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Chapter II


Foreign Literature

Rebecca J. Frey(2012) said that stress in humans results from interactions between persons and

their environment that are perceived as straining or exceeding their adaptive capacities and threatening

their well-being. The element of perception indicates that human stress responses reflect differences in

personality, as well as differences in physical strength or general health.

Risk factors for stress-related illnesses are a mix of personal, interpersonal, and social variables.

These factors include lack or loss of control over one's physical environment, and lack or loss of social

support networks. People who are dependent on others (e.g., children or the elderly) or who are socially

disadvantaged (because of race, gender, educational level, or similar factors) are at greater risk of

developing stress-related illnesses. Other risk factors include feelings of helplessness, hopelessness,

extreme fear or anger, and cynicism or distrust of others.

Selye explained that stress is non specific response of the body to pay demand made upon

it under ordinary circumstances, the body’s reaction to specific stimulus anticipate because of its

repetitive pattern. Therefore, a person experiences pain. When the body is warm, it perspires and

when it is used the body shivers. All human exhibits uniform response to stimulus because of

homeostasis. When response is erotic and does not uniform to the usual reaction expected from

the application of the stimulus, the body is said to be in stress.(“The Nature of Stress”
Walter Cannon(2014) in the meantime said that the human body reacts either positively

or negatively to a stress factor producing two kinds of possible reaction. When the human body

tries to flee from stress situation, negative reaction is exhibited. Positive reaction comes about

when the body makes the principle of homeostasis apply the body to overcome stressful situation

which is known as adaptation or coping. He advocated that while the concepts of stress is an

absolute fact, its presence and intensity reception are all relative in accordance with the physical

and psychological makeup of the individual. All people therefore, experience stress but the way

stress is present and is handled by each individual is unique for each other. A little difficulty is

hardly felt by another.

By understanding, we can more easily identify stress factors and their effects on who need or seek

healthcare. Each individual is experiencing stress, in her own particular manner. How the individual adopt

or fails to adopt depend on several factors: personality and conditional make past experiences dealing

with stress.

It is important to remember that stress syndrome can be both positive and negative. Any change

or alteration in the balance of life can create stress. We are all unique individual, we respond differently to

various stressors. Thus, it neither does not matter. Whether, it is positive or negative light or severe. What

matter is how we developed adoptive mechanism to cope with these stressors and can be translated as the

ability to withstand stress and create a life experiences that do not work against you. The implication of

stress theory is by being able to withstand stress and by coping with it. Diluting it when occurs and

eliminating it, you can actually affect your life. You are not programmed for premature aging. The fact is

you control your own health. The quote of the journal of American Medical Association says, “Nature

did not intend to grow old and ill, we were designed to die young in old age but free of disease”.
Schafer (2012) defined stress as the “arousal of mind and body in response on the

demand made upon them”. The concept of stress is important because it provides a way of

understanding the person as a human being who responds in totality (mind, body and spirit) to a

variety of changes that takes place in daily life.

Local Literature

According to Maraya de Jesus Chebat stress is here to stay. What people must do is to learn

more about its nature, sources and alternatives so that people used the energy positively and work in the

best possible way.

Orlandi stated, “Your ability to tolerate stressors depends on the number of stressors in your

life”. People who can handle stress use their coping mechanism, which is powerful tool to use, to analyze

events objectively and observe calmly. Gather information at the state of equilibrium, understanding of

what to produce the tension that helps you feel that the stress is alleviated.

Miranda specified that the most effective way of managing stress are through relation and

exercise which ironically are extremely aesthetical acts which involved dynamics of the mind and body.

People who are always stress survivors stay healthy throughout their lives. They consider stressful

situation opportunist for growth.

Foreign Studies

According to Ann MarrinerTomey et. Al,(2013)Stress is a part of every student's daily life.

Leaving home or commuting daily managing, finances, living with roommates, and juggling work,

classes, and relationships all contribute to the normal stress of being a student. In addition, it is not

uncommon for students to feel stressed and anxious about wasting time, meeting high standards, or being
lonely. Stress can also come from exciting or positive events. Falling in love, preparing to study abroad,

or buying a car can be just as stressful as less-happy events.

One of the most important things you can do is to recognize when your stress levels are building.

The amount of stress that you can tolerate before you become distressed varies with your life situation

and your age. A critical first step in coping with stress is taking stock of the stressors in your life.

Whenever stress is present, your body reacts. It acts like an alarm system that prepares your body

to depend yourself. A little stress is good. It helps you think faster and harder and makes you put that

extra bit of effort to meet in the challenge of life.

On the other hand, Lether and Woolfolk say that the relaxation is the very valuable stress

management technique that can soothe the emotional turmoil and suppress problematic psychological

arousal. While Martin and Lefcourt, suspected humor might be worthwhile coping response. Empirical

evidence to that effect has emerged only recent years. For them good humor functions as buffer to lessen

the negative impact of stress.

Local Studies

According to Calderon, people who experience a high level of stress for a long time and who

cope poorly with this stress may become irritable, socially withdrawn, and emotionally unstable. They

may also have difficulty concentrating and solving problems. Some people under intense and prolonged

stress may start to suffer from extreme anxiety, depression or other severe emotional problems.

Odrigo G. Ancheta says that, “Stress gives us energy to cope with the demanding activity of life.

It is true that stress is a normal constant part of our life because it involves changes, challenges and

emotions. Try to imagine life without stress. You would not have any challenges anything to affect your

emotions and anything new and exciting. It gives as energy because it activity involves physically and

emotionally. Stress might be considered as a problem because we often bear about stress in a negative
light that people may only associate’s bad experiences with stress. How you perceived and handled

stressors will determine whether the stress is good or bad for you. A situation that seems extremely

stressful to you could leave very calm to somebody.

Flores (2014) said that a person who is stressed typically less anxious thoughts and difficulty

concentrating or remembering. Stress can also change outward behaviors. Teeth clenching, hand

wringing, pacing, nail biting, and heavy breathing are common signs of stress. People also feel physically

different when they are stress. Butterflies in the stomach, cold hands and feet, dry mouth and increase

heart rate are all physiological effects of stress that we associate with the emotion of anxiety.

Justification of the Study

The past study discussed in this chapter has given the researcher the concept, theories and

principles that pave the way to the ideas of the present study and good starting point for the researcher in

assessing the stressors and the stress management performed by the respondents with regards to their

clinical duties.

The review has enabled the researchers to have a better understanding of ideas of different well

known writers which resulted to broadening the researchers own thinking in relation to the present study.