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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Introduction

Success is often deliberated by how well students cope up with the standards set by

educational institutions through their academic performance. Furthermore with the career

rivalry happening in the working world, the importance of students doing well in school

has grasp the attention of teachers, parents and members of the society (Emerenwa,

Onyebuchukwu, Bendict & Sholarin, 2015).

According to Bell (2018), to evaluate their performance in school isby regular grading

wherein students demonstrate their knowledge by taking written and oral examination,

performance tasks, turning in assignments and participating in class discussions.

Academic performance is mainly the outcome of education. She also added that, though

education is the not the only way to gain success in the working world parents however

care about their child's progress because they believe good results will provide more

career options and job security.

However in accordance to the curiosity of the adolescent’s period, many young people

that majorityare students begin to experiment with smoking or drinking (Furiscal,

Pancharuniti & Keiwkarnka, 2018). The legal drinking age in the Philippines is 18;

nonetheless, 60% of the youth will have at least tried alcohol before then due to the

rampant influence of the country’s drinking culture that started off with the colonization

of the Spaniards. Though there are many positive views of alcohol, but there are also

concerns about the impact of drinking on the society (alcoholrehab.com, n.d.).


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To ensure the highest caliber of information, the study determined the correlation of

Silliman University selected senior high school grade 12 STEAM students’ alcohol

consumption to their overall performance in the class.

The Problem

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to analyzed the relationship of Silliman University’s selected grade 12

STEAM senior high school students’ alcohol consumption to their overall performance in

class. Apart from that, this study determined the correlation of their overall performance

in the class and the impact of alcohol intake on their attendance, time spent studying and

how frequent they drink.

Objectives of the Study

1. To determine the impact of alcohol consumption on Silliman University grade 12

STEAM students’ attendance.

2. To determine the impact of alcohol consumption on Silliman University grade 12

STEAM students’ time spent studying.

3. To determine the relationship of how frequent the respondents drink to their

overall performance in the class.


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Statement of the Hypothesis

Objective 1:

H0:There is no significant relationship of alcohol consumption on Silliman

University grade 12 STEAM students’ attendance.

HA:There is a significant relationship of alcohol consumption on Silliman

University grade 12 STEAM students’ attendance.

Objective 2:

H0:There is no significant relationship of alcohol consumption on Silliman

University grade 12 STEAM students’ time spent studying.

HA:There is a significant relationship of alcohol consumption on Silliman

University grade 12 STEAM students’ time spent studying.

Objective 3:

H0:There is no significant relationship on how frequent Silliman University grade

12 STEAM students’ drink to their overall performance in the class.

HA: There is a significant relationship on how frequent Silliman University grade

12 STEAM students’ drink to their overall performance in the class.

Significance of the Study

The present paper was a significant endeavour to determine the correlation of Silliman

University selected senior high school grade 12 STEAM students’ alcohol consumption

to their overall performance in the class. This study can be a learning model in the K-12

curriculum to enhance students’ knowledge about the prevailing effects of alcohol


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consumption. The findings of this study will rebound to the benefit of the society

considering that the issue about underage drinking is of relevance in the present time.

This section will provide a brief description on the various significances of the study and

its beneficiaries:

Students –This aid them to increase their awareness about the relative effect of alcohol

drinking and alcohol-related issues so that at the early stage of life they would cover a

desirable habit and value towards a better and quality life. This study includes some

measures to correct the weaknesses so as to strengthen or fund their knowledge about the

effects of alcohol in their academic performance.

Parents–This would serve as an “eye-opener” to them, making them aware of the effects

of alcoholism to their child’s academic performance. Also, the findings will help them to

work hand in hand with their child, so as to abstain them from ruining their bright future.

Teachers–This study will help them decipher the nature of their students’ alcohol

drinking consumption thus, establishing effort for them to have a capacity to become

good contributors of the society.

School Administration - This study would help them grasp reality based on information

about the student’s academic performance towards their alcohol consumption. Such

information would help them to take action about increasing the awareness of the

studentsand to address this action, and work towards the common good of each member

of the society.

Society - This study would encourage everybody to minimize underage drinking. In

addition, those drinkers can be assisted and properly evaluated about the effects of

alcohol consumption.
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Future Researchers–This study can also help future researches as it can serve as basis or

a source for upcoming studies. Also, it can add on to the research in order to enhance it,

provide more concrete answers, and benefit more people.

Scope and Limitations

In conducting this study, the research faced the limitation that the researchers can only

conduct the survey within the confines of Silliman University Senior High School

Department.

The researchers covered mainly on the selected grade 12 STEAM senior high school

students of Silliman University who drinks alcohol beverage only to determine how it

would affect their performance in class and does not delve deeply into notions of other

issues regarding alcoholism.

This study was interested on how the impact of alcohol intake on their attendance, time

spent studying, how frequent they drink, and the amount of alcohol they take will affect

their academic performance in school.

The research was limited only to forty (40) selected grade 12 STEAM senior high school

students in Silliman University of the school year 2018-2019 who drinks alcohol

beverage for the reason that there are more student population in the STEAM academic

track and the proponents will have more possibility to gather respondents.
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Definitions of Terms

1. Academic Performance – the outcome of education that is the extent a person

achieved in their education (Ward, 1996).

2. Alcohol – a type of compound- ethyl alcohol or also known as ethanol or grain

alcohol. Produced by the natural fermentation of sugars andis the intoxicating constituent

of wine, beer, spirits, and other drinks (Compton’s by Britannica, 2008, p. 274).

3. Alcoholic Beverages – plants that contain sugars can be transformed into ethyl

alcohol. Fermentation is the basic process for making alcoholic beverages; these drinks

include beer, wine, whiskey, gin, vodka, rum, and many more (Compton’s by Britannica,

2008, p. 275).

4. Alcoholism - An overwhelming desire to drink alcohol it affects physical and

mental health, and can cause problems with family, friends, and work it is a disease

called alcoholism (Compton’s by Britannica, 2008, p. 276).

5. STEAM Students – students who are taking up Science, Technology,

Engineering, Agriculture and Mathematics. In K-12 curriculum STEAM belongs to the

academic track. In some various schools, it is known as STEM (Science, Technology,

Engineering, and Mathematics) (ciit.edu.ph/k-12-curriculum-in-the-philippines/, 2018).


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CHAPTER II

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Conceptual Framework

The social learning hypothesis is frequently connected to any social behaviouristic

approach and the theory also stated a negative social result such as poverty and

unemployment can create liquor reliance by establishing the conduct of the people around

them or by watching others who has addictive practices (Akers, 2011; Horvath et al.,

2014; Lindstrom, 1992).

According to (Newes-Adeyi, Chen, Williams, and Faden, 2007), alcohol has been proven

to be a drug that inhibit as well as contribute to a person’s thoughts and action. Alcohol

interferes with how the brain works. In addition, alcohol dependence influences academic

achievement negatively, as the number of days alcohol is consumed rapidly the level of

the student’s academic performance decreases.

DeSimone and Wolaver (2005) also depicted that drinking could directly lower academic

performance through several factors that includes the time that student spend at social

events at which alcohol is consumed rather than doing schoolwork. The result from heavy

drinking at these events can impact the quality of grades and the use of alcohol might

indirectly influence poor behaviour towards their education by prompting other negative

behaviours.

(Figure 1) shows the conceptual model of the study including the antecedent,

independent, intervening and dependent variable. The antecedent variable in the study is

peer pressure, curiosity, anxiety and lack of attention, love of family. The independent
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variable is student alcoholic consumption. The intervening variable of the study is lack of

sleep, skipping classes and short attention span. Lastly, the dependent variable of the

study is the academic performance of students.

Antecedent Independent Intervening Dependent


Variable Variable Variable Variable

• Peer • Student • Lack of


pressure, • Overall
Alcohol Sleep, Performance
curiosity, Consumption
anxiety and Skipping in the Class
lack of Classes and
attention, Short
love of Attention
family Span

Figure 1.Conceptual Framework of the Study


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Review of Related Literature

Academic Performance

The globalization of the world made education as a first step for every human activity for

it played a vital role in the development of human capital and is linked with an

individual’s well-being and opportunities for better living (Battle & Lewis, 2002).

Moreover, education is the by-product of how well you do in school in which it is the

basis of a student, teacher or institution to achieve their educational goals (Emerenwa,

Onyebuchukwu, Benedict & Sholarin 2015). Academic performance is characterized by

tests, course work and examinations (Kyoshaba, 2009).

Ethanol: The Beverage Alcohol

In Chemistry, there are different types of alcohol described such as methyl alcohol

(methanol), isopropyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol (ethanol). However, the first two type of

alcohol are considered toxic and only ethanol which people label as the “alcohol” is the

substance people drink (Sprott, 1992).

Additionally, Gold (1990) stated that ethanol is considered as a drug along with

marijuana, cocaine, heroin and other psychoactive substance since it acts as a central

nervous system depressant like sleeping pills and if taken in high dosage can be an

anesthetic. Nonetheless, the depressant effect of alcohol can vary according to the

person’s age, weight, gender and level of tolerance. Along with that, alcohol can be found

in beer, wine, vodka and many other types of liquor.

Moreover, the society has positively considered drinking alcohol as a physical, social and

psychological need (Robinson & Rhoden, 1998). And if taken moderately, Whiteman
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(2015) said it provides health promoting qualities for alcohol can reduce heart problems,

lower risk of diabetes and improve memory; however, Reyes (2011) revealed that it can

also cause conflict, accidents, medical problems, added expense and calories to your diet.

In relation, a statistic depicted Filipinos are the second highest consumers of alcohol in

South East Asia and5 million of them drink on a regular basis while 39.9% of the

population drink on an irregular basis (alcoholrehab.com, n.d.). Furthermore, Gold (1990)

stated that teenagers are highly expected to consume alcohol in a society that “glorifies

the drug in an atmosphere of accessibility.” In connection, teenagers start drinking when

they lack parents’ attention, love and support. Peer pressure is also one of the reasons

why they are influenced in alcohol consumption (BuddyT, 2018). Also, with a lot of

anxiety or social pressure adolescence experienced they tend to experiment with it and

eventually learn and develop a pattern of use starting off with social drinking (Sammon,

1996).

Adolescence that uses this substance is more likely to depend and use it in the future.

Alcohol contributes actions to teen’s thoughts, opinions and actions. It also affects their

brain’s function because at that time of period the brain is still developing (n.a., 2015).

According to Smith (2017), consuming alcoholic beverage can influence one’s mindset

and body activities such as lack of sleep that can result to skipping of classes or being

absent that could deteriorate a student’s grade. Likewise, a study about the correlation of

alcohol use, sleep and academic performance of Northeastern ages 18-12 conducted by

Coyman (2011) showed that students who drink more alcohol deeply negates their

sleeping patterns and academic performance.


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Another study conducted by Emerenwa, Onyebuchukwu & Sholarin (2015) about the

effect of alcohol consumption on the academic performance of undergraduate students

revealed that there is a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and

academic performance (R2=0.74,P<.O5), there is a significant difference in academic

performance of students that drink alcohol and those that do not (R2=12.22,P<.05), there

is a significant effect of alcohol consumption on academic

performance(R2=4.474,P<.05).
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CHAPTER III

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Site Description

This study was conducted around Silliman University, a private university in Dumaguete

City, Negros Oriental that was established in 1901 by Dr. David S. Hibbard and was the

first American University in the Philippines as well as the entire Asian continent.

Specifically, the proponents focused more on the Senior High School Department of

Silliman University in which it was the first among other schools in the Philippines to

have developed a complete framework of the K-12 curriculum (su.edu.ph, n.d.).

© (Marino, 2018)

Figure 2.Silliman University’s Senior High School Department


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Field Design

This study was quantitative in nature and falls into correlational survey research design, it

was correlational because the proponents determined the relationship between the two

variables in the study.

Materials & Equipment

The participants of this study were forty(40) randomly selected grade 12 STEAM senior

high school students who drinks alcohol in any gender (as the study aimed at the Senior

High School Department respectively) ranging from 16-20 years in the school year

2018-2019. Hence, the study used purposeful random sampling method to select the

participants because the nature of the study which entailed administering

questionnaires to grade 12 STEAM students that indulges in alcohol .

The proponents used a structured survey questionnaire as an instrument for gathering the

data in the conduct of the study which the options has a coded equivalent number for data

interpretation and will directly give it to the selected respondents given that they agree to

be part of the study. The contents of the questionnaire consists set of different sections

with each of the sections collectinginformation on the variable of interest. It

comprises of A, B, and C sections that provides the respondent a set of responses to

choose and will be based from the overall goals as stated in the statement of the

problem.The structure of the questionnaire is outlined below:

Section A. In this section, socio-demographic information of the participants will be

setranging fromage and to their gender.


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Section B.In this section, the drinking behavior, the quantity and type consumed by the

selected participants will be stated.

Section C. In this section, the performance or the behaviour of selected participants in

their respective class will be stated.

General Methods

Before gathering the data needed in the study, the proponents prepared a letter, requesting

the respondent to answer the questions honestly, which allowed them to gather the

needed data credibly. Also, the procedure ensured that every participant was given equal

opportunity of participating in the study.

Upon approval, the proponents distributed the survey questionnaires to the selected forty

(40) grade 12 STEAM senior high school students in any gender in Silliman University

who consume alcoholic beverages through purposeful random sampling because the

nature of the study entailed administering only to participants indulging alcoholic

beverages.

The data that was gathered was analyzed and interpreted. The proponents assured the

confidentiality of the answers given off by the participants.

The response to the survey questionnaire by the selected grade 12 STEAM students of

Silliman University who consume alcohol was analyzed through the statistical tool

Pearson Product-Moment Correlation to show the significant relationship of students who

consume alcohol as the dependent variable (variable x) and their overall performance in

the class as the independent variable (variable y). The researcher examined the given
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answer and interpreted it by providing tables and graphs (scatter plot) for the proper

representation of the data gathered.


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CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

At the end of the data gathering procedure, the following data were summarized and

analyzed:

Objective 1:

Alcohol consumption on Silliman University grade 12 STEAM students’ attendance.

In order to meet the first objective, survey questionnaires were distributed to forty (40)

grade 12 STEAM students. In accordance with the objective, test two (2) question

number three (3) and eight (8) of the survey questionnaires were related and was be the

basis to prove the relationship of the two variables namely alcohol consumption of

students and their attendace in class. As a result, the data showed in (Figure 1) and

(Figure 2) proved that there is no significant relationship between students who consume

alcohol and their attendance in class because as the percentage mean of the two category

(yes and no), majority of the data gathered goes to the “no” portion . Therefore, making

the proponents conclude that the alternative hypothesis of objective is rejected and the

null hypothesis is accepted.


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3. Have you missed class because of hangover?


Yes No

45%

55%

Figure 3. Showed that out of forty 40) respondents forty-five percent (45%) eighteen
(18) have missed class because of hangover and fifty-five (55%) twenty-two
(22) have answered that they haven’t missed class because of hang over.

8. Have you ever cut classes just to drink alcohol


beverages?
Yes No

50% 50%

Figure 4. Showed that fifty percent (50%) twenty (20) of theforty( 40) respondents
have skipped class just to drink alcoholic beverages. While fifty percent
(50%) twenty (20) did not skipped class to drink alcoholic beverages.
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Objective 2:

Alcohol consumption on Silliman University grade 12 STEAM students’ spent time

studying.

To determine whether the null and alternative hypothesis will be accepted or rejected, test

two (2) question number four (4) and number six (6) of the survey questionnaires was the

basis to prove the relationship of the two variables. Hence, having analyzed the data in

the questionnaire it presented that majority of the percentage goes to “no.” This means

that alcohol consumption doesn’t hinder the time spent studying.

4. Have you forgotten to study because of


hangover?
Yes No

42%

58%

Figure 5. Showed that out of forty (40) respondents, forty-two (42%), seventeen (17)
have forgotten to study because of hangover and only fifty-eight (58%),
twenty-five (25) have answered that they haven’t forgotten to study because
of hang over.
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6. Performed poorly on a test or important project?


Yes No

43%

57%

Figure 6. Showed that out of forty (40) respondents, forty-three (43%), twenty-three
(23) haven’t performed poorly on a test or important project and fifty-five
percent (57%) seventeen (17) have answered that they performed poorly on a
test or important project.

As shown above, the results came to a conclusion that the alternative hypothesis of the

second objective is rejected and the null hypothesis is rejected which states that there is

no significant relationship of alcohol consumption on Silliman University grade 12

STEAM students’ time spent studying.


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Objective 3:

Significant relationship on Silliman University selected Senior High School grade 12

STEAM students’ alcohol consumption to their overall performance in the class.

After distributing the forty (40) survey questionnaires to the selected grade 12 STEAM

students of Silliman University, the proponents came up with the following data shown in

(Table 1). The questionnaire was divided into sections and section B (test one) which was

about the drinking behavior, the quantity and type consumed by the selected participants

refers to the independent variable (x) and section C (test two) which was about the

performance or the behaviour of the selected participants in their respective class. To get

the numeric value of the question, the researches provided a coded equivalent to the

following options, having yes equivalent to four (4) points and no equivalent to two (2)

points, and the following points were added by sections.

Table 1.Data gathered from the survey questionnaire

Independent Dependent
Respondent Variable Variable
(f) (x) (y) xy 𝒙𝟐 𝒚𝟐
1 28 32 896 784 1024
2 32 32 1024 1024 1024
3 20 30 600 400 900
4 24 30 600 576 900
5 26 28 728 676 784
6 30 24 720 900 576
7 28 26 728 784 676
8 24 28 672 576 784
9 20 22 440 400 484
10 30 30 900 900 900
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11 26 30 520 676 900


12 26 26 676 676 676
13 26 18 468 676 324
14 22 28 616 484 784
15 30 30 900 900 900
16 26 28 728 676 784
17 26 26 676 676 676
18 18 16 288 324 256
19 26 16 416 676 256
20 18 18 324 324 324
21 28 28 784 784 784
22 26 20 520 676 400
23 26 20 520 676 400
24 18 16 288 324 256
25 20 18 360 400 324
26 20 20 400 400 400
27 26 16 416 676 256
28 22 18 396 484 724
29 24 16 384 576 256
30 22 16 352 484 256
31 20 20 400 400 400
32 18 18 324 324 324
33 22 20 440 484 400
34 22 20 440 484 400
35 26 22 572 676 484
36 30 26 780 900 676
37 26 24 624 676 576
38 26 20 520 676 400
39 26 20 520 676 400
40 24 30 720 576 900
∑ 𝑥 = 24.45 ∑ 𝑦= 22.9 ∑ 𝑥𝑦= 567 ∑𝑥 2= 611.5 ∑𝑦 2= 551.2

Moreover, means were computed through the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

formula to get the relationship of the variables of the two variables namely Senior High

School grade 12 STEAM students’ alcohol consumption and their overall performance in

the class of the third objective.


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𝑛 ∑ 𝑥𝑦 − ∑ 𝑥 ∑ 𝑦
𝑟=
√[𝑛 ∑ 𝑥 2 − (∑ 𝑥)2 ][𝑛 ∑ 𝑦 2 − (∑ 𝑦)2 ]

40(567) − (24.25)(22.9)
=
√[40(611.5) − (24.45)2 ][40(551.2) − (22.9)2 ]

22680 − 559.905
=
√[(24460) − (597.8025)][(22048) − (524.41)]

22680 − 559.905
=
√(23862.1975)(21523.59)

22120.095
=
√513600155.5

= 0.9760552787

𝑟 = 0.98

As a result, the computed value is 0.98 which suggests a strong correlation because the

coefficient value lies between ±0.80 and ±1.

Correlation r Interpretation

0.00-0.19 very weak

0.20-0.39 weak

0.40-0.59 moderate

0.60-0.79 strong

0.80-1.0 very strong

Table 2. Suggested by Evans (1996) shows the interpretation of the different absolute
value of r
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𝑟 𝑛−2
𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑑 = √
1 − 𝑟2

(0.98) 40 − 2
𝑡= √
1 − (0.98)

𝑡 = 30.36

To test its level of signifance, a significance level of α=0.05 two tailed was determined.

The computed result indicated to reject the null hypothesis H0 and accept the alternative

hypothesis Ha since the computed t value falls on the critical region at the right tail of

distribution, that is, 30.36 > 2.160. The proponents conclude that there is a high linear

relationship between student’s alcohol consumption and their overall performance in the

class.

Scatter Diagram of the Students' Alcohol


Consumption and Overall Performance in the Class
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Dependent Variable (y)

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Independent Variable (x)
.

Figure 7. The scatter plot diagram showed a strong linear correlation of the two
variables (variable x and y).
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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of Results

In summary, based on the result of the survey questionnaires, STEAM grade 12 students’

alcohol consumption and their attendance in class showed no significant relationship. The

same goes with the STEAM grade 12 students’ alcohol consumption with their time spent

on studying, which also showed no significant relationship between the variables.

In addition, with the result of the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation, revealed that

there is a strong significant relationship between Silliman University selected Senior

High School grade 12 STEAM students’ alcohol consumption to their overall

performance in the class from the data gathered.

General Conclusions

The result of the study showed that the alcohol consumption of STEAM grade 12

students’ of Silliman University affects their overall academic performance in the class.

Objective 1: There is no significant relationship of alcohol consumption on Silliman

University grade 12 STEAM students’ attendance.


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Objective 2: There is no significant relationship of alcohol consumption on Silliman

University grade 12 STEAM students’ time spent studying.

Objective 3: There is a significant relationship on how frequent Silliman University

grade 12 STEAM students’ drink to their overall performance in the class.

Recommendations

The survey must be distributed to a larger sample. There are other strands that could also

be used in conducting the same study, such as HUMSS or ABM for the maximization of

sample size and accuracy of the study.There are also other factors that can be discovered

that might as well show correlations to the overall performance.

Instead of having forty (40) respondents they might as well add their respondents for the

accuracy of the study. In addition, they can improve the questionnaire and add objectives

to make the study have a bigger scope.

Promotional sales by alcohol companies will be prohibited in the higher institutions.

Also, drinking joints and bars will not be allowed to operate within or around

universities.

Future research should determine if students are actually being responsible with the

amount of alcohol they consume, or are they just getting by and managing to pass their

classes.
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