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Topic One_ Track Learning Assessment

MCQ

1. The graph below shows the movements that take place within a cell during mitosis. The 3 curves show changes in the distance between the centromere and the poles of the spindle(A), the centromeres of sister chromatids (B) and the poles of the spindle (C) respectively. With reference to the graph, which of the following statement is false?

to the graph, which of the following statement is false ? A. The centromere of each
to the graph, which of the following statement is false ? A. The centromere of each

A. The centromere of each chromosome divides at the 15 minutes mark.

B. The force-balance model resulted in the changes in distance observed between 0 to 15 minutes.

C. The two main stages of mitosis whereby these movements occur are anaphase and telophase.

D. From 15 minutes onwards, kinetochore microtubules begin to shorten.

E. From 20 minutes onwards, aster microtubules attached to the cell membrane pulls the poles of the spindle apart.

2. The process of meiosis produces four cells with non-identical chromosomes. This diversification occurs during:

A. telophase I

B. prophase I

C. metaphase II

D. prophase II

E. interphase

A. Telophase I

3. If a diploid organism has 5 chromosomes per set, how many different combinations of homologous chromosomes are possible at their gametes?

A. 2

B. 5 2

C. 5 4

D. 5

E. 10

5

4.

Which of the following represents the correct order of events during prophase I?

A. pachytene – diplotene – diakinesis – leptotene – zygotene

B. leptotene – zygotene – pachytene – diplotene – diakinesis

C. zygotene – leptotne – pachytene – diakinesis – diplotene

D. diplotene – pachytene – leptotene – diakinesis – zygotene

E. diplotene – pachytene – zygotene – leptotene – diakinesis

5. The amount of DNA per nucleus was measured on several hundred cells from the tip of the root of a plant. The amount of DNA ranged from 10 to 20 picograms (pg). If a nucleus was measured containing 20pg of DNA, which stage is the cell in?

A. G1

B. G2

C. G0

D. telophase

E. Cytokinesis

6. Which of the following is a hallmark event that characterizes prophase of mitosis?

I. Initial formation of spindle fibers

II. Condensation of chromosomes

III. Movement of chromosomes to the equatorial plane of the cell

A. I

B. II

C. III

D. I and II

E. II and III

7. Which of the following is a reason why the daughter cells that result from the process of meiosis are not genetically identical to the parent cells?

I. Crossing over

II. Each homologous chromosome in a pair is inherited from a different parent (i.e. one from mom and one from dad)

III. Each homologue randomly aligns along the metaphase plate

A. I

B. II

C. III

D. II and III only

E. All of these

8. In Drosophila virilis, nuclei of somatic cells contain 12 chromosomes while nuclei of sperm cells contain only 6 chromosomes. What does "n" equal for this species?

A. 3

B. 6

C. 12

D. 24

E. 6 or 12, depending on cell type

9. While the meiosis and mitosis looks similar, there are a few major differences. Which of the following are TRUE?

I. DNA replicates once before mitosis, while DNA replicates twice before meiosis.

II. Mitosis results in two diploid daughter cells, while meiosis results in 4 haploid cells

III. Synapses and crossover happen in meiotic prophase I only, but do not happen in prophase of mitosis.

IV. A pair of sister chromatids is attached to only one pole of spindle apparatus in prometaphase I but a pair of sister chromatids is attached to kinetochore fibers originated from opposite poles in mitosis.

A. I and IV

B. II and III

C. I, II and III

D. II, III and IV

E. I, II, III and IV

10. A synaptonemal complex is formed between homologous chromosomes during the zygotene stage of Meiosis I. The complex is made up of parallel lateral elements bound to the chromosomal DNA and a central element which promotes binding of the lateral elements to each other via transverse filaments. Which of the following statements is/are true with regards to the synaptonemal complex?

I. The synaptonemal complex is required for the pairing of homologous chromosomes (synapsis).

II. The synaptonemal complex could help to maintain homologous pairing.

III. The synaptonemal complex may serve a role in regulating the process of crossing over.

A. I only

B. II only

C. I and II

D. II and III,

E. I, II, and III

Open-ended/ structured questions/Essay

1. Explain the differences between prophase of mitosis and prophase I of meiosis.

between prophase of mitosis and prophase I of meiosis. 2. Both sexual and nonsexual life cycles

2. Both sexual and nonsexual life cycles produce genetic variations among offspring, what are the unique mechanisms which contribute to the genetic variation in the sexual reproduction only?

among offspring, what are the unique mechanisms which contribute to the genetic variation in the sexual

Answer Key for Topic 1

MCQ: 1. C, 2. B, 3. A, 4.B, 5. B, 6. D, 7. E, 8. B, 9. D. 10. D.

Hints for MCQ

MCQ1

A: True. At 15 minutes, the distance between the centromeres of the sister chromatids is 0 μm but subsequently after that the distance begins to increase which indicates that anaphase is occurring thus the centromere of the chromosome divides and sister chromatids separate becoming chromosomes. B: True. Between 0 to 15 minutes, the poles move slightly closer together as seen by the decrease in distance between the pole of the spindle from 45 to 40 μm. This is due to the force-balance model where the poles of the spindle are pulled towards the equator initially as the chromosomes begin to align themselves in a single row along the metaphase plate. C: False. The two main stages of mitosis whereby these movements occur are actually metaphase and anaphase. D: True. From 15 minutes onwards, the centromere of the chromosome has already divided and thus the sister chromatids which have now become chromosomes move apart towards opposite poles when the kinetochore microtubules shortens. This can be seen by the decrease in distance between the centromere and poles of the spindle from 20 to about 2 μm. E: True. Between 20 to 30 minutes, the two opposite poles move further away from each other as seen by the increase in distance between the poles of the spindle from 40 to 50 μm which is due to a pulling force that acts directly on the poles to move them apart.

MCQ 3:

It is 2^3, equals 8. It is about alignment of pairs of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase plate (also refer to 'independent assortment'). If an organism has the "n" chromosomes per set (i.e. number of chromosomes in a gamete). The possible number of different, random alignments equals 2^n. In human, this would be equal 2^23, or over 8 million possibilities. You can also refer to the textbook P56 (4th edition), metaphase of meiosis I. It is explained in detail.

MCQ10

The synaptonemal complex may not be required for the pairing of homologous chromosomes, because some species, such as Aspergillus nidulansand and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, completely lack such a complex, yet their chromosomes synapse correctly

Open-ended/ structured questions/Essay:

1.) In prophase I of meiosis the homologous chromosomes pair and crossing over occurs. These interactions do not occur in prophase of mitosis.

2.) (key information required)

i. Crossing over between homologous chromosomes during prophase I.

ii.

Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I and of nonidentical sister chromatids during meiosis II.

iii. Random fertilization of an ovum by a sperm.