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Rational Equations

A rational expression is a quotient of two


polynomials. If P and Q are polynomials then
P
; Q 0
Q
is a rational expression. A rational expression is well-
defined if its denominator is not equal to zero.
SOLVE-PAIR-SHARE
Solve the ff. rational equations.
3
1) x 4 SS : 1, 3
x
x 1 8
2) 2 SS : 5
x 2 x 2 x 4
APPLICATIONS OF
RATIONAL EQUATION
3 3
Distance, Speed, Time Equation : 2
x x 4
1) Melissa walks 𝟑 km to the house of a friend and
returns home on a bike. She averages 𝟒 km per hour
faster when cycling than when walking, and the total
time for both trips is two hours. Find her walking
speed.
Distance (km) Speed (km/h) Time (h)
Walking 3 x
2h
Cycling 3 x+4

NOTE: DISTANCE = SPEED x TIME ; T = D/S ; S = D/T


Sol. 3 3
Equation : 2 Multiply the LCD to both
x x 4 sides of the equation.
3 3
x(x 4) 2 x(x 4)
x x 4
3(x 4) 3x 2 x(x 4) Distribute
2
3x 12 3x 2x 8x Write in standard form
2
2x 2x 12 0 Simplify and Factor
2
x x 6 0
(x 3)(x 2) 0 Solve for x.
Melissa ' s walking speed is 2 km / h.
Reject x=-3 since there
x 3 x 2 are no negative speed.
240 240
Equation : 1
PAIR SHARE x x 20

Car A and Car B leave the same town, at the same time, going
to the same destination 240 kilometers away. The rate of Car
A is 20 km/h faster than the rate of Car B. If Car A arrives at its
destination 1 hour ahead of Car B, find each rate.
Distance (km) Speed (km/h) Time (h)

Car A 240
240 x + 20  lesser time
x 20
(by 1 hour)
Car B 240
240 x
x
Sol.
240 240 Multiply the LCD to both
Equation : 1
x x 20 sides of the equation.
240 240
x(x 20) 1 x(x 20)
x x 20
240(x 20) 240 x x(x 20) Distribute
2
240 x 4800 240 x x 20 x Write in standard form
2
x 20 x 4800 0 Factor
(x 80)(x 60) 0
Answerx : Car
80 A 80 km
x 60 / h Solve for x.
Reject x=-80 since there
Car B 60 km / h are no negative speed.
NEXT TOPIC
Rational Inequalities
Recall:
Trichotomy Property of Order
If a and b are real numbers, exactly one of the following
three statements are true;

a b b a a b
Properties of Inequality
If a, b, and c are real numbers and
(i) if a < b, then a + c < b + c [Addition Property]
(ii) if a < b, then a − c < b − c [Subtraction Property]

(iii) if a < b and c > 0, then ac < bc [Multiplication Property]

(iv) if a < b and c < 0, then ac > bc [Multiplication Property]


Remarks:
• Property (i) and (ii) states that if both sides of the inequality is
added or subtracted by any real number, the direction of the
inequality remains unchanged.
• Property (iii) states that if both sides of the inequality is
multiplied a positive number, the direction of the inequality
remains unchanged.
• Property (iv) states that if both sides are multiplied by a
negative number, the direction is reversed.
Rational Inequality
A rational inequality is an inequality containing at least
one rational expression.

Solving rational inequalities is similar to solving


polynomial inequalities. To solve a rational inequality
we use the concepts of critical number and test
number.
Critical Number of a Rational Inequality
Given the rational inequality
P
0
Q
the critical number(s) are the zeroes of P and Q.
Example:
Find the critical number(s) of the rational inequality

x 1
0
2
x 4
x 1
Sol. The critical numbers of 0 are the zeroes of
2
x 4
x +1 and x 2 − 4. So,
x 1 0 x 1
2
x 4 0
(x 2)(x 2) 0 x 2, 2
Thus, the critical numbers are 2, − 2, and −1
•The critical number of a
rational inequality is used
to separate the number
line into intervals.
•A test number is a number
inside of the interval
formed by a critical value.
Steps in solving Rational Inequalities
• First we write an equivalent inequality in standard form (E
> 0) where E is a rational expression. That is, having all the
nonzero terms on one side of the inequality sign.
2
For example, x 9
0
x
• Second, we compute for the critical numbers of the
rational inequality. So using the previous example,
2
x 9
0
x
(x 3)(x 3)
0 [Factored Form]
x

the critical numbers are x = 3, −3, 0


• Next, we use the critical numbers to separate the number
line into intervals.
Illustration:

3 0 3
• After separating the number line, we determine the sign on an
interval by choosing an arbitrary test number in the interval and
compute the sign of each using the factors of the numerator and
the denominator. The results are summarized by the sign table
below:
Sign of
(x 3)(x 3)
Test number Sign of x + 3 Sign of x x
Sign of x − 3
Interval k at k at k at k on interval
(−∞,−3) −5 − − − −

(−3,0) −1 + − − +

(0,3) 2 + − + −

(3,+∞) 6 + + + +
20
Sign of
(x 3)(x 3)
Test Number Sign of x + 3 Sign of x x
Sign of x − 3
Interval k at k at k at k on interval
(−∞,−3) −5 − − − −

(−3,0) −1 + − − +
(0,3) 2 + − + −

(3,+∞) 6 + + + +

Note that (x 3)(x 3)


is positive on the intervals ( 3, 0) and .(3,+ )
x

Thus, the solution set for the inequality is SS : ( 3, 0) (3,+ ).


The critical values of a
rational inequality having
the ≥ or ≤ symbol should
also be considered when
solving for the solution set
of the rational inequality.
Example:
Find the solution set of the rational inequality

5x
4
x 1
Sol. First we transform the inequality in standard form

5x
4
x 1
5x
4 0
x 1
5x 4(x 1)
0
x 1 x 1
5x 4(x 1) 5x 4x 4 x 4
0 0 0
x 1 x 1 x 1
Then we compute for the critical numbers of transformed
inequality,
x 4
0
x 1
Critical Numbers: −4, 1

x 4 0 x 4
x 1 0 x 1
We summarize the results through a table of signs:

Sign of
x 4
Test number Sign of x + 4 x 1
Sign of x − 1
Interval k at k at k on interval
(−∞,−4) −6 − − +

(−4,1) 0 + − −

(1,+∞) 2 + + +
Notice that the rational expression is negative on the
interval (−4,1). Furthermore, the rational expression is also
negative when x = −4; thus, −4 is also part of the solution
set. Of course, the rational function is not defined when x
= 1 because then the denominator is zero.

Therefore, SS : [ 4,1).
Quadrant Work
Solve for the solution set of the rational inequalities below.
6
(a) 2 0
x

Answers :
4
(b) 2
x 3 a) , 3 0,
b) ,3 5,
2
x 8x 15
(c) 0 c) 5, 3 2,
x 2
APPLICATION OF RATIONAL
INEQUALITIES
A box with a square base is to have a volume of
64 cubic meters. Let x be the length of the side
of the square base and h be the height of the
box. What are the possible measurements of a
side of the square base if the height should be
longer than a side of the square base?
APPLICATION OF RATIONAL
V lwh INEQUALITIES
Inequality : h x
64 (x)(x)(h) 64
2 x
64 x h x2
64 64 x 3
h 2
x
4 x
x 4
height should be longer than a side of the square base NOTE:
SS : 0,4 There are no
negative lengths.