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Approach – Answer: General Studies Mains Mock Test 1238 (2019)

1. (a) Do you think there has been a convergence of values between public and private sectors in the
wake of increasing role of the private sector in public service delivery? (10)
Approach:
• Mention the characteristics and values of both public and private sector.
• While differentiating between their roles, also highlight the increasing role of private sector in public
service delivery.
• Mention how the values of both public and private sector are converging as both are adopting each
other’s values.
• Conclude with some suggestions on a futuristic outlook.
Answer:
A public sector enterprise is owned and managed by the government with a view to maximize social
welfare and uphold the public interest. It is characterized by values like public welfare, public
accountability, and social orientation among others.
Private undertakings are owned and controlled by private businessmen with the main motive being
maximization of profits with market values like competitiveness, efficiency, productivity etc.
Conventional practice marks a clear demarcation between public and private, especially when it comes
to the delivery of public goods & services. However, this boundary is slowly diminishing as more private
players are entering in public service delivery such as education, healthcare, training for job seekers,
elderly care and home care, waste management etc. This happens through contracting of private
companies, public private partnerships among other means.
In light of these developments, there has also been a convergence of values between the two sectors,
which can be understood from the following:
• For private sector, the evolving corporate governance norms demand social orientation, sustainable
business models, public accountability etc. Many companies are undertaking corporate social
responsibility projects. For example, e-Choupal project by ITC to empower farmers, investment by
TATA group in education and environmental projects etc.
• For public sector companies, the Government has taken the route of disinvestment for loss making
companies. Also, many public companies are facing competition from private sector companies and
hence there is an ever-growing pressure to improve their output and profitability. Because of these
factors public companies are also being increasingly guided by market principles such as efficiency,
effectiveness, productivity, and consumer satisfaction.
Though there has been a convergence of values, the need is to ensure that the ongoing process of
blurring of public-private distinction does not undermine the welfare goals of public sector.
Also, a greater regulatory oversight of public projects where private players are involved is required to
ensure transparency and accountability. The country can prosper sustainably only when best practices
and best values of both public and private sectors are effectively utilized by each other.

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1. (b) Giving examples of some social ills plaguing the society, discuss how social persuasion can be an
effective technique to overcome them. (10)
Approach:
• Briefly explain social persuasion.
• Mentioning few social skills, discuss how social persuasion can be an effective technique to
overcome them.
Answer:
Social persuasion is a process by which communicators try to convince other people to change their
attitude or behaviour regarding an issue through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free
choice.
Social persuasion aims to transform people's belief system in such a way that the desired behaviour
arises from new deeply held convictions. Therefore, it can be effectively used to overcome social ills and
may have an edge over other means like instilling fear about penalties for non-compliance, tapping into
people's eagerness to maximise financial gains, self-regulation, etc.
Social persuasion to counter social ills:
• Social disharmony: Religious and caste tensions can be triggered by fake news, perceived threat to
the religious or caste identity etc. The government can use social persuasion through speeches,
interviews etc. to preach unity and prevent further discord and disharmony.
• Drug abuse: Peer pressure and media glorification can influence the youth to take up drugs.
However, studies have revealed that pictorial warnings that bring out immediate health benefits of
quitting smoking can create a positive attitude towards quitting. Additionally, dissemination of
information about harmful effects of smoking through awareness campaigns by health professionals,
NGOs etc. can bring positive change in the life of drug addicts.
• Patriarchal attitude: The patriarchal attitude prevalent in society imposes restrictions on growth of
personality of women. Gender stereotyped picturization of women in cinema, advertisements, social
media etc. also has a persuading effect, which shapes attitude and behaviour towards gender
inequality. However, social persuasion by celebrities, in popularising schemes like ‘Beti Bachao Beti
Padhao’, can be effective in creating awareness, sensitizing the general public and building
consciousness regarding problems related to women.
• Radicalization among the youth: Terrorist organizations like the ISIS have used social media as a
platform to persuade the youth to join its ranks. The same medium can be used to uncover the
propaganda of such terrorist organizations, de-radicalizing and subduing religious fundamentalism
and popularising liberal and secular ideology.
• Sanitation: The object of persuasion is to create a mind-set, which suggests that toilet is a felt need.
Social and digital media platforms assist in spreading awareness about sanitation and hygiene thus
strengthening initiatives such as the ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’. Persuasion through cinema like “Toilet
- ek premkatha” also assist in removing the taboo associated with building and using toilets in one’s
premises especially in rural areas.
Social persuasion is an effective way to influence the behaviour and attitude of a large number of
people. However, people also need to be vigilant regarding the content of the message, its source and its
intended consequences, at the same time.

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2. The grievance redressal mechanism is the gauge to measure efficiency and effectiveness as it provides
important feedback on the working of the administration. In this context, answer the following
questions:
(a) Identify the issues, which have created barriers for a responsive redressal mechanism. (10)
(b) What steps should be taken by the government for increasing the effectiveness of grievance
redressal mechanism? (10)
Approach:
• Introduce the answer with the importance of grievance redressal mechanism, in brief.
• Elaborate the barriers thwarting success of a responsive and effective grievance redressal.
• Elaborate the focus areas for establishing an effective grievance redressal mechanism.
Answer:
Grievance redressal mechanism is a part and parcel of any administrative setup. No administration can
become truly accountable, responsive and user-friendly unless it has established an efficient and
effective grievance redressal mechanism. In other words, a systemic grievance redressal mechanism
facilitates citizen centric governance. As a result, various initiatives such as Samadhan online by MP
government, CPGRAMS, Jan Sunwais by District Collectors etc. have been taken to institutionalize it.
(a) Issues, which have created barriers for a responsive redressal mechanism
• Issues in administration: Various issues such as slackness in administration, inherent inertia,
absence of incentives, lack of proper authority and accountability make the redressal system less
responsive.
• Archaic laws: Rules, regulations, instructions, which are out of context with contemporary
scenario hamper effective redressal.
• Lack of follow-up of decisions taken: Lack of follow-up leads to continuous grievances.
• Jurisdictional issues: Many grievances listed on portals of the Central Government are related to
the state matters and vice versa. Such grievances are simply disposed off and not completely
redressed.
• Ineffective implementation: Despite enactment of many well-intentioned laws, legislations such
as Right to Services Act or Citizen Charters are not able to redress people’s grievances effectively
due to their half-hearted implementation.
• Work culture: Poor work quality, non-accountability in everyday performance of functions,
“chalta hai” attitude of permanent and political executive also make redressal systems less
responsive.
• Tardy delivery mechanisms hamper redressal capabilities of institutions. Recognizing this flaw,
recently in one such instance, MP High Court had to form a special bench in order to facilitate
grievance redressal authorities in tribal areas.
• Low awareness among people about various grievance redressal systems in place.
• Delay in appointment of ombudsman such as Lokayukta and Lokpal in several states, such as
recently seen in the case of Odisha.
All these factors result in delays in redressing a grievance so much so that on an average six months
is taken to redress a grievance.
(b) Steps required to be taken by the government for an effective grievance redressal mechanism
• Identification of areas for special attention / problem areas: There should be regular review of
areas susceptible to corruption and/or grievance generation and work audit as well as social
audit in areas of very high public interface.
• Effective implementation of Citizen’s Charters: It should include disclosure of time norms for
providing various services to the citizens/clients and details of all levels of grievance redressal
machinery that may be approached.
• Setting up Information & Facilitation Counters on a regular basis / standing mechanism: These
counters should involve members from civil society in their functioning to make them citizen-
friendly and effective.

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• Decentralisation with adequate supervision: Mechanisms for grievance redressal must be
created at appropriate levels so that access, effectiveness and jurisdictional entanglement issues
are addressed appropriately.
• Prompt redressal of grievances: Acknowledgement through a prompt interim reply and time
bound redressal of the grievance must be ensured.
• Awareness generation and modernization to facilitate redressal of grievances promptly. Issue
booklets/pamphlets about the schemes/services available to the public indicating the procedure
and the right authority to be contacted.
• Improving accountability: Regular meetings and performance reviews to ensure more
accountability and transparency are further required.
By undertaking the above multi-pronged strategy, the government would be able to provide hassle-
free public services to the citizens and lessen the number of grievances lying in government domain.

3. Given below are two statements. Bring out what you understand by them and discuss their relevance
in the present context.
(a) "I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not
he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear"- Nelson Mandela (10)
Approach:
• Elaborate and explain the given statement.
• Mention the significance of courage in personal and public life.
• Give a suitable conclusion.
Answer:
Courage is not simply absence of fear. It is the virtue of taking righteous decision or action in the face of
fear. It is rightly said that courage is ‘being terrified but going ahead and doing what must be done’.
Fear is something that we all have struggled with at some point in our lives - fear of expressing your
honest opinion on something, fear of pursuing your dreams etc. The one who feels no fear is a fool and
the one who lets fear rule him is a coward.
In the recent Me Too movement, ordinary citizens (victims) raised their voice against high and mighty
individuals. It takes immense courage to challenge persons occupying powerful positions and seek
justice.
The life of Nelson Mandela is testimony to such courageous acts. He stood for a justified cause of ending
apartheid. He remained undeterred even in the face of discrimination and threat to his own life.
Relevance in the present context, particularly in public service and public life
• Thriving in adversity: Courage is to stand for a justified cause, even in the face of adversity. It is sine
qua non for good governance and efficient public administration. A civil servant should not yield to
unreasonable demands by public officials, elected members of legislatures, other representatives of
people etc. They also need to exercise courage while providing frank, independent and unbiased
advice to the executive.
• Self-belief and commitment to social cause or cause that the state stands for: Only courageous
mind can truly stay committed to the cause of oppressed and deprived. Such state of mind can be
attained when a person has eternal belief in his cause and purpose for life. This instills sentiments of
compassion and empathy for a bureaucrat. But one of the most important elements of courage is to
continue doing what one believes in. To persevere for justified cause is important for individual self,
society and nation at large.
Mandela’s 27-year long struggle in prison and his tenure as the first-ever black President symbolize the
importance of self-belief and courage of conviction. This is a lesson civil servants of today can take while
working for vulnerable and oppressed sections of the society.

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3. (b) "Not everybody can be famous, but everybody can be great because greatness is determined by
service"- Martin Luther King. (10)
Approach:
• Briefly discuss the significance of service in this context.
• Mention your own understanding of the quote.
• Highlight the relevance of quote in the present context.
• Give a suitable conclusion.
Answer:
Service in this context means ‘Service to others or the mankind’. Serving other makes a person look
beyond self. Service to other leads to selflessness. It means doing something for someone else without
expecting any reward or gain. Making a difference in their lives.
However, it is possible only when a person’s heart and soul is full of grace and love. Otherwise, it will be
merely acting for the purpose of gain. The life of Martin Luther King was dedicated for the well-being
and upliftment of others. He was dedicated to serving others and end racial inequality in the USA.
However not everyone involved in the service of others are recognized by others. They remain unsung
hero. It is the spirit to serve humanity and alleviate the sufferings of others without any expectation
from society makes them great.
We have multiple examples of individuals who have tirelessly toiled for years without yearning for
acknowledgement and recognition.
• Mr. Karimul Haq, popularly known as ‘Bike-Ambulance Dada’, turned his two-wheeler into an
“ambulance” to hospitalize patients in remote areas of West Bengal. He has saved more 3500 lives
of road accident victims and emergency patients.
• Saalumarada Thimmakka, a 106 years old environmentalist, has planted and nurtured more than
8000 plants in last 80 years.
Recently both of them were awarded Padma Shri. They acted without desire for recognition or
publicity. They had an inherent urge to remove sufferings from others life which encouraged them to
work relentlessly. On the other hand, there are instances of certain activists and NGOs, which became
famous for reasons other than service to others.
Keeping this in mind, a civil servant should always yearn to serve others in best of their capabilities,
without longing for fame. This also assumes importance given that anonymity is a founda tional value for
civil servants. In case they are tempted to gain individual publicity, they should remind themselves of
Mahatma Gandhi who rightly quoted that “the best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service
of others.

4. (a) Explain why superstitious beliefs and practices abound in India. In this context, discuss the
importance of inculcating scientific temper to remove superstitions. (10)
Approach:
• Give brief introduction regarding what is superstition.
• Give various reasons for the prevalence of superstition in India
• List the importance of inculcating scientific temper.
Answer:
Superstition refers to any belief or practice, which is explained by supernatural causality, and is not
based on human reason or scientific knowledge.
India has been a land of traditions, beliefs and various dogmas continuing over centuries, many of which
have remained unquestioned for very long.

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Various reasons for prevalence of superstition in India are as following:
• Most of the superstitions have their origin and are still partly sustained by illiteracy and ignorance
owing to lack of rational belief.
• Rigid religious and family structures giving importance to blind faith and beliefs over scientific
rationale have encouraged the attitude of unquestioned reverence and obedience towards the
beliefs imparted.
• Superstitious beliefs are strengthened by a confirmation bias (giving importance to facts that agree
with our preconceptions and ignoring others).
• Elaborate literature on mythologies & claims of miracles also promote blind cult following in India.
• Intolerance towards different opinions and culture of aggression towards progressive thinking in
the name of preservation of culture.
• Continuation of practices which are irrational and unscientific by the establishment, especially in
religious and cultural spheres.
As a result, development of scientific temper is extremely important to overcome existing superstitious
beliefs and inculcate logical and critical thinking in Indian psyche. It has been listed as a fundamental
duty under article 51 A in the Indian Constitution owing to its importance to fight the evil of
superstition.
Scientific temper is important because:
• It develops the spirit of enquiry, a culture of reason and critical and rational thinking, which would
challenge confirmatory attitude among the people. This helps us make better decisions and
provides a rational outlook towards problems.
• It would question the socially constructed hierarchies thus, also the belief system generated by
those hierarchies in the society. This will help eradicate various social evils and social divisions on
the basis of birth.
• Scientific temper will also take away the fears in the minds of the people by answering the much-
feared phenomenon through scientific logic rather than through miracles and the unknown.
• Scientific temper is extremely important to push both the individuals and the country towards path
of progress. People will like to take the matters in their own hands rather than leave it to destiny.
Hence scientific temper is necessary to not only bring the nation out of the slumber of the evil of
superstition but also push India on the path of sustainable progress.

4. (b) Simply labelling people as liberal or conservative is to miss the point that an individual can have
divergent views on different issues. Explain with examples. (10)
Approach:
• Start the answer by your understanding of terms ‘liberal’ and ‘conservative’
• Explain how is labelling a person different from labelling an idea or attitude towards one particular
object/thing. Substantiate with various examples.
Answer:
Different people have different and diverging opinions on a number of issues. People usually label others
as liberal or conservative based on their own connotation of what a liberal or a conservative is. This
process of value judgement is riddled with inconsistencies. Apart from stereotyping the person, this
labelling misses the point that even an individual can have ‘liberal’ views on one issue and ‘conservative’
on another.
The etymological difference and the manner in which their meanings have evolved helps explain the
inconsistency in labelling.
A ‘Conservative’ person is one who is averse to change and would like to preserve the status-quo. A
‘liberal’ is one who favours change, often at a rapid pace. For example, In the 17 th-18th century, when
this distinction emerged, those who wanted to preserve the existing system and hierarchy were called as
conservatives; Liberals wanted to abolish the system and especially the King’s control over economy.
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They advocated free market philosophy (laissez-faire), minimum government intervention and a more
equal and exploitation free society.
In modern times, the definition remains the same but the status-quo has changed. Usually, those who
benefit from the system would want to preserve it that way. The system of free markets would be the
preferable choice of those who benefitted from it whereas a liberal may want to change it. Change can
be in the form of more state-led economy (socialists/communists), in form of lesser state intervention
but more regulation, in form of state intervention for building capacity of people to exercise free-will,
etc. All these are different shades of liberalism.
A person can have liberal attitude for one object/aspect and conservative for another. For example, a
person supporting tax increases on rich shows opposition to currently held position and hence can be
said to have a liberal attitude. The same person can support death penalty and hence be labelled as
conservative. Labelling a person ‘liberal’ or ‘conservative’ is crude stereotyping and simplification of
complex human personality.
Same can be seen in matters of religious attitude of a person. Simplistically, a religiously orthodox
person would be averse to change and a liberal may want to change it altogether. However, a person
can have strong religious beliefs and at the same time hold viewpoints, which others believe to be
conventionally liberal. For example, a devout Muslim can very well hold the view that Hijab is a symbol
of oppression and oppose its compulsion as a dress code. Similarly, a non-Muslim can also have views
opposing the Hijab but at the same time be intolerant to equivalent freedom to other women. Further, a
person who is ‘liberal’ in religious matters can at the same time have a conservative attitude towards
Hijab. She/he may not support it openly but support those who want to make it compulsory. Moreover,
a seemingly ‘liberal’ country may ban the use of Hijab under the garb of national security whereas there
might be a hidden message to people of foreign culture that they are not welcome.
Even studies have established the existence of contradictory attitudes in people. In the US, people who
call themselves conservatives take a decidedly liberal position on issues such as abortion, death penalty
etc. Similarly, a survey conducted by the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS) among the
youth in India revealed that the youth who would otherwise prescribe to a liberal identity were less
accepting of issues such as consumption of beef and homosexuality as a personal choice.
Most of the people carry double helix of modernity and tradition. People may be liberal in some aspects
and conservative in others.
A good example from public life is Mahatma Gandhi On the one hand, he had a liberal attitude towards
inclusion of women and men equally in all spheres such as economic, political etc., while on the other
hand, he was an ardent believer in the caste system.
This is in consonance with the principle of Anekantavada, which states that the ultimate truth and
reality are complex and can have multiple aspects. Further, norms of being a liberal and a conservative
may also change with time. Socio-political conditions themselves get moulded by various factors such as
socialisation, dissemination of information, social media etc., and thus, it is impossible to label a person,
what can at best be labelled is a person’s attitude towards a particular issue.

5 (a) Anti-corruption measures need focus on both demand as well as supply side of corruption. Discuss
in the light of prevalence of ‘collusive corruption’ in India. (10)
Approach:
• Define collusive corruption along with examples from India.
• Discuss how two-sided understanding of corruption is required to address this menace.
• Give brief conclusion with examples of some recent steps taken by government in this regard.
Answer:
Corruption is fundamentally an abuse of power. One may be forced to bribe (coercive) or may willingly
bribe (collusive), but in both cases, the abuse of conferred power takes place. In today’s times of
increased vigilance through multiple channels, officials usually do not take recourse to doing things,
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which are wrong/illegal. Bribery for doing something blatantly wrong has high chances of being caught.
Bribery for performing conferred duty favours both giver and taker and has less chances of being caught.
Collusive corruption is the kind of corruption in which the parties involved in the act have a prior
agreement between themselves thereby making corruption a voluntary act. A policeman forcibly asking
for a bribe to register an FIR is coercive corruption, a person willingly offering bribe to a policeman to be
lenient in investigation is collusive corruption. Cases such as allocation of spectrum (2G case) are also
example of collusive corruption. Bribery for changing the rules favouring one party allowed spectrum
allocation being done in a rule-based manner and it is because of their collusive nature and perhaps no
violation of letter of law that such cases are so difficult to prove.
Usually, the public discourse on corruption focuses on the demand side of the equation that is on public
officials who abuse their office for private gains. But, anti-corruption measures need focus on both
bribe-taker (demand side) and bribe-giver (supply side) as corruption is a two-way street implying the
voluntariness of both. Frequently, the supply side is given less attention. Those who pay bribes are often
depicted as innocent parties, victims of extortionary practices of wily public servant and are dealt with
softly.
Thus, while anti-corruption measures focus on for demand side corruption through following:
• Ensuring public service ethics such as honesty, integrity and probity at the time of recruitment as
well as training for maintaining public trust in public institutions.
• Reducing discretion with public servants as well as simplifying government procedures so that
people would not be required to pay for speedy services.
• Penalising corrupt behavior through initiating disciplinary measures internally as well as taking help
of law enforcement agencies for investigating and prosecuting misconduct in the public service.
It also needs to address supply side corruption and reduce the willingness of the citizens to pay the
premium to access public service at their convenience through measures such as:
• Substantially reduce the costs of acting lawfully and increasing the costs of acting unlawfully is the
first step in encouraging a law-abiding, corruption reducing behavior.
• At the same time, merely high costs of acting unlawfully is not a sufficient condition. The vigilance
system has to be made capable to detect such behavior. If people believe there are little chances of
being caught, they will continue to consider corruption as a means to get things done their way.
• Effective system of social sanctions to incentivize clean firms and penalize firms indulging in
collusive bribery.
• Improving disclosure and transparency in financial as well as other matters of a corporate to
provide for a framework that discourages bribery
Recently the law on corruption in India has included the bribe giver too. Prevention of Corruption
amendment Act makes giving of bribe also a punishable offence. It also has provisions for a person to
report corruption within seven days if forced to pay the bribe.
Further, legislative measures such as strengthening implementation of, implementing Right to Services
and Public Procurement bills to constrain the abuse of government discretion, responsibility of board of
directors for anybody from company involved in bribing, time bound trial of corruption cases,
whistleblower protection Act etc. should also be undertaken to eliminate corruption on both sides.

5. (b) Identify the various traits of a healthy work culture for a bureaucracy in a modern society. Also,
suggest ways in which a healthy work culture can be created in India to meet the objectives of good-
governance. (10)
Approach:
• Introduce by explaining in brief what work culture is.
• Highlight various traits of a healthy work culture for a bureaucracy in a modern society.
• Suggest ways to create a healthy work culture to meet the objectives of good-governance.
• Conclude on the basis of the above points on a positive note.

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Answer:
Work culture refers to the way in which rules/regulations, policies, traditions/rituals, shared values,
beliefs and practices contribute to the unique social and psychological environment in an organization. It
not only guides the way employees interact with each other and the organization but also directs the
functioning of the organization.
Various traits of a healthy work culture for bureaucracy in a modern society:
• Administrative hierarchy: There should be a clear-cut division of work wherein each level assigns
responsibilities to the level beneath it, while each lower level is accountable to the level above for
fulfilling those assignments.
• Rules and Procedures: Decisions taken by bureaucrats should be governed by a consistent system of
rules, regulations and procedures, which are written, rational and impersonal.
• Communication and consultation: Bureaucratic structure should ensure free flow of information
among all departments and levels in the organization horizontally as well as vertically on a regular
basis.
• Process simplification: By bringing about regular changes in forms, process and statutes, healthy
work culture aims towards ensuring rationality and simplicity in day-to-day processes. For e.g.
adoption of web based single window clearance systems.
• Inclusiveness: Work culture should be able to inspire and motivate people coming from different
cultural backgrounds for achieving organization goals seamlessly through dedicated effort.
• Responsiveness on social media: Besides ensuring transparency, social media engagement helps
amplify government's work in the public domain, thus bringing governance closer to the people.
• E-bureaucracy: Bureaucratic work culture should be flexible enough to accommodate upcoming
digital technologies for improving efficiency and decision-making capabilities.
Ways to create a healthy work culture in government organizations in India:
• Ensure effective implementation of instruments like Citizen Charter to make administration more
citizen-centric.
• Increase adoption of information technology and rationalize the procedures to ensure speedy and
quality delivery of public services.
• Strengthen the internal accountability mechanism and enhance people’s participation to hold public
authorities accountable.
• Amend laws and rules to maintain an optimum balance between transparency and secrecy like the
Official Secrets Act, etc.
• Show zero tolerance against corruption by creating strong laws and independent anti-corruption
bodies like Lokpal and Lokayukta.
• Introduce changes in the training processes and enable public authorities to work in new ways.
• Eliminate political interference to ensure the neutrality of public officials.
• Provide adequate protection against misuse of legal instruments like RTI Act, SC/ST Atrocities Act,
etc.
The need of the hour is to create an enabling work environment for effective accountability and
performance, attract and retain talent, enhance and develop competencies and promote ethical work
environment, which would surely help in meeting the objectives of good-governance.

6. Citizen's charters can be both a stimulus and a means for government to raise the standards of Public
Service delivery. Discuss. (10)
Approach:
• Introduce by explaining the citizen charter and its objective in brief.
• Discuss how it helps as a stimulus and means for government to improve the standards of public
service delivery.
• Conclude on the basis of the above points on an optimistic note.

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https://t.me/visionpt3652019
Answer:
Citizen charter is a document that an organization publishes for public reference, and which provides
details about the nature, working, and functions of the organization. It incorporates the standards of
service, information about the choices and consultations, avenues of grievance redressal, the time
period for provision of various services, etc. that the citizens can expect from the organization. At the
same time, it also includes expectations of the organisation from the citizens for fulfilling the
commitment of the organisation.
Citizen’s charter as a stimulus:
The basic objective of citizen’s charter is to form a kind of contract between the service users and the
service providers. They are the clearest articulation of the need to focus on the experience of the public
service users, and for services to be responsive to the people using them. Consequently, they have a
long lasting impact on how the public services are viewed.
Citizen’s charters bring in the element of choice and competition in public service delivery. They bring a
paradigm shift by recognizing the entitlement of the citizens to the highest standards of service and
empowering them. The citizen-centric approach raises expectations, sets a pattern and encourages the
government to extend similar reforms across services and regions. Eventually, these reforms are
expected to translate into public service guarantees and universalization of minimum service
standards.
Citizen’s charter as a means:
It acts means for the government to raise the standards of public service delivery by:
• Setting clear standards of service along with a system for performance monitoring and appraisal.
• Mandating fair treatment, respect for the privacy and dignity, attention to the special needs of the
service users.
• Providing full information about the services, their cost and performance, clearly and effectively in
plain language.
• Encouraging involvement and consultation of present & potential service users in decision-making.
• Putting in place, an effective grievance redressal mechanism for quick and effective resolution of any
complaints the consumers may have.
• Mandating efficient use of resources to provide best value for taxpayers and users.
• Looking for ways to improve the services and facilities offered through innovation and planning.
Citizen’s Charter is a significant milestone in public service reform. If implemented in letter and spirit, it
will help strengthen the relationship between people and public service providers.

7. Attitude and behaviour are so closely interwoven that a change in one inevitably influences the other.
Explain the statement with examples. (10)
Approach:
• Introduce by giving definition of attitude and behaviour.
• Explain the effect of attitude on behaviour and vice versa.
• Bring out if there are any inconsistencies between attitude and behaviour.
• Give appropriate examples wherever necessary.
Answer:
Attitude is a feeling, belief, or opinion of approval or disapproval towards something. Behavior is an
action or reaction that occurs in response to an event or internal stimuli.
So, attitude is a predisposition to certain feelings while behavior is the expression of those feelings
through action or inaction.

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Attitude influence over behavior
It is expected that usually, attitudes towards things, places and objects guide human behavior. For
example, a person passionate towards a sport would be expected to take time out of even their hectic
schedule to play or watch it.
Similarly, negative attitudes prevent a person from doing certain things such as lack of faith in the
democratic institutions of a country or candidates fielded in elections may induce people to not vote.
Not just individual attitudes but societal attitudes also affect individual behavior. For e.g. predisposition
in favor of science subjects in society pushes many students towards taking these subjects even when
they have interest in certain Humanities subjects.
Behavior influence over attitude
Behavior of a person also determines attitude towards a person, place, thing, or an activity. For e.g. “role
playing” technique adopted in employer-employee relationship improvement is based on this principle
that when person himself plays the part, he realizes how his attitude is not right towards certain person
or job, which ultimately leads to change in attitude.
Individuals register an immediate and automatic reaction of "good" or "bad" towards everything they
encounter, even before they are aware of having formed an attitude. For instance, advertising, political
campaigns, social messages such as getting an insurance, quit smoking and other persuasive media
messages are all built on the premise that behavior follows attitude, and attitude can be influenced with
the right message delivered in the right way.
Similarly, at times individuals seek new experiences and practices and adapt new behaviors in order to
change their attitudes towards the world. This is particularly true for children who copy the actions of
others and, to a degree, build their attitudes and beliefs from this learned behavior.
Individual also changes his attitude as per change in his behavior towards an object. For e.g. a person
who dislikes liquor may change his attitude when he himself starts drinking even if it is due to peer
pressure.
Inconsistency between attitude & behavior:
Sometimes attitude and behaviour may be contradictory also. Flexibility of mental attitude that leads to
tolerance as well as hypocrisy are a result of this inconsistency. For instance:
A person may have negative attitude towards people of other religions but may deal with them perfectly
well while doing business transactions, such as a shopkeeper and customer.
A person opposing religious activities of one religion on liberal grounds whereas agreeing to regressive
diktats of his/her own religion on grounds of freedom. In such cases, pointing out inconsistencies
between behaviour and attitude can help redirect behavior to be in sync with attitude.

8. Emotional intelligence is an important parameter as one aspires to move up the ladder in a


competitive environment. Discuss. (10)
Approach:
• Introduce by explaining the meaning of Emotional Intelligence in brief.
• Give a brief overview of a competitive environment.
• Explain how EI acts as an important parameter as one aspires to move up the ladder in a competitive
environment.
Answer:
Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage one’s self as well as
other’s emotions. It helps to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others, overcome
challenges, decrease anti-social behaviour and defuse conflict. Its cornerstones include self-awareness,
self-management, social awareness and relationship management.

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In a competitive environment, such as rising up the hierarchy in an organisation, most people are at a
similar level of IQ and technical skills and have similar level of knowledge about work. The factor that
differentiates those who get through and those who don’t is their ability to get work done - by
themselves, by cooperation with peers or by managing their subordinates. At every position, it is how a
person manages himself and others (peers or seniors or subordinates) that forms the key trait that
determines effectiveness. As one grows up the hierarchy, competition increases and this effective
management of people plays more important role. Hence, the requirement of ‘Emotional Quotient’
component increases vis-a-vis ‘Intelligence Quotient’.
Taking the example of the school students and those preparing for competitive examinations who are
constantly stressed due to competitive merit system, rigorous academic curriculum and societal
expectations, several studies reflect that EI is strongly linked to academic performance, avoidance of risk
behaviour and life success among students. Further, it aids in self-awareness, self- regulation, optimal
decision-making, active listening, etc.
As per Goleman also, one needs above-average intelligence to master technical knowledge but once
people enter the workforce, IQ and technical skills are often at par among those on the rise. In this
context, EI becomes an important parameter as one aspires to move up the ladder in a competitive
environment due to the following reasons:
• Stress management: EI helps in development of a strong mental attitude to cope under pressure.
• Valuable skills: People with high EI quotients are empathetic, easy to approach, good listeners and
have good communication skills. Willingness to acquire these skills plays an important part in
progress.
• Conflict resolution: They resolve conflicts through open and honest dialogue with colleagues.
• Increase productivity: Their ability to handle pressure improves business outcomes and their
adaptability and tact improve workplace collaboration and team performance.
• Navigating complex environment: With globalization, Emotional Intelligence is more significant than
ever as the environment is getting more cross-cultural and global, thus, increasing the complexity of
interactions of emotions and how they are expressed. Cultural sensitivity becomes important aspect.
Thus, EI is increasingly being recognized as an important parameter by organizations as high cost of
employee turnover, demands for higher profitability, business transformation, etc. require leaders who
possess EI competencies.

9. Rapid growth of information and communication technology, with all its benefits, has associated risks
and far-reaching consequences. The government has constituted a committee to frame guidelines for
an inclusive and safe cyberspace in India. The committee has solicited public opinion in this regard. As
a concerned citizen, you have to give your suggestions on the following themes:
(a) Why do you think some people or a set of people are more vulnerable to cyber threats with special
emphasis on cyber-bullying.
(b) Do you think the experiences and exposure in cyberspace are an important influence in a person's
attitude and behaviour?
(c) What reasonable restrictions can be applied to make cyberspace more safe and friendly to all
citizens? (20)
Approach:
• Briefly define benefits and risks posed by ICT.
• State the groups/set of people who you think are vulnerable to cyber-threats especially cyber-
bullying with reasons.
• Discuss whether experiences and exposure in cyberspace are an important influence in a person's
attitude and behaviour.
• List reasonable restrictions that can be applied to make cyberspace more safe and friendly to all
citizens.

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Answer:
ICT has a significant impact on the economic, political and social dimensions of development. It has
enhanced economic activity, empowered individuals by ensuring their participation in decision-making
processes at various levels and exposed diversity of views. However global nature, speed, convenience
and anonymity offered by ICT is being misused to create numerous threats such as cyber-bullying, cyber-
grooming, hacking, pornography, radicalization, intimidation, breach of privacy, reputational loss,
identity theft etc.
a) Cyber-bullying which refers to use of internet or mobile technology to intentionally harass or bully
someone by sending rude, mean or hurtful messages, comments and images/videos. A cyber bully
can use text messages, email, social media platforms, web pages, chat rooms etc. to bully others.
While all ICT users are at risk of facing cyber threats, there are some social groups that are more
vulnerable to cyber threats like:
• Women: Cyber crimes against women are rooted in stereotypes about gender roles, sexuality
and sexual norms for women. Women are victims of cyber bullying that includes non-consensual
sharing of intimate images, unsolicited sending of sexual and pornographic images and other
forms of cyber bullying entailing sexualised behaviour.
• Children and teenagers: Due to their experimental mind-set and limited understanding of cyber
threats, they are particularly vulnerable to cyber threats like cyber bullying. Those with learning
and attention issues are at a greater risk. It may have physical, emotional and psychological
consequences and may lead to school dropout and depression.
• Youth: The youth are vulnerable to online radicalization, allurement to online high paying jobs
etc. A study in the Journal of Medical Internet Research revealed that children and young people
under the age of 25 who are victims of cyber-bullying are twice as likely to commit suicide.
• Celebrities: Celebrities especially female ones are targeted victims of body shaming, racial slurs,
stalking, cyber-bullying for their appearance, work, social life etc. Consequences include forceful
exit from social media, mental and psychological stress and even suicide in some instances.
Besides, late introduction to technology, information asymmetry and behavioural traits such as
unwillingness to use complex passwords etc makes the elderly and digitally illiterate sections of the
society are also increasingly vulnerable to cyber threats.
b) The development of services and products such as social networks, text messengers, gaming sites
etc. in the cyberspace affects attitude and behaviour by harbouring flow of both desirable and
undesirable things.
Such services have the ability to exert credible influential power on their users. For instance,
information provided to individuals over a group on social media is personalized, timely and usually
comes from a trusted/known source. People in such a closed group may share similar worldviews
and thus the information shared gains legitimacy. Thus, a form of ‘Groupthink’ can develop and
strongly influence the group’s perception of events and opinions (social, political, economic).
The emergence of online communities/groups have led to the normal process of information
verification (i.e. identifying reliable sources) being replaced by ‘network wisdom’ (i.e. wisdom of the
group network whose legitimacy is perceived to be higher). Radical groups and even political parties
use their innate flexibility to exploit situations, misrepresent and change perceptions. For instance,
circulation of morphed images related to violence against Muslims in Assam in 2014 when in fact
there had been no such instance.
The concept of “Digital bedroom” has pervaded the mind space of children; wherein childhood is
significantly mediated through the internet and social media and leads to increased isolation in real
life. Online games are known to normalise violent behaviour and specifically impact behaviour of
children.
c) Reasonable restrictions that can be applied to make cyberspace more safe and friendly
• Providing technological options to restrict access to social media sites to vulnerable groups like
children.

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• Restrictions on broadcasting fake/unverified news especially when law and order situation
warrants so.
• Strict compliance of anti-piracy laws and mandatory compliance audit of major social networking
sites.
• Cyber authorities should use the same medium to provide correct information and nip rumors in
the bud itself.
• Mandatory online content rating system to classify content with regard to suitability for
audiences in terms of issues such as sex, violence, substance abuse, profanity, impudence or
other types of mature content.

10. You are serving as the Public Health Officer in a district that is lagging behind in achieving the Open
Defecation Free (ODF) status. Even after ensuring adequate access to water and sanitation services,
their usage has not spread and the practice of open defecation continues in the district. Despite serious
extension efforts by the government, safe hygienic practices have not been adopted by the people. As
a result, various instances of bacteriological contamination and water-borne diseases have surfaced
up recently. In such a scenario:
(a) Examine the reasons behind low usage and adoption rates of built toilets in India?
(b) Highlighting the principles to be kept in mind while preparing an effective Information, Education
and Communication (IEC) strategy, design an action plan to address the problem. (20)
Approach:
• Briefly explain the case and mention the issues.
• Discuss the reasons for low use and adoption of toilets in India.
• Mentioning the principles to be considered while preparing an effective IEC strategy, devise an
action plan.
• Give a suitable conclusion.
Answer:
In the aforementioned case, the district is lagging behind in ODF status, despite provision for water and
sanitation. The low adoption of safe hygienic practices has resulted in incidence of water borne diseases
in the region. Thus, there is need for effective communication to change the behaviour of people in the
region.
Any intervention aimed at improving sanitation practices rests on 3 broad pillars:
• Providing and maintaining infrastructure
• Motivating people towards adoption
• Sustaining the usage.
The case study presents challenges on the last two fronts.
a) Reasons behind low usage and adoption rates of built toilets in India
• Perception of Pollution & Purity: Toilets inside the house are considered unhygienic and impure,
which disturbs the sanctity of the house.
• Socially Acceptable and Deeply Ingrained Custom: Open defecation has been acceptable for
generations and most have grown accustomed to it since their childhood. Motivation to use may
arise among other groups of people, but to bring in a change in elderly members is extremely
difficult.
• Poor Infrastructure: The built toilets often lack proper floor space, ventilation and lighting and
adequate water supply, which prompts users for defecating in the open.
• Lack of awareness about benefits of toilet usage and health impacts of open-defecation,
especially on children.
• Socializing is also another important factor contributing to low latrine use, especially among the
female population who remained confined to the four walls of the house.

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b) There is a need of an effective IEC strategy to promote and sustain hygienic behaviour among the
people. The IEC strategy should keep the following principles in mind:
• Participative and inclusive approach involving communities and grassroots organizations.
• Targeted interpersonal communication is the bed rock of any effective IEC strategy as it helps
mobilize people, talk and appraise people about open defecation practices.
• Acceptability: Messages should be designed with a strong emotional appeal that cuts across
linguistic and cultural groupings and does not breed misconceptions.
• Capacity building of all stakeholders across State, District, Block and Village level.
• Contextualizing the issues and making people understand the direct linkages of bacteriological
contamination and water-borne diseases with lack of safe hygeinic practices.
• Positive Reinforcement: Awarding successful families on various platforms and not
coercion/shaming should be the norm to ensure achieving ‘sustainability’ in sanitation.
• Effective monitoring and periodic evaluation (M&E) of activities using ICT tools to provide
evidence-based feedback to the IEC strategy.
With adoption of principles mentioned above, an action plan to increase usage of built toilets would
involve the following components:
• Building alliances with like-minded organizations and the community.
• Training community facilitators to improve the quality of motivators.
• IEC activities through different channels such as nukkad nataks, traditional fairs and festivals, local
radio for mass appeal etc.
• Role of Panchayats as the frontline of implementation till the adoption of sanitary practices
becomes a habit in village.
• Integrating sanitation awareness with school education can trigger behavioural changes in students
and making them agents of change.
• Continued IEC even post ODF status to avoid relapse and sustain the change.
• Convergence between various state departments at district level to devise a methodology to
capture toilet usage and develop an area-based strategy using the data.
• Financial incentives to ensure building of a sustainable ecosystem covering toilet construction, its
adoption as well as waste management activities.
Educating & demonstrating the ills of open-defecation on health is essential to bring about a cognitive
change in the attitude. The affective component should be targeted by ensuring that IEC focuses on use
of humour, elements of surprise, and appeal to human emotions – love for children and family
members, social status and esteem, which can leave a more lasting impact. Behaviour change can only
be sustained if collective action is the result of self-realization by the community of the adverse
consequences of the prevailing defecation practices.

11. You are the District Magistrate of a district that is known for making combustible substances such as
match boxes and fire crackers. As per the The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment
Act, 2016, employment of children in such hazardous activities is prohibited. In this regard,
government has also released a notification that owners of these manufacturing units need to report
on the profiles of their employees annually as child labour has been prevalent in these industries.
These manufacturing units, abiding by the directives of the government, publish such reports annually
and claim to have successfully put an end to employment of child labour. However, it has been
brought to your notice that these companies are taking advantage of loopholes in the law. They have
been outsourcing their hiring to independent contractors who engage families in the business. The
families have been continuing to use child labour to supplement their income and also keep the cost
of labour competitive so as to bag more such contracts and since they are not officially on the payroll
of the companies, they are absolved of the legal liabilities.
(a) Identify the ethical issues in this case.
(b) How would you approach the problem and what would be the main elements of your action? 20

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Approach:
• Introduce with a brief on the practice of child labour and its impact.
• Identify the ethical issues involved with this practice in the given case.
• Discuss ways to remedy the situation.
Answer:
Children contributing to family labour and enterprise is a phenomenon as old as the civilization. With
advent of formal education, technology and awareness towards means to progress, it was realized that
interests of the future generation lie in getting them educated, remaining healthy and acquiring skillset
necessary for advancement. It is an unfortunate reality that children are often forced to undertake work
that is physically, psychologically and morally damaging to them. India is still facing the problem of child
labour despite several proactive legislations and policies. Child labour is both a cause and consequence
of poverty. The children miss out on an opportunity to gain an education, further perpetuating
household poverty across generations. It is the duty of the state to ensure that no child is employed in
any hazardous form of employment, and that he/she is not deprived of an opportunity for a better
future.
a) Ethical Issues involved:
• Livelihood issue: In absence of means of sustenance, families, even if they realize the perils, still
go ahead with using their children to assist them in labour. In many cases, if not most, there is
ignorance about the rights and what is best for the child in such circumstances. Forcing a person
to not use help of the child may worsen the circumstances and increase the struggle for survival.
• Treats humanity as a means: It treats children as means to achieve economic goals, without
they being allowed to take decisions based on their free will, making the whole process
unethical. It hinders their development, potentially leading to lifelong physical or psychological
damage, loss of their dignity and self-confidence, and exposes them to anti-social behavior.
• Willful ignorance by manufacturers: Clever means to avoid any legal and moral responsibility.
• Effect on future generations: The environment they have been exposed to legitimizes the
similar treatment to their future generations.
Overlooking the responsibility of a company/institution towards the society as well as nation: The
benefits many companies and people get by capitalizing on child labor affect the long-term
development of the nation. Also, it does nothing for the family to break away from the cycle of
poverty.
b) In this case, stakeholders include:
• The children, whose rights are being infringed
• The family members of the children for whom the children are extra working hands contributing
to family income
• The firework companies
• The government which aims to eradicate child labour
Considering the issues with respect to each of the stakeholders, the main elements of the action would
include:
• Strict vigilance and regular inspection to check the engagement of the children in hazardous work.
An enquiry must be set up to establish the veracity and extent of the practice. The perpetrators,
middle men and the factory owners who are responsible of engaging the families and their children
in hazardous work must be identified and action taken against them Regulating sub-contractors
with the company: Sub-contractors work should also be regularized to check the misuse of loophole.
The contractors must be reprimanded for engaging such families without due diligence and required
legal action should be taken against them.
• Rehabilitation of children with regular follow-up and awareness among them: They should be
aware of their rights under the Child Labour Act as well as Right to Education Act. The children freed
from hazardous labour must be rehabilitated well with involvement of civil society groups, corporate
sector and local government.

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• At the same time, alternate means of livelihood where the labour of adult members of family could
be productively utilized should be provided or arranged for. Awareness in families about various skill
development programmes of government should be ensured.
• Educating families: The families engaging in such practices need to be made aware of legal
consequences of such practices, if they are not already.
• Special attention by schools towards preparing former child workers for mainstream education and
ensuring that they don’t drop out early. Vocational training should be encouraged amongst these
children, so that they can be shifted from such hazardous employment to decent work later.
Further, to uproot child labour, an enquiry should be established for further identifying any other
loopholes that companies may be taking advantage of and suggesting innovative measures to clean up
the supply chain at all levels. Also, the tolerance level towards this issue should be reduced to zero and
actions regarding this issue should depict the same as well.

12. You are working as a Block Development Officer (BDO) in a state and the Lok Sabha elections are
around the corner. Two months prior to the elections, a mega rally of a leader from the political party
ruling the state is being organized in the neighboring district. All BDOs have received an oral order
from the Chief Development Officer directing them to make sure that five buses full of people from
their block be sent to the rally. The only direction is to ensure maximum participation and make
suitable arrangements in pursuit of the same.
(a) As a civil servant, what values should guide your response in such a situation?
(b) Identify the various options that are available to you?
(c) What course of action would you choose and why? (20)
Approach:
• Briefly mention the facts of the case in the introduction.
• Discuss the values that would guide your actions as a civil servant.
• Mention the various options available to you.
• Discuss the option that you would choose. Give reasons for the same.
Answer:
The case involves the conflict of following direct order from a superior officer which seems more like a
political dictat vs. staying firm to the official duties and upholding foundational values of civil services.
Also, the order involves misuse of public office leading to undue advantage to a political party in the
election season.
Another point to note here is the oral nature of the order given to all BDOs. Public servants cannot
function on the basis of verbal or oral instructions as they undermine accountability.
a) Guiding Values
As a civil servant, following values would guide my response in such a situation:

Legal Responsibility: As a civil servant, I am obliged only to follow the legally mandated duties
assigned to me, rather than following all the orders.
• Political neutrality and Impartiality in terms of no special favour towards any political party.
• Integrity and probity to not misappropriate public funds earmarked for development purpose.
• Courage of Conviction to refuse any unethical orders by my superior, with a firm conviction.
• Follow the Code of Conduct, which a civil servant should follow in case of any such dilemma.
• Commitment to my block and its people, which imposes faith in me as their development
officer. Any impropriety on my behalf would be a direct attack on that faith.
b) Under these conditions, following options would be available to me:
• Refuse to comply with the order in a polite and firm manner.
o Because it is not within the mandate of my duty to provide political favors.
o It will ensure that undemocratic practices are avoided. Also, the public office will be saved
from political misuse.
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o However, my actions might cause discontent amongst the superiors. This might hamper my
career prospects.
• Facilitate the arrangements but do not use any funds from public office.
o This might entail using informal networks to facilitate the event. For e.g. arranging for the
buses but not in official capacity. This would mean that orders from superior officers are
followed while not compromising with the public service values.
o However, Service Rules specifically requires that all orders from superior officers shall
ordinarily be in writing. Recording of instructions and directions is necessary for fixing
responsibility and ensuring accountability in the functioning of civil servants and to uphold
institutional integrity.
o Also, acting on such orders albeit informally, might be seen as taking political sides and
undermining value of political neutrality of the service.
• Seek confirmation of the directions in writing from the CDO
o This may be seen as undermining the orders of a superior officer. This might also hamper my
career prospects.
o At the same time, Service Rules, Supreme Court and government directions have highlighted
the necessity of recording instructions and directions by public servants.
o In fact, they specifically call for approaching the appropriate authorities in case the orders
from superior authorities are not in accordance with the norms, rules, regulations or
procedures.
c) Course of action to be taken
Among the above options, I would follow the course of third option, which seems to be the most
appropriate in the given scenario. If the CDO still persists with its stand and fails to confirm the
direction in writing, I would then approach the appropriate authorities. If as BDO, I am acting on
oral directions or dictation of anybody, I will be taking a risk, because later I cannot take the
stand that the decision was in fact not my own, but taken on the direction of the superior
officer.
I will also talk to my fellow BDOs about the oral order and would try and convince them as well
to stand upto such oral directions, which undermine the service values.
This course of action is also in line with civil services conduct rules, which specifically debars
Government servants from association with any political party or organization as well as taking
part in or assisting in any other manner in political movement or activity. Thus, it is important
that bureaucracy must not be used to meet narrow political objectives and political parties
should self-regulate them to uphold the sanctity of democratic election process.

13. You are serving as a District Magistrate in a district, which is prone to recurrent droughts. The issue of
scarcity of water is aggravating year by year. Even during the years of high rainfall, the district has
witnessed severe shortage of water for agriculture purposes, mainly due to cultivation of water
guzzling crops. It is evident that water scarcity is one of the main reasons for backwardness of the
district. Recognising this, the state government decided to withdraw some incentives given for
cultivation of such crops and incentivise a cropping pattern more suitable to the agro-climatic
conditions of this region. However, anticipating worsening of their economic condition in such times,
the farmers have taken to protesting on the streets. Despite such a well-intentioned move by the
government, the farmers feel that response of the state administration has been anti-farmer and
cruel.
Given the situation, answer the following questions:
(a) Do you think there is a real divergence between interests of the farmers of this district and the
state?
(b) What immediate steps should you advocate in the interests of farmers of the district? (20)

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Approach:
• Introduce by highlighting the gist of the given case study.
• Mention the various key stakeholders involved in the above case study.
• Bring out the ethical dilemmas involved in the above case study.
• Suggest short term and long-term measures to solve the above issues.
• Conclude on an optimistic note.
Answer:
India being a monsoon dependent agriculture based economy, situations like droughts, farmer distress,
social unrest and economic backwardness arising from the same are frequent challenges faced by the
administration due to the vagaries of the monsoon.
The key stakeholders involved in the case are: The District Magistrate, farmers in the district, banking
institutions, local residents, businesses dependent on agricultural produce, state government and the
environment.
a) In the given case study, water scarcity is an issue that has been progressively aggravating causing
distress to the farmers. Adding to it, the state government has decided to withdraw the incentives
given to farmers for a particular crop, which is being perceived as anti-farmer.

The state, as the embodiment of people’s will, is by default expected to take decisions in the best
interest of people. As such, there can be no conflict in interests of the state and farmers. The conflict
is more perceptual than real. It is perceptual because of immediacy in farmer’s interest and the long-
term view in the state’s interest.
In the immediate term, the farmers would not want to switch over to any other crop, which may be
less economically rewarding. The state on the other hand, would be concerned with interests of all
the people in the district - not just farmers who are growing that water-guzzling crop. Since
consumption of water by agriculture is highest, the remaining population is worse-off because of
decisions taken by such farmers. The farmers themselves are worse-off in the long run because of
volatility and decreasing returns to scale. Hence, the step is taken by the state for the greater
welfare of the farmers themselves. The decision might not be popular but is more equitable and
progressive because of its vision and foresight.
The Government’s decision in this case is rightly guided by ‘sustainable values’ as against ‘situational
values’. In long run, it will ensure that the cropping pattern, which is more suitable to the agro-
climatic conditions of this region, is followed. Encouraging sustainable agriculture practices will not
only support farmers’ income for a longer duration, but also ensure welfare of the general public
and the environment.
b) The decision taken by the government is well thought out but probably not as well
communicated. The immediate public interest lies in controlling the protests, ensuring food and
water security, and as soon as possible, shifting the agriculture pattern of the district to one
which is more agro-climatically suitable. With these objectives, following measures can be
undertaken:
• Ensure that supply of food and water during such times is adequate to meet the
requirement of people. Help from neighbouring districts, as well Central government would
be sought immediately.
• Water arrangements even for protestors: It is their right to protest and the state’s duty to
ensure that no one dies of hunger or thirst.
• Take all measures to calm down the protesting farmers and communicate government’s
plans and proposals effectively. At the same time, any miscreants who try to make the
protest violent will be dealt swiftly.
• Drawing out a detailed plan based on the ultimate objective of shifting the agriculture
pattern and the acceptable demands of the farmers. This plan would be made with
involvement of farmer leaders so that it is more acceptable.

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• Assuring farmers of every possible government support regarding sowing, cultivation,
harvesting, insurance, marketing and sale of their produce.
• Extending collaboration with agricultural scientists, Krishi Vigyan Kendras to disseminate
information around ways to ensure high productivity, efficient use of resources etc.
In the long run, the administration would have to become more transparent and involve all stakeholders
before taking a decision so that it has greater acceptability.
The aforementioned measures will ensure that the issues faced by them are handled in an effective way
resulting in not only their well being but also of the environment as well.

14. Many Indian cities are facing a major problem of management of household waste. Huge volume of
wastes have meant that landfill sites are facing the problem of overcapacity. On the other hand, the
waste-to-energy plants constructed to solve the problem are also facing flak due to their inefficiency
and release of poisonous pollutants. The manner of waste disposal by people is identified as one of the
main reasons behind this problem. The government has notified rules regarding disposal, collection
and treatment of waste and has initiated numerous awareness campaigns in the past. Still, the
problem does not seem to be getting under control. Given such a situation, answer the following
questions:
(a) What do you think is the reason behind the apathy of people towards issues like waste disposal
that affect the larger interests of society in general?
(b) Identify the stakeholders and the significance of their involvement in addressing the issue. (20)
Approach:
• Briefly introduce the case and discuss the issues raised in the case study.
• Mention the reasons behind the unwillingness of the citizens towards waste disposal.
• Identify the stakeholders in this issue and analyse the significance of their participation in this
regard.
• Conclude on the basis of the above points on an optimistic note.
Answer:
The given case depicts the issue of waste disposal and management in urban India, thus putting both
environment and the public health at risk.
Currently, the waste management strategies adopted by the government is marred with several
challenges such as overcapacity in case of landfills, inefficiency and release of poisonous pollutants in
case of waste to energy plants, etc. Even though the issue affects the whole society in general, still
people are apathetic towards the notified rules regarding disposal, collection and treatment of the
waste. This seems to be the major challenge among all the challenges faced in the current situation.
(a) Reasons behind apathy of people towards waste disposal are:
• Sociological factors: Traditionally, the waste disposal in India is done by persons belonging to
the lower castes, thereby tabooing waste disposal as a dirty job.
• Not in my backyard attitude: Most people keep their own backyard clean while compromising
sanitation of the public space. This is because they don’t realize that this might also have certain
direct or indirect effects on their lives.
• Lack of awareness and political will: General public is not sensitized about the health hazards
and other ill effects of improper waste disposal. Waste management has also not received
adequate political attention.
• Lack of seriousness attached with the issue: The fact that segregation mechanism has not been
incorporated downstream in the collection and transportation systems of the value chain, leaves
few incentives for the residents and collectors to follow procedures.
• Situational factors: Lack of convenience, information, availability of conditions for recycling and
presence of alternatives, thought of saving money by not disposing the waste properly, etc.
• Structural constraints: Lack of resources and relatively poor access to drop off sites lead to
improper waste disposal.
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(b)
Various stakeholders Significance of involving them
involved
General Public • Since they are the waste generators, the principles of refuse,
reduce, recycle and reuse must be emphasized beginning from this
level itself.
• Their involvement level would decide the effectiveness of further
process.
Rag pickers • They form an important link between the waste generators and
waste managers in India.
• They are ready-manpower to the tune of 6 million engaged directly
in waste management.
• Involving them formally would help in further institutionalising the
collection process.
Waste Treatment Plants • Utilizing them will result in scientific management of waste and
increase re-usage of
various by-products while processing wastes.
• Supporting them would ensure adoption of better and advanced
technologies.
• It can also supplement job creation in this sector.
Government • It can help in providing policy support and its implementation. For
eg: Solid Waste Management Rules, ensuring ban on plastic bags,
integrating waste management in city plans etc.
• It can also help in providing infrastructural support. For eg:
providing enough waste baskets coloured differently for degradable
and non-degradable waste.
Non-governmental • They can augment and supplement government efforts as well as
Organisations create awareness regarding the benefits of clean surroundings,
discouraging consumerism and ‘throw away culture’.
Health Professionals • They can also lend hand in increasing awareness regarding
sanitation in general as well as proper management of waste in
particular.
Media • It can encourage a sort of mass movement and bring sanitation into
vogue. For eg: social media movement named ‘plogging’ i.e. picking
up trash while jogging.
Role models like political • They can lead by an example, by starting campaigns and cleanliness
leaders, famous actors, drives, spreading awareness and bringing positive change in mind set
teachers/academia, etc. of people, etc. regarding the waste management.
For proper waste management in India, the behavioral change is as important as other policy initiatives.
In this regard, Social and Behavior Change Communication should form the core of whole strategy.
Initiatives like Swachh Bharat Mission, which focuses on collective behavioural change for achieving
cleanliness, is a positive step in this direction.

A initiative
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