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Fitoterapia 73 Ž2002.

251᎐254

Short report

Antibacterial activity of Hygrophila stricta


and Peperomia pellucida
M.R. KhanU , A.D. Omoloso
Department of Applied Sciences, Papua New Guinea Uni¨ ersity of Technology, P.M.B. Lae,
Papua New Guinea

Received 12 September 2001; accepted 5 March 2002

Abstract

The crude methanolic extracts of H. scricta and P. pellucida were fractionated into petrol,
dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol. All the crude extracts and the fractions
exhibited a very good level of broad spectrum antibacterial activity. The fractions were more
active than the crude extracts. The petrol fraction of H. stricta and the butanol fraction of P.
pellucida were particularly good. No activity was noticed for the moulds tested. 䊚 2002
Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Hygrophila scricta ŽLind.; Peperomia pellucida ŽL.. Kunth; Antibacterial activity

Plant. Hygrophila scricta ŽLind. ŽAcanthaceae . and Peperomia pellucida ŽL.. Kunth
ŽPiperaceae. aerial parts collected in November 2000 from PNG University of
Technology campus, Papua New Guinea ŽPNG.. The plants were identified at the
Forestry Department, PNG University of Technology, Lae, where voucher speci-
mens are deposited.

Uses in traditional medicine and other reported activities. No use reported for H.
stricta, but other species are used for wounds, sprained limbs, swellings, abscesses,
headache, jaundice, rheumatism, and as an aphrodisiac. In the Morobe province of
PNG, H. stricta is known as a malaria plant and is used for malaria, fever,

U
Corresponding author. Tel.: q675-473-4550; fax: q675-473-4558.
E-mail address: rkhan@dg.com.pg ŽM.R. Khan..

0367-326Xr02r$ - see front matter 䊚 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 3 6 7 - 3 2 6 X Ž 0 2 . 0 0 0 6 6 - 7
252 M.R. Khan, A.D. Omoloso r Fitoterapia 73 (2002) 251᎐254

rheumatic pains, wounds and headache ŽInformation from a local herbal healer,
Mr Siki Becka of Lae, PNG.. P. pellucida is used for wounds, boils, pimples,
abscesses, abdominal pain, colic, gout, kidney troubles, rheumatic pain, fatigue,
headache w1,2x, to cure measles, small-pox, male impotence, mental disorders and
breast cancer w3x. In Lae and at the University of Technology, a number of staff
including one of the authors, are taking P. pellucida in a salad or as a cooked
vegetable and feel relieved from rheumatic joint pains, mostly within 8 h of
ingestion wM.R. Khan observationx. P. pellucida is reported to have analgesic
activity in mice w3x, antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, antimutagenic activity w2x and antifungal
activity against plants fungi w4x.

Previously isolated classes of constituents. H. stricta; none. P. pellucida; essential


oil and flavonoids w2x.

Tested material. The MeOH Soxhlet extract of dried whole plant material Ž H.
stricta and P. pellucida. yields: 19.7 and 11.2%, respectively. was partitioned with
petrol ŽP. Ž60᎐80 ⬚C., CH 2 Cl 2 ŽD., EtOAc ŽE. and butanol ŽB.. Yields Ž%. and
positive tests on phytochemical screening w5x. H. stricta: P Ž1.3; alkaloids, sterols,
tannins, triterpenoids., D Ž3.4; alkaloids, sterols, tannins, triterpenoids., E Ž1.3;
saponins, sterols, tannins, triterpenoids., B Ž4.23; alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins,
sterols, tannins, triterpenoids.; P. pellucida: P Ž3.3; alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins,
sterols, tannins, triterpenoids., D Ž1.1; alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, sterols,
tannins, triterpenoids., E Ž0.3; flavonoids, saponins, sterols, tannins, triterpenoids.,
B Ž4.50; flavonoids, saponins, tannins ..

Studied activity. Antimicrobial activity by disk diffusion method w6,7x.

Used microorganisms. Bacteria, protozoan Žlisted in Table 1. and fungi Ž Aspergil-


lus niger, A. rubrum, A. ¨ ersicolor, A. ¨ itis, Candida albican, C. tropicalis, Clados-
porium cladosporiods, Penicillium notatum, Trychophyton mentagrophytes, T. tronsu-
rum. were obtained from the stock cultures of the Microbiology Laboratory,
Department of Applied Sciences, Lae.

Results. Antimicrobial activity reported in Table 1. No activity was shown against


the fungi tested.

Conclusions. The crude methanolic extracts of H. scricta and P. pellucida and the
fractions obtained with petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol exhib-
ited a very good level of antibacterial activity. Fractionation enhances the activity
as compared to the crude extracts. The petrol fraction of H. stricta and the butanol
fraction of P. pellucida were particularly good Ž18᎐20 mm.. No activity was
observed against the moulds tested.
Table 1
Antimicrobial activity of extractives from Hygrophila stricta and Peperomia pellucidaa

Microorganisms Hygrophila stricta Peperomia pellucida Refb


C P D E B C P D E B Chl

Bacillus cereus Gq 8 18 16 8 14 8 12 10 12 18 16
B. coagulans Gq 10 18 12 16 14 8 14 8 14 20 18

M.R. Khan, A.D. Omoloso r Fitoterapia 73 (2002) 251᎐254


B. megatarium Gq 8 20 18 18 16 10 16 14 14 18 16
B. subtilis Gq 8 18 16 12 10 8 18 16 12 18 16
Lactobacillus casei Gq 10 20 12 16 12 10 14 12 12 18 18
Micrococcus luteus Gq 8 20 10 16 10 8 14 14 10 18 16
M. roseus Gq 8 18 8 18 12 8 12 14 12 20 6
Staphylococcus albus Gq 10 18 10 12 16 12 16 10 14 16 16
S. aureus Gq 10 16 8 8 8 8 16 12 12 18 18
S. epidermidis Gq 10 18 12 16 10 10 18 14 12 18 0
Streptococcus faecalis Gq 8 20 12 12 14 12 12 12 10 20 0
St. pneumoniae Gq 8 20 14 16 14 8 14 12 8 18 18
Agrobacterium tumefaciens Gy 10 20 18 18 18 10 14 10 12 16 12
Citrobacter freundii Gy 8 18 18 12 18 10 14 12 12 18 16
Enterobacter aerogenes Gy 10 20 14 8 16 8 16 12 14 18 18
Escherichia coli Gy 8 20 16 12 16 12 16 14 14 20 18
Klebsiella pneumonia Gy 10 18 12 14 18 10 14 12 12 18 0
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gy 8 18 18 18 18 8 18 12 10 16 18
Proteus mirabilis Gy 10 18 14 16 12 10 12 10 12 16 16
P. ¨ ulgaris Gy 10 20 14 14 16 8 16 12 10 16 18
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gy 8 18 12 12 12 10 18 14 8 20 24
Salmonella typhi Gy 8 18 12 12 10 10 14 16 12 18 16
Sa. Typhymurium Gy 10 20 10 14 14 8 14 12 12 18 16
Serratia marcescens Gy 10 20 8 12 14 8 16 12 10 16 0
Trichomonas ¨ aginalis Pz 10 18 12 16 16 12 16 14 12 18 16
a
Values are inhibition zone Žmm. and an average of triplicate. C, unfractionated methanol extract; P, petrol Ž60᎐80 ⬚C. fraction; D, CH 2 Cl 2 fraction; E,
EtOAc fraction Žconc. 4 mgrdisc., G, gram reaction of bacterium; Pz, protozoan.
b
Chl, chloramphenicol Ž10 ␮g disc Oxoid B42960..

253
254 M.R. Khan, A.D. Omoloso r Fitoterapia 73 (2002) 251᎐254

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Mr J. Simaga of Forestry Department, for the


identification of the plant.

References
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