = 514.2 N satsified by the direction angles:

(cos 50 )2 + (cos 2)
2
+ (cos 70 )2 = 1
9 F2z = (800 N) cos 70° = 273.6 N
Solving gives 2 = 46.73° and thus

F2y = (800 N) cos 46.73° = 548.3 N

This is the same result as before, allowing for round-off error.


2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 6, page 3 of 4
y

11 The figure shows that F2y is 12 In vector form, F2 can be written as


positive, so choose the plus sign:
F2y F2 = {514.2i + 548.4j + 273.6k} N (2)
F2y = +548.4 N
F2
y
O
z 13 Also, in vector form, F3 is

F3 = {300k} N (3)
x

F3 = 300 N O x

14 Use Eqs. 1, 2, and 3, to compute the resultant R. z

R = F1 + F2 + F3
= { 519.6i + 250j 300k} N + {514.2i + 548.4j + 273.6k} N + {300k} N

= { 519.6 + 514.2}i N + {250 + 548.4}j N + { 300 + 273.6 + 300}k N

= { 5.4i + 798.4j + 273.6k} N


2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 6, page 4 of 4
15 Magnitude of resultant

R = ( 5.4 N)2 + (798.4 N)2 + (273.6 N)2

= 844.0 N Ans.

y
16 Coordinate direction angles
Rx 5.4 N
cos = R =
844.0 N

Ry 798.4 N
cos = R = 844.0 N

Rz 273.6 N
cos = =
R 844.0 N
Solving gives O

= 90.4° Ans. z
x
= 18.9° Ans.

= 71.1° Ans.
2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 7, page 1 of 3
7. A 300-lb vertical force is required to pull the pipe out of the ground. Determine
the magnitude and direction angles of the force F2 which, when applied together
with the 150-lb force F1 shown, will produce a 300-lb vertical resultant.
y
F1 = 150 lb

45° 1 Express F1 in rectangular components


60° F1x = F1 cos 1= (150 lb) cos 60° = 75 lb
F2 O
60° F1y = F1 cos 1= (150 lb) cos 60° = 75 lb

F1z = F1 cos 1= (150 lb) cos 135° = 106.1 lb


x
y
z
F1 = 150 lb

45°
1= 180° 45° = 135° 1 = 60°

( 1 measured from positive z)


1= 60°
O
z
2 In vector form, x

F1 = {75i + 75j 106.1k} lb (1)


2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 7, page 2 of 3
3 Express F2 in terms of components, 4 Equating coefficients of i gives

F2 = F2xi + F2yj + F2zk (2) 0 = 75 lb + F2x

Use Eqs. 1 and 2 to compute the resultant, Solving gives

R = F1 + F2 F2x = 75 lb (4)

= {75i + 75j 106.1k} lb Equating coefficients of j, and then k, gives

+ {F2xi + F j + F2zk} 300 = 75 lb + F2y


2y
= {75 lb + F2x}i + {75 lb + F }j 0 = 106.1 lb + F2z
2y
Solving gives
+ { 106.1 lb + F2z}k (3)
F2y = 225 lb (5)
Now we use the fact that R is known to be vertical, directed upwards
with a magnitude of 300 lb: F2z = 106.1 lb (6)
R = 0i + 300j + 0k

So Eq. 3 becomes

0i + 300j + 0k ={75 lb + F2x}i + {75 lb + F2y}j

+ { 106.1 lb + F2z}k
2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 7, page 3 of 3
5 Magnitude of F2

F2 = (F2x)2 + (F2y)2 + (F2z)2

= ( 75 lb)2 + (225 lb)2 + (106.1 lb)2

= 259.8 lb ns.

Coordinate direction angles


F2x 75 lb
cos 2 = F =
2 259.8 lb
F2y 225 lb
cos 2= = y
F2 259.8 lb
F2z 106.1 lb
cos 2 = F2 = 259.8 lb
F2
Solving gives
2
2 = 106.8° Ans.

2 = 30.0° Ans.
2
= 65.9° Ans. 2
2
O

z x
2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 8, page 1 of 3
8. Two forces, F1 and F2 act on the bracket as shown. If the
resultant of F1 and F2 lies in the xy plane, determine the
magnitude of F2. Also determine the magnitude of the resultant.

F1 = 60 N
y

60°

50°

O
F2
z
x
2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 8, page 2 of 3
1 Express F1 in rectangular components:

F1x = F1 cos 1= (60 N) cos 130° = 38.57 N (1)

F1y = F1 cos 1 = (60 N) cos 60° = 30 N (2) F1 = 60 N


F1y y
Since we do not know the value of 1, we cannot compute F1z
from
= 60°
F1z = F1 cos 1
F1x 50°
Instead we can use the equation for the magnitude of F1: F1z
1
2 2
F1 = (F1x) + (F1y) + (F1z) 2 O 1= 180° 50° = 130°

60 N = ( 38.57 N)2 + (30 N)2 + (F1z)2 z


Solving gives x
2 F1z points in the negative direction so
F1z = ± 34.82 N choose the minus sign

F1z = 34.82 N (3)

3 In vector form, from Eqs. 1, 2, and 3,

F1 = { 38.57i + 30j 34.82k} N (4)


2.3 Rectangular Components in Three-Dimensional Force Systems Example 8, page 3 of 3
4 Now, Eq. 4 and the vector form of F2, 5 Equating coefficients of k gives

F2 = F2k 0 = F2 34.82 N

can be used to compute the resultant, R: or

R = F1 + F2 F2 = 34.82 N Ans.

= { 38.57i + 30j 34.82k} N + F2k (5) Finally, the magnitude of R is

Because the resultant R lies in the x-y plane, R = (Rx)2 + (Ry)2 + (Rz)2

Rz = 0 (6) = ( 38.57 N)2 + (30 N)2 + (0)2

Combining Eqs. 5 and 6 gives = 48.9 N Ans.

Rxi + Ryj + 0k ={ 38.57i + 30j + (F2 34.82)k} N

Equating coefficients of i gives

Rx = 38.57 N

Equating coefficients of j gives

Ry = 30 N