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Automation and Robotics in Processes

Chapter · August 2011

DOI: 10.1201/b11093-11

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Arif Sirinterlikci Arzu Karaman Akgul

Robert Morris University Yildiz Technical University


Oksan Imamoglu
Istanbul Technical University


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9 Automation and Robotics in Processes
Arif Sirinterlikci, arzu karaman, and oksan imamog̀lu

Partial List of SUPPLIERS million (78.84%) of which were service robots and remaining
0.95 million (21.16%) were industrial. The total number is
Fanuc Robotics ( expected to climb up to 8.37 million with respective figures
Daihen, Inc. ( of 7.2 million and 1.17 million in 2010 [2]. On a similar note,
Hyundai heavy Industries Co. ( International Federation of Robotics [3] (IFR) also estimate the worldwide stock of operational robots will increase from
Kuka Robotics ( about 1,036,000 units at the end of 2008 to 1,057,000 at the
Yaskawa Motoman Robotics ( end of 2011 with an annual growth rate [3] of 1%. While the
Adept Technology, Inc. ( industrial robot population is expected to remain stagnant in
Kawasaki Robotics ( America, there will be a small balancing change of increase
Panasonic Robots ( in Asia, Australia, and Europe.
Epson Robots ( The Robotics Industries Association (RIA) described the
Staubli Robotics ( industrial robot as “the reprogrammable, multifunctional
ABB ( manipulator designed to move materials, parts, or special
devices through variable programmed motions for the per-
formance of a variety of tasks [4].” Another description is
This chapter presents brief history and current state of robot-
offered by the International Standards Organization (ISO)
ics, relevant industrial applications and discusses why to auto-
as “a machine formed by a mechanism, including several
mate as well as practical automation modes including fixed,
degrees of freedom, often having the appearance of one or
programmable, and flexible modes of operations. Conceptual
several arms ending in a wrist capable of holding a tool, a
place of robotics in industrial automation has also been defined.
work-piece, or an inspection device.” Today’s industrial robots
Statistical information on leading industrial operations and
are mainly employed in automotive parts manufacturing and
robot supply figures to main industries are included in addition
assembly, electrical and electronics manufacturing and pack-
to methodologies of implementation of robotic applications
aging (illustrated in Figure 9.1), as well as metal products,
and associated tools and approaches. This chapter concludes
chemical, rubber, and plastics industries, industrial and con-
with work-cell controls and industrial robot programming
sumer machinery, and food industries. Communication, non-
content that comprise cell control structure, programming
metallic products, medical, precision, and optical industries
concepts, and examples of industrial robot programs.
also benefit from industrial robotics [3].

Automation and Robotics
Brief history of robotics has been dominated by industrial
robots until recently. However, drastically growing number The need for automation needs to be clearly defined before
of robots have been used for professional and personal ser- we determine where robotics fits in industrial applications.
vice applications. Professional service applications include Companies turn to automation for a variety of reasons [5] as
cleaning, laboratory, medical, underwater, logistics, con- listed here:
struction, and demolition applications as well as mobile robot
platforms and field robots for forestry, mining, agriculture, • Increasing labor productivity—Automating manufac-
search and rescue, entertainment, games such as soccer play- turing operations may increase production rates and
ing robots, hazardous area repairs, defense, security, and labor productivity, yielding greater output rates per
battlefields. Personal service applications encompass educa- hour of labor.
tion, vacuum-cleaning, lawnmowers, entertainment and lei- • Reducing labor costs—Automated machines can be
sure robots, and other cleaning works [1]. In 2006, total robot used to substitute for human labor to reduce unit prod-
population in the world was estimated to be 4.49 million, 3.54 uct costs.


© 2012 by Béla Lipták

9  Automation and Robotics in Processes   159

Incentives to automate will force the manufacturing indus-

tries to continue to improve their production processes allow-
ing them to respond to the challenges of today including
global competitiveness, demographic shifts, ever-changing
environmental regulations, and increasing cost of energy [3].
From a practical standpoint, there are three major types
of industrial automation: fixed automation, programmable
automation, and flexible automation [4]. Mechanization can
also be added to the mix or can be considered within the
fixed automation area.

Fixed Automation
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Fixed automation, also referred to as hard automation, is

employed when the volume of production is very high (i.e.,
10,000 or more) and the product variety is as low as one type.
Integrated transfer lines conducting sequential machining
operations on automotive components is a good example of
this type of automation, which is based on mechanization with
Fig. 9.1 associated fixtures. Hard tooling for welding identical flanges
Indicated in the photograph is FANUC M-1iA, a lightweight and to thousands of pipes is another example of this automation
compact six-axis, parallel-link robot designed for small part han-
type [6]. Economies of scale principle allow the high capital
dling such as the fuses being packaged. The parallel link struc-
ture provides higher speeds and accuracy compared to traditional
investment cost of this special machinery to be divided into a
material handling robots. (Courtesy of Fanuc Robotics, Rochester large number of parts, reducing the unit cost of parts. Fixed
Hills, MI.) automation may have some built-in flexibility by increasing
the working range of the system and by adding quick release
tooling for rapid changeovers as well as additional degrees of
freedom to the actual physical system [6]. If the equipment is
• Handling effects of labor shortages—There is a gen- planned for a single part or product, upon completion of its
eral shortage of labor in many advanced nations, espe- life cycle it becomes obsolete. Thus, fixed automation is not
cially in both high- and low-technical fields. preferred for parts or products with short life cycles [4].
• Reducing or eliminating routine manual tasks—
Routine or repetitive tasks can be handled through
automation removing the human factor and their asso- Programmable Automation
ciated health issues from the work environment.
• Improving worker safety—Removing human worker Programmable automation is effective when the manufactur-
from the point of operation or the process improves ing volume is relatively low (i.e., it changes from a few to a
the safety conditions at the workplace. thousand) in an environment with a wide variety of products
• Improving product quality—Automated processes are (from within a range of a few to a few thousands). This auto-
repetitive and can deliver good quality products con- mated system type is made flexible by the use of a control
sistently limiting defect and rework rates. program to address the variations within the product design.
• Reducing manufacturing lead time—Automation Robots and other controller-based systems fall under this cat-
helps to reduce the elapsed time between customer egory. A good example is a welding robot with an automated
orders to product deliveries. positioner. Once a batch of products is completed, the system is
• Accomplishing process which cannot be done manu- reprogrammed and new group parts are accepted. Therefore,
ally—Automation can help obtain intricate geom- this system type still can take advantage of the economies of
etries otherwise may not be possible, or timely and scale over a various batches of products. Figure 9.2 is present-
costly to achieve. ing another adaptable programmable automation example of
• Making production and resources planning more painting small parts providing a cost-effective alternative to
consistent—Repetitiveness and consistency makes multiple fixed paint guns. Once the batch shown in the figure
predictions regarding cycle times and material usages is completed, a second batch can be handled with a change of
more successful. the robot program. In a typical robotic application in welding
• Making processes and systems flexible and agile for workstation, robot is positioned with ultimate safety on mind
changing designs due to decreasing product life cycles with appropriate safety mats and safety guards, as shown in
and needs of shorter response time to markets (World Figure 9.3. While the robot works on one of the positioners,
Robotics, 2009). the other is unloaded and loaded back [6].

© 2012 by Béla Lipták

160   Process Control and Automation
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Fig. 9.4
Flexible manufacturing cell simulation for handling automotive
doors by using DDS Delmia software.

Fig. 9.2
of each type or several of the same fixtures need be loaded,
Programmable automation: painting with Fanuc’s Paint Mate
200iA. (Courtesy of Fanuc Robotics, Rochester Hills, MI.) the process is handled the same way by the FMS control-
ler. Transfer car on the rail-guided tracks moves the called
up fixture from the storage position to the positioner to be
Welding welded by the robot [6].
Robot control power Robots can be integrated into both the programmable and
source flexible automation systems with several reasons for justify-
ing their involvements, these include
Safety fence
Robot • Reducing capital investment costs compared with
Welding robot

work range fixed automation equipment

• Reducing operating costs


• Improving product quality and consistency




• Increasing productivity



• Increasing flexibility in product manufacturing


• Reducing material waste and increasing yield

• Saving space in high-value manufacturing areas
Operator’s • Improving conditions of workplace for employees by
complying with health and safety rules and regulations
Fig. 9.3
Safe positioning of a robotic in a welding workstation. (Based For instance, in robotic welding, factors such as increased
from Berge, J.M., Automating the Welding Process: Successful welding speeds for productivity, higher duty cycles where the
Implementation of Automated Welding Systems, Industrial Press robot is doing work during most of the cycle, making loading
Inc., New York, 1994.) and unloading a built-in part of the cycle help accomplish
the objectives listed above. The system performance can also
Flexible Automation be improved by decreasing or eliminating changeover times.
Predictable performances lead to predictable cycle times and
In flexible automation, different products can be fabricated
associated production planning practice as well as predict-
and assembled simultaneously. This system is suitable for
able material consumption and operational costs. On the con-
mid-variety and mid-volume range applications compared
trary, factors detracting robot performance are cleanliness
with the two previous scenarios. With the employment of
issues and irregular part dimensions which are not tolerable.
an automated identification method, the flexible system rec-
ognizes the part or product design in question and calls up
the matching process or assembly program for it. Flexible Robot-Based Industrial Applications
manufacturing systems (FMS) or flexible welding systems
(FWS) are the two major examples for this type of system. According to 1996 data by RIA, illustrated in Figure 9.6, the
Different types of flexible system are illustrated in Figures breakdown of industrial robot applications favors multiple
9.4 and 9.5. In Figure 9.5, the fixtures load/unload positions welding processes with a 41% share followed by material
give the system a choice from a variety of parts. Whether one handling and coating/painting, with shares of 27% and 20%,

© 2012 by Béla Lipták

9  Automation and Robotics in Processes   161

Robot welding cell Welding power source

Robot controller
Programmable servo track

Positioner FMS controller

Rail-guided vehicle and tracks

Transfer car
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Fixture load/unload and storage positions

Fig. 9.5
Flexible welding system (FWS) [6]. (Based from Berge, J.M., Automating the Welding Process: Successful Implementation of Automated
Welding Systems, Industrial Press Inc., New York, 1994.)

Material For this reason, a systematic approach is required such as

Dispensing, 4 Assembly, 3
Removal, 4
reported by Asfahl [8]. The approach has five phases: plan-
ning, development, mock-up and test, installation, produc-
tion, and follow-through.
Spot welding, 29 Planning phase include isolating a good potential appli-
Arc welding, 12
cation for implementation, identifying objectives of the proj-
ect including increasing productivity, reducing labor costs or
cycle time, recognizing potential drawbacks including impact-
Coating, 20 ing workers’ jobs, rest of the production system, and future
activities, determining safety considerations such as guards,
Material handling, 27 interlocks, alarm routines, emergency power-offs (EPOs), and
other measures. They are documented in existing operation
with performance data that include layouts, operation and
cycle times, inventories and product data such as dimensions,
tolerances, and quality standards. A technical feasibility study
is conducted with rated payloads, speeds, repeatability, and
Fig. 9.6 motion control as well as basic economic feasibility, analyzing
Break-down of leading robot applications in 1996. (From Keramas, comparatively with respect to fixed, programmable, and flex-
J.G., Robot Technology Fundamentals, Delmar Publishers,
ible automation alternatives. A digital model of the proposed
Albany, NY, 1999.)
solution is developed and by studying robot time and motion
(RTM) and interference aspects in off-line program tools such
respectively [4]. Material removal, dispensing, and assembly as Fanuc’s SIMPRO or ABB’s Robot Studio or virtual simula-
applications had 4% or less of the share. Similar processes tion tools such as the DDS Delmia Robotics.
maintain their hold in applications today when we look at Development phase encompass end of arm tooling
robot orders for 2007 and 2008 even though statistical fig- (EOAT) design or procurement for parts and interfaces for
ures may have been changed. However, the growth in indus- material handling and processing machines, process stability
trial robot orders has also been observed in the food industry analysis for dimensional, positional, and orientation unifor-
along with automotive parts and metal products industries in mity in parts presentation, part redesign for automation, and
2007 and 2008 (Figure 9.7) [3]. Robot characteristics appro- jig and fixture design.
priate with particular processes are given in Table 9.1 [4,7]. Mock-up and testing stage generally requires the purchase
of the robot(s) of choice determined in the planning stage.
Implementations of Robots However, a test stand with other critical elements can be used
without an employment of an actual robot. A programmable
Previous industrial robotic application mistakes are forcing logic controller (PLC) can replace robot I/O signals in con-
new implementations to be well designed and developed. ducting mock-up preparations with associated sensors and

© 2012 by Béla Lipták

162   Process Control and Automation

Motor vehicles

Automotive parts

Electrical/electronics parts

Chemical, rubber, and plastics

Metal products

Industrial/consumer machinery 2008

Food 2007


Non-metallic products
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Medical, precision, and optical instruments

Other vechicles

0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000

Fig. 9.7
Estimated supply of industrial robots at year-end, in total for the world by main industries, 2007–2008. (From International Federation of
Robotics (IFR), World Robotics, IFR Statistical Department, Frankfurt, Germany, 2009. With permission.)

other robot peripheral devices. The robot(s) can be separately • Is it possible to maintain safety?
programmed and later integrated into the system. All criti- • Can the required quality standards be maintained?
cal design factors must be tested, adjusted, evaluated, and • Can inventory be reduced?
tweaked by moving the system to the next step. • Can material handling be reduced?
Installation involves conventional project scheduling and • Is the current material handling systems adequate?
management tools for scheduling, controlling, and manag-
ing the robot. At this phase includes program evaluation and Step 2. Selecting which job to automate
review technique and critical path method for setting opera-
tional structures. • Castings belonging to same family?
Production follows installation is followed by prelimi- • Castings currently being manufactured near each
nary production testing and other warm-up activities. Once other?
the new robotic application is in operation, it should be evalu- • Castings that can share the same tooling?
ated for additional improvements as well as identifying unex- • Castings that are similar in size/dimensions, and
pected problems. Self-evaluation will also include reaching weight?
original objectives, economic and quality gains, and reliabil- • Castings with a simple design?
ity and maintainability criteria.
Hall [9] proposed the following methodology to justify Step 3. Intangible considerations
robotic automation in boosting productivity of permanent
molding foundries, reducing costs, and increasing quality. • Will the robotic system meet the direction of the
The methodology is a multistep process for deciding when foundry’s vision statement?
to automate and to what degree. It is an alternative to the • Will it meet the foundry’s standardization of equip-
planning phase of Asfahl’s approach, and can be used con- ment policy?
currently with it. The steps include technical feasibility, • Will it meet future model changes or production plan?
identification of the process to be automated, intangible con- • Will the plan improve morale of the workers?
siderations, and determination of cost and benefits. • Will it improve the foundry’s reputation?
Step 1. Technical feasibility study • Will it improve the technical process of the foundry?

• Is the casting designed for robotic handling? Step 4. Determination of cost and benefits
• Is it possible to do the job with the planned procedure?
• Is it possible to do the job within the cycle time • Project costs for an example cell that pour the molten
constraints? material, extract the finished casting and cool it need
• How reliable will be the total system be? to be determined. The original cost elements should
• Can the engineers/operators work with the robots? include robot, end-effectors, tool-changer, peripheral

© 2012 by Béla Lipták

9  Automation and Robotics in Processes   163

Table 9.1
Robot Characteristics vs. Process Selection
Robot Type Structure/Motion Types Disadvantages Advantages Associated Tasks
Cartesian/Gantry Three linear (prismatic Can only reach in front of Easy to visualize and Handling at machine tools and
joints) axes—base itself, its axes hard to seal, program off-line, has coordinate measuring machines,
travel, height, and requires large floor space rigid structure, linear pick/place, assembly, and arc
reach (can be of for its work volume axis enables mechanical welding
overhead—gantry type) stops

Cylindrical One rotational joint for Cannot reach above itself, Can reach all around Early applications include
base motion, two linear base rotation is less rigid itself, reach and height assembly, handling at machine
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joints for height and than a linear axis, cannot axes are rigid, its tools, spot welding
reach motions reach around obstacles, rotational axis is easy to
linear axes are hard to seal seal

Spherical (polar) Two rotational axes for Cannot reach around Long horizontal reach Early applications include handling
base rotation and obstacles, generally has at machines loading, spot welding
elevation angle, and short vertical reach
linear joint for reach

Articulated Three rotational joints Difficult to program Can reach above or below Arc and spot welding, assembly,
for base rotation, off-line, two or four ways obstacles, largest work cleaning, gluing, sealing, spraying,
elevation angle, and to reach a point, most area for least floor space pre-machining, cutting, deburring,
reach angle complex arm grinding, polishing, handling at
configuration machines, material handling, pick
and placing, packaging, palletizing

SCARA Two rotational joints in Have two ways to reach a Height axis is rigid, large Assembly, palletizing and
base rotation and reach point, difficult to program work area for floor depalletizing, handling at
angle off-line space, can reach around machines, pick/place, and
obstacles packaging, dispensing and
in-place gasket forming

Parallel Constituted by two or Relatively large footprint to Increased stability and Assembly, pick and place
more kinematic chains workspace ratio, relatively rigidity, high accuracy,
between the base and small range of motion speeds, and repeatability
the platform where the compared with the serially
end-effectors is located linked robots above
Sources: Keramas, J.G., Robot Technology Fundamentals, Delmar Publishers, Albany, NY, 1999; Fuller, J.L., Robotics: Introduction, Programming,
and Projects, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1999.

equipment, guarding, installation, and programming Second tool offered here with the planning process includes
costs. Salvage value of the system can be incorporated the selection of the type of robot based on robot character-
as well. istics and history of associated tasks. However, quantitative
• The higher the net present value (NPV) and rate of figures on speeds, joint ranges, and payload capacity are
return, the lower the payback period for the system. excluded from the body of this section and can be found in
An alternative design with the highest NPV should be the appendices due to availability of hundreds of different
selected amongst a set of solutions since pay back period robots. Cylindrical and spherical robots are no longer com-
does not include the cash flows after the pay back period. mon in contemporary industrial robotics. They have been

© 2012 by Béla Lipták

164   Process Control and Automation

Table 9.2
Comparison of Robot vs. Robot/Human Combination
100% of Work 80% of Work Welded by
System Parameters Welded by the Robot Robot, 20% Done Manually
Equipment cost ($) 250,000 190,000
Operator’s preparation time (min) 30 30
Operator’s weld time (min) — 15
Robot cycle time (min) 60 48
Effective minimum cycle (min) 60 48
Source: Berge, J.M., Automating the Welding Process: Successful Implementation of Auto­
mated Welding Systems, Industrial Press Inc., New York, 1994. With permission.
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replaced by articulated and parallel robots which are more

flexible and effective.
Number three tool for planning is about answering the
question of using the robot for the whole operation, or for
a portion of it sharing duties with a human worker. As an
example, according to Berge [6], welding complex and/or
large weldments completely with a robot may be possible and
feasible, but sometimes reaching beyond 85% of the welds
can increase the costs drastically. In his book, he presents
a comparative example indicating how productivity can be
improved by utilizing a cost-effective system that also bal-
ances the workload between the human welder and a robot
(Table 9.2). If a robot is employed in completing 100% of the
welds, the capital investment becomes great due to the need
of flexible equipment for reaching the welds. Simplifying
machinery may allow reductions in the capital investment
costs, also giving the human operator less idle time (3 min
compared to 30) while decreasing the cycle time. As the
cycle time is reduced 12 min (by 20%), equipment cost is also
$60,000 (or 24%) less due to procuring a less flexible part Fig. 9.8
positioner. The end result is improved productivity, faster A robot used for food picking. (Courtesy of Fanuc Robotics,
start-up, less troublesome and costly maintenance. Rochester Hills, MI.)
Two further examples of industrial implementation of
robots are given in Figures 9.8 and 9.9. Figure 9.8 shows
Fanuc M-430iA, a high-speed food-picking robot, which is
the first robot to meet the hygiene requirements for meat and
poultry processing industry receiving equipment acceptance
from the United States Department of Agriculture. Figure
9.9 shows a Fanuc M-710iC/50 robot equipped with iRVision
3DL laser vision sensor locating and picking randomly piled
hubcaps from a storage container. After the vision system
verifies the correct grip position, the robot transfers the part
into a second container (Courtesy of Fanuc Robotics).

Work-Cell Controls and Industrial

Robot Programming

Work-cell software is responsible for coordination of work- Fig. 9.9

cell activities and data collection [10]. There are three dif- A robot equipped with iRVision 3DL laser vision sensor locating
ferent approaches to work-cell programming at high level: and picking randomly piled hubcaps from a storage container.
in-house developed systems, application enablers, and open (Courtesy of Fanuc Robotics, Rochester Hills, MI.)

© 2012 by Béla Lipták

9  Automation and Robotics in Processes   165

Local area network

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet
IEEE 802.5 token ring

Local area network

Allen Bradey data highway


industrial computer

Multi-serial interface
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Allen Bradley
Siemens PLC
PLC with vision

Bar code Smart

concentrator gage

pneumatic CNC Vision Work-cell
robot mill camera sensors

Bar code
scanner control

Fig. 9.10
Block diagram for control structure of a work-cell. (From Rehg, J.A., Introduction to Robotics in CIM Systems, Prentice Hall, Upper
Saddle River, 2003.)

system interconnect (OSI) in the ISO 9056 manufacturing drivers. It can identify a newly introduced project and its
message specification. On the contrary, the action of indi- associated bar code and load the corresponding robot pro-
vidual elements for actual physical operation of the cell is grams. However, extended initial development and change-
controlled by either a PLC or a robot controller. The PLCs over time for configuration changes outweigh advantages of
are mainly programmed through ladder logic programming, this type of cell programming.
but other methods such as instruction lists, structured texts, Enabler software presents a group of tools for the
sequential function blocks, and function block diagrams are development of work-cells including Plant-works from
also available. Figure 9.10 is showing the complex structure IBM, Industrial Precision Tool Kit from Hewlett-Packard,
of a manufacturing work-cell with multiple controllers, sen- CELLworks from FASTech, Factory Link from US Data,
sors, and machines including a pneumatic robot. and Fix DMACS by Intelution. They allow cell control and
In-house software development is done by the cell inte- management through utilization of drivers for local area net-
grators using C or Visual Basic programming languages and works (LANs), serial communications, arithmetic and logic
is proprietary. It is to address the specific requirements of cell functions, linking ability to computer databases, real-time
control and interfaced with the other software needs of the logging, graphics, and animation, event supervision, alarms,
manufacturing enterprise including custom communication statistical process control, batch recipe functions, timed

© 2012 by Béla Lipták

166   Process Control and Automation

Table 9.3
Programming Language Levels
Levels Example Statement Company/Language
Level 4—task oriented languages Place object 1 on object 2 IBM/AUTOPASS
Level 3—structured If qmonitor eq 0 then begin …. else ABB/ARLA, RAPID
programming languages Adept/V, V+
Level 2—primitive motion Approach hole, 100.0 Cincinnati Milacron/T3
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languages Move hole Rhino/RoboTalk

Level 1—joint control languages Move joint 1 120
Source: Rehg, J.A., Introduction to Robotics in CIM Systems, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,
NJ, 2003. With permission.

events, counting, and custom programming [10]. Enablers manipulator by prescribing joint angles and high-level where
make cell programming easier unless the required function a instruction such as pick up the part can be enough for the
is not available and additional programming is needed. On operation. He later specifies four different levels with overlaps
the contrary, they also make the enterprise dependent of a as indicated in Table 9.3. Even though, those levels may have
third-party software solution. existed alone, contemporary robot programming languages
Manufacturing message specification (MMS) is a fre- posses feature from all of those levels. Current robot pro-
quently used OSI solution. It is a common standard for net- gramming languages include the following major features:
work communication between programmable machines in a
production setting. The standard has three specifications for • Variable (Example Program #1, 2) and register defini-
services, protocols, and robots. All devices within the system tions (Example Program #3)
need to be MMS compatible and be connected by a manufac- • Controller system variables (Example Program #1, 2)
turing automation protocol network eliminating the need for a • Positioning and motion commands (Example Program
proprietary PLC networking. The data is shared over the LAN #1, 2)
software directly to the requester element without interacting • Execution delays, looping, conditional/uncondi-
with the cell control. However, the use of this system has been tional branching instructions, and sub-programming
limited in production environments compared to the options. (Example Program #2, 3, 4)
There are two main modes of industrial robot program- • Arithmetic and logic functions (Example
ming excluding the lead-through teaching of robot process Programming #3, 4)
paths: ON-LINE and OFF-LINE. For ON-LINE program- • Input and output ability (Example Program #3, 4)
ming, the programmer has the direct access to the controller. • Condition handlers (Example Program #4)
The program is written by help of a hand-held device called • Fanuc’s KAREL language is utilized in the Examples
teach pendant with use of available menus. The critical posi- Programs 1 through 4:
tions of the program is taught by the teach pendant as well as
the entry for other program requirements. On the contrary,
OFF-LINE programming does not disrupt current operation
of the robot. It is based on a universal virtual CAD-based Example Program #1
environment such as Delmia’s Robotics software or brand program exampl1 (Program identifier)
specific ABB’s Robot Studio. Additional OFF-LINE pro- %cmosvars (Program directive that specifies CMOS
gramming can be based on instruction filled editors such as memory of the controller for all program variables)
FANUC’s MS Windows-based teach pendant editor or MS var (Starts the variable declaration)
Windows Wordpad/Notepad tools as long as the program is p1, p2, p3, p4: position (Position variables declared)
written in appropriate formatting and syntax. Once the pro- begin (Starts the executable portion of the program)
gram is completed, it can be tested within the CAD environ- …
ment before it is downloaded. $motype = joint (System variable that sets motion type
Rehg [10] has classified robot languages into two main as joint)
groups: low-level where the programmer has to handle the

© 2012 by Béla Lipták

9  Automation and Robotics in Processes   167

$termtype = fine (System variable that sets motion ter- goto zz_top (Executes conditional branch to zz_top)
mination type to fine with zero tolerance) endif (Marks the end of the if statement)
$speed = 750 (System variable that sets TCP speed to …
750 mm/s) i = i + 1 (Arithmetic operation for counting up)
move to p1 (Moves robot TCP to p1 position) move to nod [i] (Move TCP to array node point nod
move to p2 (Moves robot TCP to p1 position) [i] - similar to numerical, position, and pallet register
move to p3 (Moves robot TCP to p1 position) arrays in Teach Pendant Programming of Fanuc)
move to p4 (Moves robot TCP to p1 position) …
end exampl1 (Program end statement) end exampl3 (Program end statement)

Example Program #4
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program exampl4 (Program identifier)

Example Program #2 …
program exampl2 (Program identifier) if gin[i]>0 then (If group input indexed with i is greater
var (Starts the variable declaration) than zero)
perch, start: position (Position variables declared) write(‘Clamps not releases. Check all clamps and
i: integer (Integer variable declared) release) (Write the given message on the robot monitor)
patika: path (Path variable declared) …
begin (Starts the executable portion of the program) condition[2]: (If the variable has the desired value Y
… or y)
$motype = joint (System variable that sets motion type when gin[i]<15 do no_clamp (When satisfied, exe-
as joint) cutes a routine called no_clamp)
$termtype = fine (System variable that sets motion ter- endcondition (Marks the end of the condition handler)
mination type to fine with zero tolerance) …
$speed = 750 (System variable that sets TCP speed to condition[3]: (If the variable has the desired value Y
750 mm/s) or y)
move to perch (Moves robot TCP to p1 position) when error[11065] do low_batt (When battery voltage
with $speed = 100 move near start by 75 (Reduced drops low enough, invokes a routine called low_batt)
speed to 75 mm/s and moves robot TCP to 75 mm of endcondition (Marks the end of the condition handler)
the position start) enable condition [3] (Enables the condition monitor)
for i = 1 to path_len (patika) do (Moves robot TCP delay 2000 (Delays the execution of the program)
along the nodes of the path, patika) …
patika[i].group_data.segmotype = linear (Motion end exampl4 (Program end statement)
type in between the node is now linear)
patika[i].common_data.segtermtype = nodecel
Following procedure is utilized in generating robot programs
(Motion termination type is no deceleration between
for servo-robots:
the nodes)
endfor (End of the loop) 1. Analyze the process where the robot will be
end exampl2 (Program end statement) participating.
2. Establish a basic program logic structure (flow charts
and/or state-flow diagrams).
3. Divide the robot action into tasks and subtasks for
possible use of routines and subroutines.
Example Program #3 4. Plan for robot trajectory with a task point graph.
program exampl3 (Program identifier) 5. Assign for all system variables to control the motion
… and other actions.
if din[1] = on then (If digital input 1 is on then) 6. Write and enter the command statements.
call_prog (‘exampl2’,4) (Call program exampl2) 7. Teach the critical points for the trajectory.
… 8. Test and debug the program.
if (k = ‘Y’) or (k = ‘y’) then (If the variable has the
If a virtual simulation tool is used in generating the program,
desired value Y or y)
the steps 4–8 can be handled within the virtual simulation

© 2012 by Béla Lipták

168   Process Control and Automation

Conclusions 12. Tolinski, M., Robots reach for their full potential, Plastics
Engineering, 64, 8, 6–8, September 2008.
Industrial robotics are extensively used [11–22] and it has 13. Balakrishnan, G. and Hiremath, S.S., Multifunctional sensor
networks for automation, process monitoring and robotic appli-
been proven that they can greatly improve performance of
cations, 2010 IEEE 19th International Workshop on Robotics in
manufacturing systems and present consumers with inexpen- Alpe-Adria-Danube Region (RAAD 2010), Budapest, Hungary,
sive products of higher quality. Globalization issues, demo- pp. 341–345, 2010.
graphic shifts, ever-changing environmental standards, and 14. Huang, V. and Condry, M., Standards activities in industrial
increasing energy costs, all make robotic automation more electronics and whither robotics? 2010 IEEE International
justifiable and feasible than ever, under the major provision of Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT 2010), Valparaiso,
well-thought and optimized development conditions for suc- Chile, pp. 1661–1666, 2010.
cessful implementation. 15. Stienecker, A., Applied industrial robotics: A paradigm
shift, ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference
Proceedings, 2008 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition,
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