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MI CRON U TR IE NTS AND

DIPLOMA IN LESSON 5

SPORTS &
EXERCISE
NUTRITION
Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

L E S S O N 5 : MICRO NUTRIE NTS AND


SU P P L E MEN TS

une Suppor
Imm t
Vitamins A,C,
J
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oi
Selenium, Zinc

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ea

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ones
mi

C,
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ta

D,
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Vitamin B Complex,
ge

on Chromium, Iron
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s ti

Me ntal a n d
P hysi c e n e rg y
al

M I C RO N UT R I E NTS
• On ly re qui re d in s m a ll a m o u nts
• Es se nti a l fo r o pti m a l h ea lth
• Re qui re d t o p ro d u ce:
• Enz y mes
• Ho r m o n es
• Esse ntia l s u b s ta n ces
• Seve re co nse q u en ces if n eed s a re not met

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Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

V I TA M I NS
• Org a ni c co m po u n d s in fo o d
• Re qui re d fo r :
• Go o d hea lth
• Physi c al well b ein g
• Opti m a l im m u n e sys tem fu ncti on
• Opti m a l h o r m o n a l sys tem functi on
• Mu st be atta in ed fro m fo o d
• 13 v i t a mi ns es s enti a l fo r h ea lth
• Mo st have co r res p o n d in g d eficiency disease

C L A SSI F I CAT I O N O F V I TA M I NS

V itamins

Water Sol u bl e Fat So l ub l e

Vitami n B Group V ita min C Vitam in A Vitamin D V i t am i n E V i t ami n K

FAT SO LU B L E
• A, D, E & K
• Di sso l ve i n fat
• Sto re d i n bo d y ti s s u es fo r lo n g p eriods of ti me
• May l e a d to toxicity

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Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

V i ta m i n Fu n cti on s Clinica l Sig nifi cance Dietary So urce s

Fat - So l u b l e Ep i t h e l i a l ti s s u e p ro l i fe rati o Sc a l y s k i n , d r y m u co s Wh o l e m i l k a n d p ro d u c t s ,
V i t a m i n A (reti n o l , Reti n a l p i g m e nt ati o n m e m b ra n e s e gg s , f r u i t s a n d
reti n a l , reti n o i c a c i d ) Im m u n e sys te m (a nti ge n Ni g ht b l i n d n e s s ve get a b l e s ( g re e n l e af y
re cog n i ti o n) In c re a s e d r i s k fo r i nfe c ti o n s a n d ye l l ow) , fi s h , a n i m a l
Anti ox i d a nt s C a n ce r a n d ot h e r d i s e a s e s l i ve r, fi s h l i ve r o i l

C a u ti o n : Do n ot exce e d a

d a i l y d o s e of ove r

1 0 , 0 0 0 i nte r n ati o n a l

u n i t s i f p re g n a nt o r

h i s to r y of l i ve r d i s e a s e

Vitamin D Bo n e a n d to ot h C h i l d re n : r i c ket s a n d d e l aye d Fo r ti fi e d m i l k , m a rg a r i n e ,


d eve l o p m e nt d e nti ti o n
(c h o l e c a l c i fe ro l e gg s , fi s h , co d l i ve r o i l ,
e rgo s te ro l ) Ad u l t s : Os te o m a l a c i a o at m e a l , s we et p ot ato s ,
En h a n ce s Im m u n i t y
ve get a b l e o i l s .

Vitamin E Sy nt h e s i s of h e m e Pre m at u re i nfa nt s : m a c ro c y ti c Co l d p re s s e d ve get a b l e


(to co p h e ro l ) a n e m i a a n d h e m o l ys i s of o i l s , d a r k g re e n l e af y

R B C ’s ve get a b l e s , m i l k , e gg s ,
Anti ox i d a nt , p reve nt s Da m a ge to re d b l o o d ce l l s , m e at s , l e g u m e s , n u t s ,
ox i d ati o n of
d e s t r u c ti o n to n e r ve s s e e d s , w h o l e g ra i n s
p o l y u n s at u rate d fatt y
a c i d s a n d of v i t a m i n s A
and C

Vitamin K Fo r m ati o n of Da r k g re e n l e af y
New b o r n : He m o r r h a g i c
p rot h ro m b i n , b l o o d ve get a b l e s , a s p a ra g u s ,
disease
c l otti n g
b ro cco l i , Br u s s e l s , s p ro u t s ,

Bo n e fo r m ati o n a n d c a b b a ge , c a u l i fl owe r, e gg
Ad u l t s : Pro l o n ge d c l otti n g
re p a i r yo l k s , l i ve r, o at m e a l , o at s ,
ti m e s
r ye , s u ffl owe r o i l , s oy
Sy nt h e s i s of
o s te o c a l c i n b e a n s , w h e at
Os te o p o ro s i s

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Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

WAT E R SO LUBLE
• B - Co mpl ex gro u p a n d v ita m in C
• Di sso l ve i n water
• Not sto re d in b o d y
• Ne e d co nti nio u s s u p p ly

Vitamin Best Sources Fu n ctio n s

Th l a m i n ( B 1 ) Fo r ti fi e d ce re a l s , a n d o at m e a l s , m e at s , He l p s t h e b o d y re l e a s e e n e rg y f ro m c ra b o hyd rate s
r i ce , a n d p a s t a , w h o l e g ra i n s , l i ve r d u r i n g m et a b o l i s m ; g row t h a n d m u s c l e to n e

Rib oflavin Wh o l e g ra i n s , g re e n l e af y ve get a b l e s , He l p s t h e b o d y re l e a s e e n e rg y f ro m p rote i n , fat ,


o rg a n m e at s , m i l k , e gg s a n d c a r b o hyd rate s d u r i n g m et a b o l i s m

Pa ntot h en ic Acid Le a n m e at s , w h o l e g ra i n s , l e g u m e s He l p s re l e a s e e n e rg y f ro m fat s a n d ve get a b l e s

Folate Gre e n l e af y ve get a b l e s , o rg a n Ac i d s i n ge n eti c m ate r i a l d eve l o p m e nt ; i nvo l ve d i n


m e at s , d r i e d p e a s , b e a n s , l e nti l s re a l b l o o d ce l l p ro d u c ti o n

B6 Fi s h , p o u l t r y, l e a n m e at s , b a n a n a s , He l p s b u i l d b o d y ti s s u e a n d a i d s i n m et a b o l i s m of
p r u n e s , d r i e d b e a n s , w h o l e g ra i n s , p rote i n
ava c a d o s

B12 Me at s , m i l k p ro d u c t s , s e afo o d Ai d s ce l l d eve l o p m e nt , f u n c ti o n i n g of t h e n e r vo u s

sys te m , a n d t h e m et a b o l i s m of p rote i n a n d fat

Bi otin Ce re a l /g ra i n p ro d u c t s , ye a s t , Invo l ve d i n m et a b o l i s m of p rote i n , fat s , a n d


l e g u m e s , l i ve r c a r b o hyd rate s

Vitamin C Citrus fruits, berries, and Es s e nti a l fo r s t r u c t u re of b o n e s , c a r ti l a ge ,


ve get a b l e s , e s p e c i a l l y p e p p e rs m u s c l e s , a n d b l o o d ve s s e l s ; h e l p s m a i nt a i n

c a p i l l a r i e s , a n d g u m s a n d a i d s i n a b s o r pti o n of i ro n

04
Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

05
Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

VITA M I N S – AT HLET I C REQ U I REME NT

V i tam i n At h l ete Awareness

Th l a m i n ( B 1 ) , Ri b oflav i n ( B 2 ) & • Invo l ve d i n re l e a s i n g e n e rg y f ro m fo o d


Ni a c i n ( B 3 ) • At h l et s e at m o re s o re q u i re m e nt a re h i g h e r

Pa ntot h e n i c a c i d ( B 5 ) • Ma n u fa c t u re of fatt y a c i d s a n d g l u co s e
• Any d efi c i e n c y wo u l d b e co s t l y to p e r fo r m a n ce

Fo l ate & B 1 2 • Re d b l o o d ce l l p ro d u c ti o n , D N A & p rote i n m a n u fa c t u re


• E xe rc i s e w i l l i n c re a s e t h e s e p ro ce s s e s a n d i n t u r n
i n c re a s e re q u i re m e nt s

B6 • Prote i n & a m i n o a c i d m et a b o l i s m , re d b l o o d ce l l
m a n u fa c t u re
• V i t a l fo r at h l ete s

Vitamin C • Fo r m ati o n of co n n e c ti ve ti s s u e , h o r m o n e s (p ro d u ce d
d u r i n g exe rc i s e) , fo r m ati o n of re d b l o o d ce l l s , p rote c t
a g a i n s t ce l l d a m a ge (a nti ox i d a nt )
• Sc i e nti fi c a l l y l i n ke d w i t h at h l eti c h e a l t h a n d we l l - b e i n g

Vitamin E • Powe r f u l a nti ox i d a nt


• Preve nt s ox i d ati o n of fatt y a c i d s a n d p rote c t s ce l l f ro m
d a m a ge .

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Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

VITA M I N TOX I C I T Y

V i tam i n Ove rdose Leve l Symptoms

Vitamin A 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 u n i t s /d ay Ir r t a b i l i t y, fati g u e , i n s o m n i a , p a i nf u l b o n e s a n d
j o i nt s , a b n o r m a l b o n e g row t h , l o s s of h a i r, i tc hy
s k i n , a n o rex i a , d e c re a s e d b l o o d c l otti n g ti m e , b i r t h
d efe c t s , a b o r ti o n s .
In c h i l d re n : m a l a i s e a n d fati g u e m , d e s q u a m ati o n ,
of t h e s k i n a n d m u co u s m e m b ra n e s , a b n o r m a l
g row t h , a n d p a i n a n te n d e r n e s s i n t h e l o n g b o n e s .
Ps e u d ot u m o u r ce re b r i , m a n i fe s ti n g a s h e a d a c h e
and irritability

Vitamin E Not Es t a b l i s h e d p o s s i b l e i n c re a s e i n b l o o d p re a s u re
(p ro b a b l y h i g h)

Vitamin D 4000 - 10,000IU An o rex i a , n a u s e a , d i a re h e a , m u s c u l a r we a k n e s s ,


/d ay j o i nt p a i n s , c l a c i fi c ati o n of s oft ti s s u e s , re s o r pti o n
of b o n e .
In C h i l d re n : We a k n e s s , l et h a rg y, a n o rex i a a n d
co n s ti p ati o n , a n d c h ro n i c ove rd o s a ge re s u l t s i n
hy p e rc a l ce m i a , n e p h ro c a l c i n o s i s , a n d eve nt u a l l y
a zote m i a .

Vitamin K3 Not e s t a b l i s h e d Po s s i b l e t h ro m b o s i s , vo m i ti n g , p o r p hy n u r i a i n
(m e n a d i o n e) p re g n a n c y c a n c a u s e j a u n d i ce i n t h e n ew b o r n ,
b l o c k t h e effe c t s of o ra l a nti co a g u l a nt s

Vitamin K1 Not Co n s i d e re d
(p hy to n a d i o n e) tox i c

Vitamin K1 Not Co n s i d e re d
(m e n a q u i n o n e) tox i c

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Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

V i tam in Sy m ptom s

B1 Ta c hyc a rd i a , hy potension, cardiac dysrhythmias, headach e ,


a n a p hyl a xi s , va s odilation, weakness, convu lsions

B3 Ac u te toxi c i ty- prostaglandin-meditated symptoms (flushing ,


p r u r i tu s , wh eezi ng, vasodilation, headache, inc reased
i ntra c ra n i c a l b l ood flow, headache, diarrhea and vomiting )
C h ro n i c toxi c i t y- Jaundice, abnormal liver fu nction test
res u l ts , a c a nth o sis

B6 Ta c hyp n ea a n d neuropathies, paresthesias, p rogressive


ata xi a s , c l u m s i n e ss, paralysis, perioral numbness, impairm e nt
of p o s i ti o n a n d vibration senses, diminished tendon reflexe s

B 2 , B 5 , B 7 , B 12 Mi n i m a l i mp a c t, B 2 results in yellow-orange urine; B 5 may


c a u s e d i a r r h ea

B9 Ga s troi ntes ti n a l disorders, sleep problems, ski n reactions ,


a n d s ei zu res ; may reduce or interfere with the effectivene ss
of cer ta i n c h em otherapy agents.

C Ren a l co l i c , d i a r rhea, nau sea, rebound scurvy in infants bor n


to wo m en ta k i n g high doses, hemolysis if glucose phosph ate
d ehyd rogen a s e deficiency is pre sent, possible dental
d ec a l c i fi c ati o n , occ ult rectal bleeding, and increase estroge n
l evel s

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Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

MINE R A L S & T RAC E ELEMENTS


• Re qui re d i n s m a ll a m o u nts
• Es se nti a l fo r n o r m a l b o d y fu n cti o n

M AJOR MINE RALS

Calcium Phospohorous
Ma gn es i u m Sodium
Pota s s i u m Iron
Zi n c Copper
C h rom i u m, Manganese
Sel en i u m Fluoride
Io d i n e

MINE R A L S A N D T HE AT HLET I C DIE T


• Su ffi c i e nt a mo u nt req u ired to keep at hletes healt hy and st rong
• Ce r t a i n at hl etes a re m o re p ro n e to deficiencies
• Sh o ul d be a ble to m eet req u irem e nt s t hrough a bal anced diet
• Su ppl e me nt ati o n in exces s of req uirement s proves no advant age

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Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

Mine ral Best Sources Functi ons

Calcium Milk and milk products Strong bones, teeth, muscle tissue;
regulates heart beat, muscle action, and
nerve function; blood clotting

Chromium Corn oil, clams, Glucose metabolism (energy); increases


whole-grain cereals, effectiveness of insulin
brewer’s yeast

Cop per Oyesters, nuts, organ Formation of red blood cells; bone
meats, leg umes growth and health; works with vitamin C
to form elastin

Fluoride Fluorinated water, Stimu lates bone formation; inhibits or


teas, marine fish even reverses dental caries

Iodine Seafood, iodized salt Component of hormone thyroxine, which


controls metabolism

Iro n Meats, especially Hemoglobin formation; Imp roves blood


organ meats, legumes quality; Increases resistance to stress and
disease

Magnesium Nuts, green Enzyme activation, carbohydrate and fat


vegetables, whole production; sex hormone production;
grains skeletal development

Molybdenum Legumes, grain Functions as a cofactor for a limited


products, nut s number of enzymes in humans

Phosp horus Fish, meat, pou ltry, Bone development; imp ortant in protein,
eggs, grains fat, and carbohydrate utilization

Potassi um Lean meat, Fluid balance; controls activity of heart


vegetables, fruits muscle, nervous system, and kidneys

Selenium Seafood, organ meats, Protects body tissue against oxidant


lean meats, grains damage from radiation pollution, and
normal metabolic processing

Zinc Lean meats, liver, Involved in digestion and metabolism;


eggs, seafood, whole Important in development of reprodu cti ve
grain system; aids in healing.

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Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

CREAT I NE

• Nat u ra l l y o ccu r r i n g
• Di et a r y s o u rces i n c l u d e meat a n d fish
• Fu e l s b o d y du r i n g h i gh i nten s i ty activities
• Su p p l e m e nt ati on b o o s ts l evel s i n skeletal muscle
• Im p roves p er for ma n ce
• In c re a ses l ea n b o d y m a s s
• Re d u ces fati gu e
• No ev i d e n ce of d etr i menta l s i d e effects
• We i ght ga i n , from i ntra mu scular water retention
• May b e a co n cer n fo r wei ght class athletes
• For m of s u p p l ement i mp o r t a nt
• Cre atin e Mon o hyd rate – o nly one certain to work
• Su i te d to h i g h i nten s i ty s p or ts
• Sp ri nte rs
• We i ght l i fters
• Te a m sp o r ts
• Cre atin e m o nohyd rate
• Ma i nte n a n ce: 1 x 5g d o s e per day for 1 2 weeks followed by a 4 -wee k b re a k
• Be s t t ake p os t-wo r kou t

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Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

FI S H O I L

• Ome ga - 3 fatty a c i d s
• Ei co s a p enta en o i c a c i d (EPA)
• Do co s ah exa en o i c a c i d (DHA)
• Rep o r te d to :
• Re d u ce mu s c l e s o ren es s
• Im p rove oxygen & n u tr i ent delivery
• Re d u ce i nfla mm ati on
• In c re a s e m u s c l e synth es i s
• 1. 3 - 2 .7 g of om ega -3 fatty a c i d s per day

S O DI U M B I CA R BO NAT E

• Nat u ra l l y o ccu r r i n g, a l k a l i n e s a l t
• Bic a rb o n ate i s c h i ef b u ffe r i n g sys tem
• Reg u l ate s P H of b o d y
• Buffe rs l a c tic a c i d p rod u ced d u r i ng anaerobic metabolism
• Go o d s c i e ntific b a c k i n g th at i t i mproves high intensity exe rcise
• Proto co l :
• 0 .3 g p e r k g of BW
• 1 - 2 h o urs p r i or to exerc i s e
• May b e u n p a lata b l e
• Sid e effe c t s
• May c a us e G I d i s tres s
• Sho u l d a l ways b e con s u m ed wi th plenty of water

12
Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

P ROT E I N

• Gro u p A i n AIS c l a s s i fi c ati on


• Powd e r o r l i qu i d s u p p l em ent
• Su p p l e m e nt ati o n c a n b e i mp l emented for convince
• No s i d e effe c ts rep or ted to d ate
• May c a u s e h a r ml es s tem p o ra r y pink colouration of urine/stool
• Hi gh n i t rate co ntent c a n b e fo u nd in other vegetables
• 4 m a i n t y p e s:
• Whey
• Casein
• Egg
• Soy
• Wh ey
• Am i n o a c i d p rofi l e s u i ted to muscle building
• Ab u n d a nt i n l eu c i n e
• Ra p i d l y d i ges ted
• Ca s e i n
• Di ge s te d s l ower
• Go o d gen era l u s e p rotei n
• He l p s w i th mu s c l e recover y

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Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

CAFFEINE

• Mil d l y a d d i c ti ve s ti m u l a nt fo u n d naturally in cocoa, tea and coffee


• Add e d to e n ergy d r i n k s , s od a a n d some medication
• Bo o s t e n e rg y l evel s
• Al l ev i ate fatigu e
• In c re a s e co n centrati o n a n d foc u s
• So u n d ev i d e nce th at c affei n e m ay enhance the performance for a range of
s po r t s
• En d u ra n ce (>60 mi n)
• Hi gh i nten s i ty (1-60 m i n)
• Te a m & i nter m i ttent
• Up to 4 0 0 m g /d ay con s i d ered s afe limit for adults
• Pre g n a nt wo men - <200m g/d ay
• Chi l d re n a n d a d ol es cents - 100mg/day or less

POSITIVE EFFECTS
C A F F EIN E NEGATIVE EFFECTS

Increased attention Anxiety and Addicti on


and alertness, decreased
fati gue

Increased vasconstricti on

Lower risk of and blood pressure

cardiovascular diseases Reduced control of fine


motor movements
Lower risk of
diabete s

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Lesson 5: Micronutrients and Supplements

MU LT I V I TA M I N AND M I NERALS (MVM)

• Us e d to t re at v i ta mi n or mi n era l deficiencie s
• Ea sy a n d co nven i ent
• Co n s i d e re d s afe
• Us e of M M s ho u l d rema i n wi th i n safe recommended intake to avoid toxicit y
• No ev i d e n ce to s u gge s t h i gh i nta kes of MVM will enhance performance
• May b e m o re b en efi c i a l to ta ke s i ngle supplement, i.e. iron, calcium, vitami n D
• Effe c tive to i nc rea s e n u tr i ent i ntake if deficient

15