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What is a Student Council?

A Student Council is a representative structure through which students in a post-primary school can

become involved in the affairs of the school, working in partnership with school management and staff

and parents for the benefit of the school and its students.

Why have a Student Council?

The Education Act, 1998 recognises that Student Councils are an increasingly common feature in
postprimary schools and have worked to the benefit of many schools. The Act seeks to extend the
success of

this model to other post-primary schools throughout the country.

Students have a valuable contribution to make to the effectiveness of their school and their involvement

in the operation of the school is itself a valuable part of the education process for the students.

A Student Council provides an opportunity for students to engage in a structured partnership with

teachers, parents and school managers in the operation of their school. Research indicates that Student

Councils can improve academic standards and reduce dropout rates in schools.* Student Councils can

create a sense of ownership of the school and its activities among the student population.

The establishment of a Student Council gives students an opportunity to acquire the sort of

communication, planning and organisational skills which will be of benefit to them in their future lives.

It enables students to take responsibility for projects, and to demonstrate that they can manage and

bring such projects to successful conclusion. Moreover, the contribution made by a Student Council to

the development of school policy in a number of areas can have significant benefits for students and

the school. School policies are far more likely to be successful where they are clearly understood and

accepted by all partners within the school community.

The Education Act recognises that students of a school will take the lead role in the establishment and

operation of a Student Council, although the Act also provides an important role for the Board of

Management in supporting the establishment and ongoing development of the Student Council.

At the end of the day, a Student Council will thrive only if students themselves are committed to the

concept and to making it work.

The role of the Student Council

The main role of a Student Council as set out in the Education Act is "to promote the interests of the

school and the involvement of students in the affairs of the school, in co-operation with the board,

parents and teachers".

A Student Council will set its own objectives, which will vary from school to school. Some general

objectives could include:

- To enhance communication between students, management, staff and parents

- To promote an environment conducive to educational and personal development

- To promote friendship and respect among pupils

- To support the management and staff in the development of the school

- To represent the views of the students on matters of general concern to them

The Office for Student Affairs is an office that is devoted to creating an integrated learning experience
that will help students reach their educational, social, personal, and professional aspirations. In
consonance with the institution’s vision mission, the Office aims to provide occasions for growth and
advancement through cultural, spiritual, athletic, co-curricular, and extra-curricular activities with the
end in view that students may develop into well-rounded individuals. It endeavors to nurture a campus
environment where academic and non-academic pursuits are balanced thereby making campus life
more enriching, interesting, and worthwhile for students.

The role of the Office for Student Affairs is twofold. First, it functions as an administrative office and
secondly, it aims to serve the needs of students in the many aspects of campus life. Consequently, in
addition to its function of overseeing student activities and interests, the office operates to promulgate
and/or enforce institutional and/or DepEd or CHED policies, rules and regulations concerning student
organizations, programs, activities, student comportment, and student discipline.

Under the Office for Student Affairs are the following:

1. Guidance and Counseling

2. Health Services

3. Student Publication

4. Student Activities/Programs

5. The College Student Council and other Student Organizations

6. Campus Ministry

7. Sports Affairs

8. Auxiliary Services such as the canteen, bookstore, dormitory, and certain scholarships

9. Student Disciplinary Tribunal

Specifically, the Office for Student Affairs is tasked to:

1. Promulgate policies, guidelines, rules, and regulations on student organizations, activities, programs,
conduct, and discipline in consultation with the executive committee.

2. Implement policies, guidelines, rules, and regulations on student organizations, activities, programs,
conduct, and discipline.

3. Promulgate guidelines on uniforms and IDs in consultation with the executive committee and to
implement the same.

4. Oversee the functions, duties, and the attainment of the objectives of the College Student Council in
so far as they do not conflict with the law, DepEd or CHED orders, rules, or issuances, and/or school
rules and regulations.

5. Regulate student organizations and all student activities.

6. Direct the evaluation of all student activities and programs.

7. Approve or disapprove all announcements or postings inside the campus.

8. Conduct Freshmen Orientation Programs in coordination with the Adviser on Student Activities and
the committee s/he may form.
Student affairs is a large, complex area of campus operations and is comprised

of many departments with professionals from a wide variety of educational

backgrounds. Long provides a short history of the student affairs profession,

followed by an overview of the departments in a typical student affairs division

and the responsibilities and goals of the professionals in those departments.

Long also describes the values that guide the work of student affairs professionals and the
contemporary challenges they face.

Stairs must satisfy strict building codes meant to ensure safety and climbing comfort. We're so used to
uniform, professionally built staircases that the slightest discrepancy between steps creates a tripping
hazard. Tall steps make climbing hard. Shallow steps are uncomfortable and dangerous. Since there's so
little room for error, building stairs requires careful layout and some potentially tricky calculations. Start
by consulting your building codes office for local guidelines. Then, follow the procedure laid out on these
pages--taking plenty of time to plan correctly. We used steps leading to a backyard deck as an example.


• Allows paddlers easier access from a steep or eroding shoreline

• Aesthetically pleasing; less disruptive to “natural” shoreline than concrete

• May be easily and inexpensively repaired, if damaged

• Wood also give a more comfortable and warm look to your home.

• It is more welcoming then metal

• wooden stairs will produce less noise than metal ones.


• Installation may be costly and may require alteration to shoreline

• May be susceptible to undercutting

• May require maintenance as stairs age and weather

• Wooden staircase are less resistant then metal staircases.

• They can be easily damaged by high humidity and by extreme temperatures.

• Wood also needs to be treated for pests.


Probably the most popular construction material for houses, wood has many advantages. It is relatively
lightweight and unlike steel, easy to cut. It’s also easy to add decorative elements to wood
constructions to increase curb appeal.

The disadvantages to wood construction include vulnerability to water damage, fire, decay, and
termites. When purchasing a wood construction home, it’s very important to check the integrity of
support beams, etc. Wood is also a less environmentally sustainable choice than green building
materials such as composite lumber or recycled steel.
Wood and concrete have been used in construction for thousands of years and for good reason. Both
materials have properties that make them appealing building materials.

Advantages of Concrete

Very durable

Low maintenance

Does not rust, rot, or burn

Absorbs & retains heat

Wind & water resistant

Non-combustible (fire safe)

Effective soundproofing material

Disadvantages of Concrete

More expensive

Heavy & difficult to transport (although lightweight concrete does exist)

Limited versatility

Slower to build with

Susceptible to efflorescence

An In-Depth Look at Timber Construction

Wood, or timber, is light, cheap, and easy to work with. As a natural resource, it is readily available and
presents promising opportunities for forest and construction industries. However, according to many
building inspectors, wood is a hot spot for mold growth and moisture-related problems that undermine
the structural integrity of buildings. Here are some more advantages and disadvantages of wood and
mass timber construction.

Benefits and Drawbacks of Mass Timber Construction

Just like concrete, timber construction has its benefits and its drawbacks.

Sustainability and the Environment

THEN there's the question of sustainability…

When we think of wood, we often imagine a natural, sustainable, and environmentally friendly building
material. And in this case it is. Wood actually stores carbon dioxide, which results in a reduction of
carbon dioxide emissions by 2,432 metric tonnes (equal to taking 500 cars off the road for a year).

Concrete, on the other hand, is often criticized for being unsustainable because it takes a lot of
resources to produce. Actually, cement, a main component of concrete, is one of the world’s biggest
contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. The logic there is that because cement production is bad for
the environment, so is concrete production. But the truth is far more complicated than that.

Let's take a closer look…

Concrete is durable—its lifespan is actually two or three times longer than other common building

One of the main raw ingredients in concrete is limestone, which is the most abundant mineral on Earth.

Concrete is great at absorbing and retaining heat, which means it will increase energy efficiency of a
building and reduce HVAC expenses.

Its reflective properties will decrease air-conditioning costs in the hot summer months.

Concrete produces little waste as it can be produced in batches specific to project needs.

Which Is Safer: Concrete or Wood?

Last but not least, there's safety. Generally speaking, wooden structures are less safe than concrete
buildings. They are vulnerable to external threats like fire, wind, insects, moisture, and mold—all of
which can result in structural damage and safety risks.

While concrete is a durable, strong material, it too poses some safety risks. For example, should a
concrete structure collapse, either at a jobsite or once the building is occupied, falling concrete could
seriously injure anyone who is nearby.

Also, if you're a builder working with dry or wet concrete, you may experience irritation of the eyes,
nose, throat, or skin. Furthermore, exposure to silica, a main ingredient in dry concrete, can even cause
far more serious health issues, including lung cancer.

Now that you know everything about building with concrete and wood, which would you choose? Let us
know by commenting below!

The step is composed of the tread and riser.


The part of the stairway that is stepped on. It is constructed to the same specifications (thickness) as any
other flooring. The tread “depth” is measured from the outer edge of the step to the vertical “riser”
between steps. The “width” is measured from one side to the other.


The vertical portion between each tread on the stair. This may be missing for an “open” stair effect.