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MATHEMATICS

TARGET IIT JEE 2011


ARGET
XI (J & K)

BINOMIAL

CONTENTS

KEY- CONCEPTS ............................................................... Page-2


EXERCISE - I ..................................................................... Page-4
EXERCISE - II(A) .............................................................. Page-6
EXERCISE - II(B) .............................................................. Page-7
EXERCISE - III .................................................................. Page-7

ANSWER - KEY .................................................................. Page-8

SYLLABUS
CBSE: Histroy, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal's
triangle, general and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.
AIEEE: Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term, properties of
Binomial coefficients and simple applications.
JEE 2009: Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients.

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KEY CONCEPTS
BINOMIAL EXPONENTIAL & LOGARITHMIC SERIES
1. BINOMIAL THEOREM :
The formula by which any positive integral power of a binomial expression can be expanded in
the form of a series is known as BINOMIAL THEOREM .
If x , y ∈ R and n ∈ N, then ; n
(x + y) = C0 x + C1 x y + C2 x y + ..... + Cr x y + ..... + Cny =  nCr xn – r yr.
n n n n n−1 n n−2 2 n n−r r n n

This theorem can be proved by Induction . r 0

OBSERVATIONS :
(i) The number of terms in the expansion is (n + 1) i.e. one or more than the index .
(ii) The sum of the indices of x & y in each term is n .
(iii) The binomial coefficients of the terms nC0 , nC1 .... equidistant from the beginning and the end are equal.
2. IMPORTANT TERMS IN THE BINOMIAL EXPANSION ARE:
(i) General term (ii) Middle term
(iii) Term independent of x & (iv) Numerically greatest term
(i) The general term or the (r + 1)th term in the expansion of (x + y)n is given by : Tr+1 = nCr xn−r . yr
(ii) The middle term(s) is the expansion of (x + y)n is (are) :
(a) If n is even , there is only one middle term which is given by ;
T(n+2)/2 = nCn/2 . xn/2 . yn/2
(b) If n is odd , there are two middle terms which are :
T(n+1)/2 & T[(n+1)/2]+1
(iii) Term independent of x contains no x ; Hence find the value of r for which the exponent of x is zero.
(iv) To find the Numerically greatest term is the expansion of (1 + x)n , n ∈ N find
n
Tr 1 Cr x r n  r 1
 n r 1
 x . Put the absolute value of x & find the value of r Consistent with the
Tr C r 1x r
Tr 1
inequality > 1.
Tr
Note that the Numerically greatest term in the expansion of (1 − x)n , x > 0 , n ∈ N is the same
as the greatest term in (1 + x)n .
3. If  A B  n
= I + f, where I & n are positive integers, n being odd and 0 < f < 1, then
(I + f) . f = Kn where A − B2 = K > 0 & A − B < 1.
If n is an even integer, then (I + f) (1 − f) = Kn.
4. BINOMIAL COEFFICIENTS :
(i) C0 + C1 + C2 + ....... + Cn = 2n
(ii) C0 + C2 + C4 + ....... = C1 + C3 + C5 + ....... = 2n−1
(2 n) !
(iii) C0² + C1² + C2² + .... + Cn² = 2nCn =
n! n!
( 2n )!
(iv) C0.Cr + C1.Cr+1 + C2.Cr+2 + ... + Cn−r.Cn =
( n  r ) ( n  r )!
REMEMBER :
(i) (2n)! = 2n . n! [1. 3. 5 ...... (2n − 1)]

Binomial [2]
5. BINOMIAL THEOREM FOR NEGATIVE OR FRACTIONAL INDICES :
n ( n  1) 2 n ( n  1) ( n  2) 3
If n ∈ Q , then (1 + x)n = 1  n x  x  x ...... Provided | x | < 1.
2! 3!
Note:
(i) When the index n is a positive integer the number of terms in the expansion of
(1 + x)n is finite i.e. (n + 1) & the coefficient of successive terms are: nC0 , nC1 , nC2 , nC3 ..... nCn
(ii) When the index is other than a positive integer such as negative integer or fraction, the number of
terms in the expansion of (1 + x)n is infinite and the symbol nCr cannot be used to denote the
Coefficient of the general term .
(iii) Following expansion should be remembered (⏐x⏐ < 1).
(a) (1 + x)−1 = 1 − x + x2 − x3 + x4 − .... ∞ (b) (1 − x)−1 = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + x4 + .... ∞
(c) (1 + x)−2 = 1 − 2x + 3x2 − 4x3 + .... ∞ (d) (1 − x)−2 = 1 + 2x + 3x2 + 4x3 + ..... ∞
(iv) The expansions in ascending powers of x are only valid if x is ‘small’. If x is large i.e. | x | > 1 then
1
we may find it convinient to expand in powers of , which then will be small.
x
6. APPROXIMATIONS :
n (n  1) n ( n  1) (n  2) 3
(1 + x)n = 1 + nx + x² + x .....
1 .2 1 . 2 .3
If x < 1, the terms of the above expansion go on decreasing and if x be very small, a stage may be
reached when we may neglect the terms containing higher powers of x in the expansion. Thus, if x be
so small that its squares and higher powers may be neglected then (1 + x)n = 1 + nx, approximately.
This is an approximate value of (1 + x)n.
7. EXPONENTIAL SERIES:
x x2 x3
n
 1
(i) e =1+ 
x   ....... ; where x may be any real or complex & e = n   
Limit 1  
n
1! 2! 3!
x x2 2 x3 3
(ii) ax = 1 + ln a  ln a  ln a  ....... where a > 0
1! 2! 3!
Note:
1 1 1
(a) e=1+   .......
1! 2! 3!
(b) e is an irrational number lying between 2.7 & 2.8. Its value correct upto 10 places of decimal is
2.7182818284.
 1 1 1   1 1 1 
(c) e + e−1 = 2 1     .......  (d) e − e−1 = 2 1     ....... 
 2! 4! 6!   3! 5! 7! 
(e) Logarithms to the base ‘e’ are known as the Napierian system, so named after Napier, their inventor.
They are also called Natural Logarithm.
8. LOGARITHMIC SERIES :
x2 x3 x 4
(i) ln (1+ x) = x −    .......  where −1 < x ≤ 1
2 3 4
x2 x3 x4
(ii) ln (1− x) = − x −    .......  where −1 ≤ x < 1
2 3 4

(1  x ) x3 x5 
(iii) ln  x
=2   ......  ⏐x⏐ < 1
(1 x ) 3 5 
 
1 1 1
REMEMBER: (a) 1 −   +... ∞ = ln 2; (b) eln x = x; (c) ln2 = 0.693 ; (d) ln10 = 2.303
2 3 4
Binomial [3]
EXERCISE–I
11 11
 2 1   1 
Q.1 Find the coefficients : (i) in  a x  
x7 (ii) x−7 in  ax  2 
 bx   bx 
(iii) Find the relation between a & b , so that these coefficients are equal.
Q.2 If the coefficients of (2r + 4)th , (r − 2)th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)18 are equal , find r.
Q.3 If the coefficients of the rth, (r + 1)th & (r + 2)th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)14 are in AP, find r.
10
 x 3 1 
8
Q.4 Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (a)   2  (b)  x1 / 3  x 1 / 5 
 3 2x  2 
Q.5 If the coefficients of 2nd, 3rd & 4th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)2n are in AP, show that 2n² − 9n + 7 = 0.
8
 2 log 4 x  44 
Find the value of x for which the fourth term in the expansion,  5 5 5  is 336.
1
Q.6 
 log 5 3 2 x 1 7 
 5 
Q.7 Prove that the ratio of the coefficient of x in (1 − x²) & the term independent of x in
10 10

10
 2
x   is 1 : 32.
 x
Q.8 If a, b, c & d are the coefficients of any four consecutive terms in the expansion of (1 + x)n, n ∈ N,
a c 2b
prove that a b  cd  bc .
Q.9 Find the coefficient of xr in the expression of :
(x + 3)n−1 + (x + 3)n−2 (x + 2) + (x + 3)n−3 (x + 2)2 + ..... + (x + 2)n−1
2 n
q 1  q  1  q  1
Q.10 Given sn= 1 + q + q² + ..... + qn & Sn = 1 + +  2  + .... +  2  , q ≠ 1,
2
prove that n+1C + n+1C2.s1 + n+1C3.s2 +....+ n+1Cn+1.sn = 2n . Sn .
1

 1 3r
n 7 r 15r 
Q.11 Find the sum of the series  (1) . C r  r  2 r  3r  4r  .....up to m terms
r n

r0 2 2 2 2 
Q.12 Which is larger : (9950 + 10050) or (101)50.
Q.13 Prove that : n−1C + n−2Cr + n−3Cr + .... + rCr = nCr+1.
r
11
 7
Q.14 In the expansion of  1  x   find the term not containing x.
 x
Q.15 Show that coefficient of x5 in the expansion of (1 + x²)5 . (1 + x)4 is 60.
Q.16 Find the coefficient of x4 in the expansion of :
(i) (1 + x + x2 + x3)11 (ii) (2 − x + 3x2)6
Q.17 Find numerically the greatest term in the expansion of :
3 1
(i) (2 + 3x)9 when x = (ii) (3 − 5x)15 when x =
2 5
Q.18 Given that (1 + x + x²)n = a0 + a1x + a2x² + .... + a2nx2n , find the values of :
(i) a0 + a1 + a2 + ..... + a2n ; (ii) a0 − a1 + a2 − a3 ..... + a2n ; (iii) a02− a12 + a22 − a32 + ..... + a2n2

9
 3x2 1
Q.19 Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (1 + x + 2x3)    .
 2 3x 

Binomial [4]
n4
Q.20 Let (1+x²)² . (1+x)n = a K . x K . If a1 , a2 & a3 are in AP, find n.
K0

2n 2n
Q.21 If  a r (x2) r  b r (x3)r & ak = 1 for all k ≥ n, then show that bn = 2n+1Cn+1.
r0 r0
n

Q.22(a) Find the index n of the binomial    if the 9th term of the expansion has numerically the
x 2
5 5
greatest coefficient (n ∈ N) .
(b) For which positive values of x is the fourth term in the expansion of (5 + 3x)10 is the greatest.
n
Q.23 Prove that  n C K sin Kx . cos(n  K) x  2n 1 sin nx .
K 0

nJ
(1  x n )(1  x n 1 )(1  x n 2 )..................(1  x n  r 1 )
Q.24 If = , prove that nJn – r = nJr.
r
(1  x )(1  x 2 )(1  x 3 )..................(1  x r )
Q.25 The expressions 1 + x, 1+x + x2, 1 + x + x2 + x3,............. 1 + x + x2 +........... + xn are multiplied together
and the terms of the product thus obtained are arranged in increasing powers of x in the form of a0 + a1x
+ a2x2 +................., then,
(a) how many terms are there in the product.
(b) show that the coefficients of the terms in the product, equidistant from the beginning and end are equal.
(n  1)!
(c) show that the sum of the odd coefficients = the sum of the even coefficients =
2
(72)!
Q.26 Prove that − 1 is divisible by 73.
36!2
Q.27(a) Find the number of divisors of the number
N = 2000C1 + 2 · 2000C2 + 3 · 2000C3 + ...... + 2000 · 2000C2000.
2001
1 
(b) Find the sum of the roots (real or complex) of the equation x2001 +   x = 0.
2 
Q.28 Find the coeff. of (a) x6 in the expansion of (ax² + bx + c)9.
(b) x2 y3 z4 in the expansion of (ax − by + cz)9.
(c) a2 b3 c4 d in the expansion of (a – b – c + d)10.

 
Q.29 Let a = 41 401  1 and for each n ≥ 2, let bn = nC1 + nC2 · a + nC3 · a2 + ........ + nCn · an – 1. Find the
value of (b2006 – b2005).

Q.30(a) Show that the integral part in each of the following is odd. n ∈ N
     
n n n
(A) 5  2 6 (B) 8  3 7 (C) 6  35
(b) Show that the integral part in each of the following is even. n ∈ N
  (B) 5 5  11
2n 1 2n 1
(A) 3 3  5


Q.31 If 7  4 3  = p+β where n & p are positive integers and β is a proper fraction show that
n

(1 − β) (p + β) = 1.

 
2n 1
Q.32 If 6 6  14 = N & F be the fractional part of N, prove that NF = 202n+1 (n ∈ N)

 
2n
Q.33 Prove that the integer next above 3 1 contains 2n+1 as factor (n ∈ N)

Binomial [5]
 
n
Q.34 Let I denotes the integral part and F the proper fractional part of 3  5 where n ∈N and if ρ denotes
the rational part and σ the irrational part of the same, show that
1 1
ρ = (I + 1) and σ = (I + 2F − 1).
2 2
1
Q.35 Let a 3 223 1 and for all n ≥ 3, let f (n) = nC0·an – 1 – nC1·an–2 + nC2·an– 3 –......+ (–1)n – 1·nCn – 1·a0.
If the value of f (2007) + f (2008) = 9k where k ∈ N, then find k.
EXERCISE–II (A)
If C0 , C1 , C2 , ..... , Cn are the combinatorial coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x)n,
n ∈ N, then prove the following:
 2 n !
Q.1 C0² + C1² + C2² +.....+ Cn² = (This result is to be remembered)
n! n!
 2 n !
Q.2 C0 C1 + C1 C2 + C2 C3 +....+Cn−1 Cn =
( n  1)! ( n  1)!
Q.3 C1 + 2C2 + 3C3 +.....+ n . Cn = n . 2n−1
Q.4 C0 + 2C1 + 3C2 +.....+ (n+1)Cn = (n+2)2n−1
Q.5 C0 + 3C1 + 5C2 +.....+ (2n+1)Cn = (n+1) 2n
C 0 . C1 . C 2 .... C n 1 (n  1) n
Q.6 (C0+C1)(C1+C2)(C2+C3) ..... (Cn−1+Cn) =
n!
Pn 1 ( n  1) n
Q.7 If Pn denotes the product of all the coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x)n, n∈N, show that,  .
Pn n!
C1 2 C2 3C3 n .Cn n ( n  1) C1 C 2 C 2n 1  1
Q.8    .......   Q.9 C0 +   ......  n 
C0 C1 C2 C n 1 2 2 3 n 1 n 1
2 2 . C1 2 3 . C 2 24 .C3 2n 1 . C n 3n  1  1
Q.10 2 . Co +    ...... 
2 3 4 n 1 n 1
2 n!
Q.11 CoCr + C1Cr+1 + C2Cr+2 + .... + Cn−r Cn =
(n  r)! (n  r)!
C1 C 2 Cn 1
Co − 2  3  ......  ( 1) n  1  n  1
n
Q.12
Q.13 Co − 2C1 + 3C2 − 4C3 + .... + (−1)n (n+1) Cn = 0

Q.14 (n−1)² . C1 + (n−3)² . C3 + (n−5)² . C5 +..... = n (n + 1)2n−3


(n  1) (2 n)!
Q.15 1 . Co² + 3 . C1² + 5 . C2² + ..... + (2n+1) Cn² =
n! n !
Q.16 If a0 , a1 , a2 , .....be the coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x + x²)n in ascending powers of x, then
prove that: (i) a0 a1 − a1 a2 + a2 a3 − .... = 0; (ii) a0a2 − a1a3 + a2a4 − ....+ a2n − 2 a2n = an + 1 or an–1.
(iii) E1 = E2 = E3 = 3n−1; where E1= a0 + a3 + a6 +.....; E2 = a1 + a4 + a7 + ..... & E3 = a2 + a5 + a8 + .....
n2

Q.17 Prove that :  n



Cr . nCr  2 = (2 n)!
r0 (n  2)! (n  2)!
Q.18 If (1+x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x² + .... + Cn xn , then show that the sum of the products of the C i ’ s
  Ci C j 2 n!
taken two at a time , represented by is equal to 22n−1 − .
0i j n 2 (n !) 2
n 1
Q.19 C1  C 2  C 3  ......  C n  2 n  1 
2

 
1/ 2
Q.20 C1  C 2  C3  ......  C n  n 2 n  1 for n ≥ 2.

Binomial [6]
EXERCISE–II (B)
(NOT IN THE SYLLABUS OF IIT-JEE / AIEEE / CBSE)
PROBLEMS ON EXPONENTIAL & LOGARITHMIC SERIES
For Q.1 TO Q.10, Prove That :
2 2
 1 1 1   1 1 1 
Q.1 1     ......   1     ...... = 1
 2! 4 ! 6 !   3! 5! 7! 
e1 1 1 1  1 1 1 
Q.2     ......      ......
e  1  2! 4 ! 6 !   1! 3! 5! 

e2  1  1 1 1   1 1 1 
Q.3     ......  1     ......
e  1  1! 3! 5!
2
  2! 4 ! 6! 
1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4  3
Q.4 1+    .......     e
2! 3! 4!  2
1 1 1
Q.5    ........  = 1
1. 3 1. 2 . 3 . 5 1. 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 7 e
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Q.6    ... =     .... = ln 2
1. 2 3 . 4 5 . 6 2 1. 2 . 3 3 . 4 . 5 5 . 6 . 7
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1
Q.7    +..... = ln3 − ln2 Q.8    +..... =   ln 2
2 2 . 22 3. 23 4 .24 3 3 . 33 5 . 35 7 . 37  2
1  1 1 1  1 1  1 1 1
Q.9       2    3  3   .......  l n 2
2  2 3 4  22 3  62 3 
2 3 4
y2 y3 y4
Q.10 If y = x − x  x  x +..... where | x | < 1, then prove that x = y +   +......
2 3 4 2! 3! 4!
EXERCISE–III
 n  n   n 
Q.1 For 2 ≤ r ≤ n ,   + 2   +   =
 r  r  1  r  2
 n  1  n  1  n  2  n  2
(A)   (B) 2   (C) 2   (D)  
 r  1  r  1  r   r 
 n
Q.2 For any positive integers m , n (with n ≥ m) , let   = nCm . Prove that
 m
 n  n  1  n  2  m  n 1
  +   +   + ........ +   =  
 m  m   m   m  m  1
Hence or otherwise prove that ,
 n  n  1  n  2  m  n2
  + 2   + 3   + ........ + (n − m + 1)   =   .
 m  m   m   m  m  2
[ JEE '2000 (Mains), 6 ]
Q.3 Find the largest co-efficient in the expansion of (1 + x) n , given that the sum of
co-efficients of the terms in its expansion is 4096 . [REE '2000 (Mains)]
a
Q.4 In the binomial expansion of (a – b)n, n > 5, the sum of the 5th and 6th terms is zero. Then equals
b
n5 n4 5 6
(A) (B) (C) (D)
6 5 n4 n5
[ JEE '2001 (Screening), 3]

Binomial [7]
Q.5 Find the coeffcient of x49 in the polynomial [ REE '2001 (Mains) , 3 ]
 C   2 C   2 C   2 C 
 x  1   x  2  2   x  3  3  .................  x  50  50  where C = 50C .
 C0   C1   C2   C 49  r r

 10i m20 i ,
m
Q.6 The sum
i0
(where   = 0 if P < q ) is maximum when m is
p
q

(A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 15 (D) 20


[ JEE '2002 (Screening) , 3 ]
Q.7(a) Coefficient of t24 in the expansion of (1+ t2)12 (1 + t12) (1 + t24) is
(A) 12C6 + 2 (B) 12C6 + 1 (C) 12C6 (D) none
[JEE 2003, Screening 3 out of 60]
 n  n   n  n  1   n  n  2   n  n  K   n 
(b) Prove that : 2K .  0  K  – 2K–1 1  K  1 + 2K–2  2  K  2  ...... (–1)K  K  0    K  .
             
[JEE 2003, Mains-2 out of 60]
Q.8 n–1C = (K2 – 3).nC , if K ∈
r r+1
(A) [– 3 , 3 ] (B) (–∞, – 2) (C) (2, ∞) (D) ( 3 , 2]
[JEE 2004 (Screening)]

 30   30   30   30   30   30   30   30  n
Q.9 The value of  0   10  –  1   11  +  2   12  ........ +  20   30  is, where  r  = nCr.
             
 30   60   31
(A)  10 
30
(B)  15  (C)  30  (D) 10 
       
[JEE 2005 (Screening)]

ANSWER KEY
EXERCISE–I
11C a6 11C a
5
5
Q.1 (i) 5 b5 (ii) 6 b 6 (iii) ab = 1 Q.2 r = 6 Q.3 r = 5 or 9 Q.4 (a) (b) T6 =7
12

Q.6 x = 0 or 1 Q.9 nCr (3n−r − 2n−r) Q.11


2 mn
1
2  1 2 
n mn

5
Q.12 10150 (Prove that 10150 − 9950 = 10050 + some +ive qty) Q.14 1 +  11C2k . 2kCk 7k
k1

7.313
Q.16 (i) 990 (ii) 3660 Q.17 (i) T7 = (ii) 455 x 312 Q.18 (i) 3n (ii) 1, (iii) an
2

17 5 20 n2  n  2
Q.19 Q.20 n = 2 or 3 or 4 Q.22 (a) n = 12 ; (b) <x< Q.25 (a)
54 8 21 2
Q.27 (a) 8016; (b) 500
Q.28 (a) 84b6c3 + 630ab4c4 + 756a2b2c5 + 84a3c6 ; (b) −1260 · a2b3c4 ; (c) −12600
Q.29 210 Q.35 2187
EXERCISE–III
Q.1 D Q.3 12 C Q.4 B Q.5 – 22100 Q.6 C Q.7 (a) A
6
Q.8 D Q.9 A

Binomial [8]