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Kukuh Wahyu Pratomo/20170810142

Assignment 1 ; Environment Analysis

Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta



One of the essential things in designing curriculum design, one of which is

environmental analysis or can be called a constraint analysis or can also be called a “situation
analysis” (Richards, 2001). Environmental analysis or constraint analysis is one of the essential
parts in developing a design curriculum because this is the basic level to measure the level of
learning to be carried out. The purpose of the curriculum design process is to provide solutions
based on environmental factors that are appropriate for learning that will support the learning
The analysis of the environment (Tessmer, 1990) this includes considering factors that
will have a powerful impact on choices about the course's objectives, what to include in the
course, and how to teach and evaluate it. Environmental analysis has several elements that must
analyze, including nature learners, the nature of the teacher, and the situation. Constraints
analysis can analyze several factors derived from teachers, learners, and situations. In
compiling the curriculum design, the teacher will experience obstacles that will be experienced
by the teacher when designing the design curriculum that is with the three elements themselves.
Therefore these constraints will have an impact in solving students' problems in the teaching
and learning process.


In environmental analysis, constraints in curriculum design do not all have harmful

effects, but constraints can also have positive effects. Therefore we must show some essential
aspects of compiling the design curriculum. In the process of making a curriculum design, we
have to consider many essential aspects of the process of environmental analysis. Aspects that
can affect constraints in the process of making curriculum design include 1). Learners, 2),
Teachers, 3). The situation, 4) Time, and 5). Facilities.
The first is learners. The learners have various constraints. Several factors affect
learners in the learning process, there are internal and external factors. Internal factors faced
by the learners, there are: (1). Attitudes towards learning, (2). Learning Motivation, (3).
Learning Concentration, (4). Feeling confident. (1). Attitude towards learning means that
during the learning process, the attitude of students will determine the outcome of the learning.
Misunderstanding the learners of the learning will lead to the wrong attitude in the learning
process. This student's attitude will influence it on their environment. The lousy attitude will
affect the students to feel that they do not care about learning anymore. As a result, there will
be no conducive learning process, (2). Motivation, learning motivation is a way of thinking
that drives the learning process. Weak motivation or lack of learning motivation will give an
adverse effect on learning activities. (3). The concentration of Learning, the concentration of
learning is the ability to focus attention on the lesson. Concentration focused on the content of
learning materials and the process of obtaining them. To strengthen the attention of the teacher
needs to do a variety of teaching and learning strategies and pay attention to learning time and
breaks interlude. (4) Confidence, confidence arises from the desire to manifest themselves,
acting and succeeding. In terms of development, self-confidence can arise thanks to the
recognition of the environment.

The second is the teacher. Constraints can have a positive effect on teachers because
with these constraints, and the teacher can become very well trained and able to make
something in the classroom for themselves. Of course, this will have a positive impact on the
design curriculum. However, that does not mean the teacher does not have constraints. Some
of the constraints faced by teachers, there are : (1). The method, if the teacher is not enjoyable
will certainly make the way to teach will be boring, bad of communication, material that is too
concentrated, this caused lack of preparation in compiling the design curriculum., (2). Students'
character, each person has their character; we cannot compare one with another. Therefore the
teacher must find a way to support the application of learning models and methods, formulation
of the applied approach strategy.

The Third is the situation. The situation can also be constraints in designing a design
curriculum because of the different policies of each country in using English is different. For
example, it will be easier to use English if in a country using English as a second language
rather than being a foreign language, so it is more likely that students will have more significant
opportunities to use English language in outside the classroom.
The fourth is time, in the learning process, analyzing the time is very important. In
many courses, the time constraints in learning are critical because time may become limited,
or the objectives in learning have not fulfilled. In the time constraints, there are several steps
in making the design curriculum, and there are 1). Check out the local environment. It is
beneficial for knowing how much time should be needed to teach in class. 2). They are looking
at previous research. In making the design curriculum, of course, we need prior research to
make decisions. for example According to Pimsleur (1980), the time required to achieve
proficiency in mastering English for native Indonesian and French is 240 hours while for
mastering Hebrew or Japanese is 360 hours. and 3). Considering the effect of constraints on
the design of the course. There are two approaches to environmental constraints there are
working with constraints and overcoming these constraints. Working with constraints is that
we must overcome these constraints following the design curriculum. While overcoming
constraints is work that overcomes these constraints, so if something in the learning goals has
not completed then to achieve these learning objectives, the teacher may provide additional

The last is the facilities constraints, facilities in the teaching and learning process are
very important to support the creation of a conducive learning process. With the lack of
facilities used by the teacher, of course, in the learning process in the classroom will not run
well. Therefore, facilities become valuable to support the teaching and learning process.


Environment analysis, according to (Tessmer, 1990) environmental constraints has

influential factors that affect the success of goals in learning and what is involved in learning.
The constraint of analysis is having an essential role in making curriculum design because
almost of the parts contained in environmental constraints are very useful in considering the
process of making learning curriculum. In environmental constraints, several factors can
impact the design curriculum, namely learners, teachers, situation, time, and facilities.