Sie sind auf Seite 1von 59

Proposed Sustainable Redevelopment of Santiago

City Public Market Complex

By

Leonardo R. Durian

A Thesis Report Submitted to the School of Engineering, Architecture, Interior Design


and Information Technology Education in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Architecture

Bachelor of Science in Architecture Program

University of Saint Louis


September 2019
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
A. The Problem and its Setting
a. Background of the Study
b. Statement of the Problem
c. Architectural Thesis Goals/Objectives/Strategies
d. Scopes and Limitations
e. Relevance of the Study
f. Assumptions
g. Definition of Terms and Concepts
B. Review of Related Literature and Studies
C. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
D. Methodology of Research
E. Bibliography

CHAPTER 2: PRESENTATION OF DATA


A. Data Management
a. Present Condition
b. Primary Data
c. Tables and Graphs
B. Case Studies
a. Scope and Delimitations
b. Case Studies
c. Summary and Recommendations

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
1
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
2
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

A. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

a. Background of the Study


Public market is a year-round, carefully crafted, intentional and diverse medley of
owner-operated shops, and stalls. Public markets exist to fulfill a public purpose, showcase
a community’s unique character and culture while serving its everyday shopping needs.
Public market focuses on the sale of a full array of fresh, healthful, value added, and
prepared foods – often locally grown or produced. They are sometimes rounded out by
crafts and/or a variety of needed neighborhood businesses. They usually include a seasonal,
outdoor farmer’s market component. They focus on businesses that are locally owned and
operated which highlight the best of local foods, crafts, music, heritage and culture.
In Philippines, public market is always referred to as Palengke derived from the
Spanish word Palenque meaning wooden palisade and stockade (española, 2001). In
Spanish colonies of New Spain, Palengke is also described as the gathering place of indios
or the indigenous People. Palengke like a usual public market, it has wet and dry division
and 2 for few specific places a terminal has also been anticipated. A lot of people still come
and go in this place either to market their products or to purchase.

Public Market is a very important establishment in the community. Throughout the


world, there are a lot of public markets where large commodities are being sold and market.
Public markets exist to fulfill a public purpose, showcase a community’s unique character
and culture while serving its everyday shopping needs (Zaretsky, 2012). For years, the
public market has been a place for many farmers and vendors to sell their goods. These
public markets have been a link to extended community areas to their agricultural roots
and environs. With a Focus on promoting locally produced agricultural and artisan
products, these unique community specific enterprises are proving especially attractive to
Consumers seeking fresh, local products (Lochaven, 2012).

Palengke or the public market in the Philippines being the heart of every town has some
issues being considered as the corresponding reflection of poverty. Nevertheless, public
markets in the Philippines have been running still though some issues of sanitation and
health still emerged. The current Problems regarding public market in the Philippines tend
to make the latter Dying and dying more due to the rise of malls and supermarkets (Pabicko,
2002).

The redevelopment of the Public Market Complex is envisioned to promote economic


growth and development. The improvement of its facilities addresses infrastructure
development and social equity to convenient market place. This type of investment is worth
prioritizing since it is among the basic services the city must provide, likewise among the
economic enterprises the city must operate to raise local revenues and address the
increasing demands of the consuming public. Therefore, the concept of improving the
central business district demands rehabilitating the decaying public utilities and other
infrastructure facilities responsive to the challenges of transformation and progress towards
smarter Santiago City.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
3
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Brief Historical Background


From its humble beginning of being just a small native settlement along the banks
of a river, Santiago evolved into a Pueblo, reverted to be a barangay of Echague, became a
full-pledged municipality in 1910 until it finally became an Independent Component City
in 1994. In 1998, it was transformed into a Component City and later through a historic
Supreme Court decision, regained its original status of an Independent-Component City.
Reciprocating its great strides in infrastructure and utility development is its geographic
centrality with respect to the different towns and provinces of Region II and the different
neighboring regions as well. Forming a proverbial infinite tie, the three (3) major roads that
converge at the urban area practically polarized and shaped the city to become what it is
today known as the fastest growing economy in Region II. It is now being groomed as an
agricultural Center and the Commercial haven of the North.

b. Statement of the Problem

Santiago City Public Market is the biggest public market in the whole Region 2. It is
located at the center of the City and it covers a land area of seven hectares or 70,00 sq.
meters approximately. It caters the consumers from Santiago City and nearby
municipalities. However, there is still a huge possibility that it will perform more if it is
redeveloped.
The status of the Public Market doesn’t provide what the people of Santiago City
demands, despite the magnitude of its operations, there is no existing Market Code as guide
in market administration. It also lacks basic utilities such as a clean comfort rooms and
washing areas. Aside from this, the Public Market also suffers from sanitation problems,
population congestion and inadequate market sectioning. The buyers and the vendors alike
endure the dingy environment, the dimmed and narrow market alleys, the lack of parking
space, inaccessible water supply, lack of natural light and ventilation, and the absence of
loading dock. As a result, consumer protection is at stake, public safety and security is
uncertain. All these problems leave the Public Market and the Vicinity a sickly
environment

The chief purpose of this study is to conceivably formulate an effective and sustainable
and innovative approach on redeveloping the Santiago Public Market Complex.

Research Questions

1. What new facilities and amenities are needed in the redevelopment of the Public
Market in order to satisfy the people of Santiago City?
2. What Architectural and Functional features would the redevelopment of Santiago
City Public Market Complex obtained in order for it to be deemed sustainable?
3. What will be the overall impact of this redevelopment on the local community or
on the city as a whole?

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
4
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

c. Architectural Thesis Goals/Objectives/Strategies:

Architectural Thesis Goals

The main goal of this study is to make a new and a comfortable Public Market to
the people of Santiago city, that will cater the needs of every people around the community
and to the neighboring municipalities through sustainable approach.

Objectives

The primary objective of this study is to sustainably redevelop the existing public
market complex of which is in line with the development objective of Santiago City-to
pursue an integrated and sustainable development through the judicious utilization of
resources.

Strategies:

Distinctively, it aims to:

 provide new spaces, facilities, amenities and utilities that will satisfy user
 design and build a pay parking building that will cater parking needs and reduce
traffic congestion.
 arrange and implement a definite market sectioning.
 enhance entrance and exit ways that address public order, safety and convenience.
 improve sanitary conditions.
 incorporate sustainable building features into the facility.
 used rainwater harvesting and greywater renewal systems for showers and comfort
rooms.
 used the natural daylighting in the facility where it is most appropriate and
applicable.

d. Scope and Limitations of the Study

The scope of this study covers the introduction of the redevelopment of Santiago City
Public Market Complex; the whole Old Public Market and a portion of the New Public
Market, providing architectural and conceptual design for the development. It will focus
on increasing the relevance of a redevelopment of Santiago City public market for the
customers around the city, with wise consideration of both its aesthetic and functionality.
The study is limited to the role of the Santiago City Public Market to economic, social and
environmental impact to the city including the province and other neighboring
municipalities. The infrastructures will be designed in accordance to the following:
principles of sustainable architecture, Building Code of the Philippines, Sanitation Code of
the Philippines, and other policies and legal framework concerning the developments.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
5
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

e. Purpose/ Relevance or Significance of the Study

This study will show how this redevelopment can positively enhance and improve the
Santiago Public Market through Architectural solutions that will enable to invite, satisfy
and give comfort to locals and neighboring municipalities and to give more opportunities

f. Assumptions

The redevelopment of Santiago City Public Market Complex will bring about
exponential growth through sustainable design not only to the market but to the city itself
maintaining Santiago City as Commercial Haven of the North and achieving its vision,
mission and objectives.

In addition, the surroundings of the complex will adapt to the advantage of sustainability.

g. Definition of Terms & Concepts

The following terms are conceptually defined to enhance the understanding of the
readers of this paper.
Public Market - exist to fulfill a public purpose, showcase a community's unique character
and culture while serving its everyday shopping needs.
Redevelopment - construction of new buildings in an urban area, typically after
demolishing the existing buildings.
Building Complex - a whole structure (as a building) made up of interconnected or related
structures. complex. college - a complex of buildings in which an institution of higher
education is housed.
Amenities - A desirable or useful feature or facility of a proposed or existing complex or
single structure.
Natural Ventilation - It is the process of supplying and removing air through an indoor
space by natural means, meaning without the use of a fan or other mechanical system. It
uses outdoor air flow caused by pressure differences between the building and its
surrounding to provide ventilation and space cooling.
Space Planning - Space planning is a fundamental element of the interior design process.
The space plan will also define the circulation patterns that show how people will move
through the space. (Grant, 2015)
Space Configuration - It refers to the analyzation of the process for producing forms and
spaces in the building and built environment.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
6
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Design Character - It is the distinctive perception of the envelope of the structure.


Aesthetics - It refers to those principles governing the nature and appreciation of beauty,
especially in visual art.
Conducive - Making a certain situation or outcome desirable. Should be productive,
convenient and have a relax atmosphere.
Circulation - The adjacency of spaces and the movement of the end users inside and
outside of the building.
Occupational Risks- any condition of a job that can result in illness or injury, a source of
danger, a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune.
Commercial Building - A commercial building is a building that is used for commercial
use. Types can include office buildings, warehouses, or retail.
Pay parking - The Automated Pay Parking Stations have been installed and are
conveniently located on each block and parking lot where pay parking is now required.
"Pay to Park" signs have been erected to designate which parking spaces and parking lots
are now required to have paid parking receipts displayed in parked vehicles.
Sustainable Design - refers to the incorporation of the principles of passive cooling,
natural daylighting and ventilation, sustainable and alternative materials, and efficient
building utility systems into the facility.
Passive-Tropical Design - It is all about achieving thermal comfort through the use of
passive design elements like sunshades, cavity walls, light shelves, overhangs, roof and
wall insulation and even shading from large trees to block the sun.
Energy Efficiency - The adoption of efficient practices, designs, methods and technologies
with the goal of reducing energy consumption that will result in savings without
compromising safety, health and product quality.
Green building - is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are
environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle from
siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and deconstruction.
Biophilic design- is an approach to architecture that seeks to connect building occupants
more closely to nature. Biophilic designed buildings incorporate things like natural lighting
and ventilation, natural landscape features and other elements for creating a more
productive and healthy built environment for people.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
7
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

B. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


This section deals with the previous studies and works that were found closely related
to the research topic. Discussion of the related studies and articles both foreign and local
were found relevant to the totality of the current study. The related studies are discussed
and assessed on the following reviews:
Foreign Literature
I. YAGAN SQUARE

Architects: ASPECT Studios, Lyons Architects, iredale pedersen hook architects


Location:
Perth WA, Australia
Category:Market
Project / Design Architect:
Lyons Architects in collaboration with
iredale pedersen hook architects
Area:
3650.0 m2
Project Year:
2017

THE PROJECT

Yagan Square is a project of local and state significance for the city of Perth and
Western Australia, located at the east end of the new MRA City link development which
seeks to physically reconnect Northbridge with the Perth’s CBD (and the Swan River).
Yagan Square is a major civic space and performance venue, a flora reserve, a fresh food
market, public realm art destination, a watercourse play-scape, a digital animation venue
and an indigenous education/visitor information centre.
The design develops a clear cultural idea about the place of Yagan Square within
the city and country and is representative of the idea of convergence: of geologies,
ecologies, tracks, narratives, of indigenous and non-indigenous people. The design
elements of the meeting place, the digital tower, marketplace, playground, landscape
ecologies and art are arranged to repair and amplify connections to the adjacent areas of
the city and Northbridge.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
8
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Repairing Ecologies

The project is a type of


urban ecological repair, both
physical and cultural.
The square is hewn from local
rock and crafted from mined
metals – stratified, eroded,
excavated and folded to make a
lasting architecture of place, a
part of the country and a part of
the city, at once old and new.

The project is formed through a convergence of tracks at the heart of Yagan Square,
traversing this new geology to negotiate the ‘split’ of the city, both in plan and section. The
tracks, traversing through the new landscape of the Square, provide an invitation to enter
and encouragement to pass through safely. A meeting place is formed at their convergence,
an unprogrammed space, resembling a clearing in the red earth, designed for city-scale
sociability, open to performative cultural exchange. Worn stone contours step down to
form an Amphitheatre, gathering around a staging area and fire pit for Noongar ceremonies.

Finally, Yagan Square cannot fully repair the ecological degradation that has occurred,
but it seeks to create landscape connections; moments of ecological value that contribute a
larger story, to connect the city with its prior landscape.

The watercourse adds delight


and play, and the combination of
flowing water along the edge of the
walking tracks attenuate the severe
heat of Perth. The shimmering
‘lakes’, which float above the
meeting place, provide dappled
shade within the heart of Yagan
Square.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
9
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

II. TULA FARMERS MARKET


Architects: 8 Lines
Location: Zaoksky District,
Tula Oblast, Russia
Category: Market
Architects in Charge:
Kochurkin Anton,
Moseshvili Maximilian
Design Team: Kochurkin
Anton, Zlatkin Aleksandr,
Balovneva Elena
Area: 1095.0 m2
Project Year: 2017

THE PROJECT

The prototype of the market served as a traditional wooden gable stall, which
traditionally traded at different times. In the architecture of the market, the forms like these
stalls are combined into one building, preserving the similarity. It symbolizes the unity and
commonality of interests
based on the many private
interests of farmers.

The architecture of
the farmers market reflects
the modern values of trade in
the food segment, where
“handmade” products and
individuality are valued. At
the same time, the shape of the building reflected the idea of rural cooperation, where each
farmer is firstly an individual, but with all of them together, because the cooperative way
of managing helps everyone to find their consumer, to respond to market conditions.
An important element of the market is the gardening and landscaping around the
market. The role of green space is to shape and ensure human scale and comfort for visitors,
especially in strong winds.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
10
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

The second principle of shaping served on open form. Initially, to save the budget,
only a roof shed was built, it was equipped with all the necessary infrastructure.

Then the farmers, whose products are sold on the market, themselves decided how
much to isolate from precipitation and cold and erected glass walls. So, in the first year
after the opening, a cafe-roll appeared, adapted for selling products at any time of the year
and weather. The following year, part of the sales area for agricultural products was also
fenced off with stained glass windows and now the market is adapted for selling farm
products all year round.

The construction of the market building involves retail space with sales areas for
farm products and agricultural materials, a cafe, product quality control laboratory, a
playground, an area for season
events and holidays, a recreation
area, sanitary facilities, and an
economic zone that includes an
office, a warehouse, and
workshops. These functions allow
the market to become not only a
place of trade, but a community
center where connections are
made, projects arise, new
intentions are creating, and
opportunities are founding. In
front of the building is a small area
for temporary art objects.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
11
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

III. MARKET LAND VILLAGE / AOMO

Architects: AOMO
Location: Lat Krabang,
Bangkok 10520, Thailand
Category: Market
Lead Architects:
Sivichai Udomvoranun, Varat
Limviboon
Area: 2000.0 m2
Project Year: 2017

THE PROJECT
The project is an extension of existing open-air market selling food, clothes in a
local community near the Suvarnabhumi airport. The developer wants to utilize the land to
fullest based on flexibility and capacity of the shops. All possible shapes, orientations, and
spaces were explored to the extent for the best use out of limited allowable 2,000m2
building area.

The design intent is to utilize natural


ventilation and light as much as possible
which is critical in the tropical climate and
also provide enough shading and rain
protection for the space.

The existing building has a


unique series of butterfly roof in
different levels. A roof break between 2
phases is needed to be simplified as a
transition

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
12
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

The roof is turned sideways to give a straight


line between the two. A series of Saw-tooth roof
form, with same roof slope as the first phase, is
applied for the second phase. The new roof
orientation is to captures northern light along with
glass louver walls, alternating between translucent
and colored glass panels, conducting the hot air out
on the top.

The glass walls will illuminate and give life


to the project at night when most people come to
shop. The building also works as a lantern to draw
people from phase 1 and from the main street further
in. As a result, this marketplace is significantly
shaped by local context, climate, and user behavior,
resulting in the straightforward architectural form
with an order, contrasting with busy activities
inside.

IV. TERRACED MARKET HALL FOR SULTANGAZI


Architects: Suyabatmaz Demirel Architects
Location: Sultangazi, 34250
Istanbul/Istanbul
Province, Turkey
Category: Market
Architect in Charge: Murat
Arif Suyabatmaz, Hakan
Demirel
Design Team: Eda Yazkurt,
Orhun Ülgen, Gökçe Ersel,
Alper Yıldırım, Elif. Yılmaz,
Mehmet Gören, Gizem Bayar
Client: Istanbul Metropolitan
Municipality
Area: 14600.0 sqm Project Year: 2016

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
13
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

THE PROJECT

The terraced structure


will hold adequate space for
vendors during market days and,
like most other market places,
will provide parking space for
the remainder of the week. In
such a dense urban area, the
building will rise vertically from
the site, which may seem
counter-intuitive for such a
pedestrian-heavy venue. The
architects have compensated for
this by designing the vehicle
ramps between terraces at a
gentle 8% incline, easily
walkable for most individuals.
The building also has set access
points along the main street, not
only to direct foot traffic on
market days, but to control
vehicle access during its use as a
car park.

In making this design a


focal point for the community,
the market hall and car park will
have an enclosed public area
that will host space for social
events, as well as educational
and administrative facilities.
The top floor of the building will
have a café and an observation
deck, as well as a vegetated
area to combat the severe lack of
public parks and other green
spaces in the district.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
14
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

V. BOSTON PUBLIC MARKET

Architects: Architerra
Location: United States,
Boston, MA, USA
Category: Market
Architect in Charge:
Architerra
Area: 28000.0 ft2
Project Year: 2015

THE PROJECT

The design of the first


public market in the country to
feature local, sustainable food
reflects the triumph of place-
making and architectural creativity
over mind-boggling infrastructure
complexity, transforming the
ground floor of a previously vacant
state office building into a vibrant
destination that anchors a growing
market district.
User Experience
Crisply detailed white canopies of corrugated metal are evenly washed with up-lights,
creating luminous canted ceilings that vault over 40 distinctive vendor stalls. Rectangular
pylons clad in metallic copper laminate conceal utility risers and simulate a pillared market
hall. Pendant lights of copper and silver define the aisles and central hub and evoke a
culinary theme. With overhead utilities left in shadow and copious use of salvaged barn
board, the overall ambiance is that of a bustling market street at twilight.

Vendor Experience
Creative stall and signage designs are encouraged to express individual vendor
personalities while exacting tenant design standards safeguard the appearance and

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
15
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

performance market as a whole. An ingenious system of regularized rental modules, sign


supports, and plug-and-play utility service connections eases vendor start-up and supports
flexible change over time. Aisle layouts and selling walls are designed to maximize
rentable area and encourage visitor/grower-seller interaction while integrated LED track
lighting highlights the bounty of food and optimizes retail sales.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
16
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Infrastructure Ingenuity
The design reconciles extreme site constraints – Central Artery Tunnel
ventilation shafts, Haymarket subway station, parking garage, and new Registry of Motor
Vehicles – with complex infrastructure requirements. With no basement, sub-floor utilities
had to be designed within a raised slab. With no ceiling plenum, overhead utilities had to
be thread through a morass of existing infrastructure serving the upper office floors.

Sustainability
The new market supports local agriculture and promotes land conservation while reducing
carbon emissions associated with food transport by air. Ninety percent of all the food sold
in the market is grown, caught or produced in Massachusetts, supporting the local
economy. The design minimizes energy and water use while providing for recycling and
composting. Designed to meet LEED standards for Interior Design & Construction, the
project is currently being submitted for LEED Silver certification

Flexible infrastructure concept

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
17
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

VI. THE STORES


Architects: Cavill Architects, Jasper Brown
Location: West End QLD
4101, Australia
Category: Market
Project Architects: Sandy Cavill,
Jasper Brown
Design Architect: Scott Wilson
Landscape Architect: Cusp
Landscape Architecture
Signage Design: Tony Gooley
Design
Area: 1010.0 m2
Project Year: 2015
THE PROJECT
The project refurbished and reimagined two existing structures. A new outdoor
room, courtyard and pedestrian thoroughfare is the only new built work.
The added structures occupy a crevice between the two existing buildings and we
considered these buildings the predominant context to which we ought to respond. The
interventions were conceived as origami-like structures, folding and opening to reveal and
conceal as required. The roofline of the new
external room defers to the hipped roof of the
character commercial building, while standing
respectfully apart from the historic façade with
an articulated junction between the two.
Landscape amenity was always considered
integral to the architectural response. The
landscape architect assisted us in maximizing
landscaping opportunities. Elevated planter beds
give further prominence to the landscape
through heightened visual access. Vines
cascading from these planters provide filtered
light and acoustic dampening to a hot and noisy
western elevation.
The tight nature of the budget called for economic construction systems. The use
of fiberglass roof sheeting within the market interior as inter-tenancy walls netted cost
savings while simultaneously benefitting the interior through light-transmission.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
18
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

VII. ORIGINAL LIFE MARKET

Architects: LATITUDE
Location: Beijing, Beijing, China
Category: Market
Principal Architect: Manuel N.
Zornoza
Team: Andrea Ramos Rodriguez,
Bo Liu, Jorge Cortes de Castro, Lisa
Bai, Lucia Bravo Guinea
Area: 2000.0 sqm
Project Year: 2015

THE PROJECT
The semi-exterior space at the entrance contains a resting area that helps to make
the space friendlier, and also to attract casual encounters among the neighbors of the area
into the shopping activity.

The interior space starts with the cashiers, small bakery, and flower shop that the
costumer sees first. The rest of the market is organized in thematic areas which have been
arranged using modular system, creating a common theme that defines the proposal: fruits
and vegetable area, butcher shop, dried fruits area, dairy products area, refrigerator area
and a wine cellar. These areas have their own organization and specific features although
integrated with the common language of the whole market.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
19
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

The design language is based on the materials applied for: the flooring which is
designed as a pattern of hexagonal tiles that adapts to the different areas, with different
shades of green;
The ceiling which is composed of a grid of tubular white structure that works as a
base for the lighting system.
Meanwhile, it hides the HVAC
infrastructure and gives a sense
of continuity to the whole
space.We designed 30 kinds of
furniture types, which are built
with the combination of wood
veneer and white tubular steel.
This system gives a sense of
coherence design at the same
time provides flexibility for the
likely changes in the products
arrangements.

The furniture has


been designed using the
same proportions to
construct wall-mounted
or low shelves, cashier
stations, counters, tables
and so on. This strategy
minimizes the cost of
production, enables an
easier set up and provides
a common theme that
unifies the entire space.

The whole design principle forms a unique identity that resonates with the healthy lifestyle
that the market promotes.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
20
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

VIII. MARLY-LE-ROI MARKET

Architects: Ameller Dubois


& Associés
Location: Marly-le-
Roi, France
Category: Market
Area: 16400.0 sqm
Project Year: 2014

THE PROJECT
The shape of the hall is simple, strictly square. Slight movements of the roof allow
the introduction of zenithal light facing north. The hall is freed from all columns, which
gives the building a complete flexibility of design and evolution. The underside of the hall
is covered with wood cladding which ensures pleasant acoustics.
Vegetation covers promote a good visual perception of the roof. It also improves
thermal comfort and facilitates rainwater management. The facades are equipped with
wooden sunshades placed horizontally or vertically, according to their orientation.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
21
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

The forecourt
Exterior stalls are disposed around the square hall. Stairs situated in the continuity
of the circulation around the stalls provide access to the parking below. A side road
controlled by retractable bollards
enables easy delivery to the shops.
The fully planted side slope to the
east constitutes a land reserve for the
future housing units. Situated
between the forecourt and the park,
and facing the entrance of the hall, a
small wooden-clad building gathers
under its roof the usher’s office,
additional rooms and discreetly
accessible restrooms. restrooms.

To the west along the Fontenelle Street, urban development follows the plan of the
future multi-modal transport hub. The patio illuminating the parking on the lower level is
generously planted with tall trees, embedded flowerbeds, assemblages of mineral matter,
thus completing the planning of the court.

The space in the vicinity of


the parking patio constitutes a
transitional space between the new
market hall and the housing project
and offers seating areas and shade.
The tops of the trees emerging from
the patio are similar to those in the
planted parking lot, creating a visual
link between the forecourt and the
landscaped parking.

The covered parking


The existing parking is maintained and brought up to standards. Thanks to its patio,
its extension benefits from pleasant and luminous parking space. An elevator gives access
to the court from the exterior as well as the interior parking. Its glass treatment makes it a
discreet and contemporary element of the court.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
22
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Local Literatures:
IX. CAGAYAN DE ORO COGON PUBLIC MARKET

THE PROJECT
Cogon Market or simply referred to as ‘Cogon’ is the city’s biggest public market,
the center point of business transaction and transportation in the nearby cities and provinces
of Mindanao. The construction of the market was finished in 2004 under the build-operate-
transfer scheme. The finished building has three storey, four escalators, an elevator and
blowers for proper ventilation. And was bought by the former mayor of the city, Mayor
Vicente Emano, for P259-million who boasted about creating it as a ‘world-class’ market.

Cagayan De Oro: 1MW Solar Power on Roof of Public Markets


Did you know that Cagayan de Oro Mindanao holds the record of the largest solar
power plant in the developing nations around the world and they called it 1 Megawatt
Photovoltaic Power Plant built by Cagayan de Oro Electric Power Light Company Inc or
(CEPALCO) and it is located at Barangay Indahag. This 1 MW of Solar Power can supply
up to 900 residential in the near Barangay.
CEPALCO is campaigning to use solar power as the alternative to a power source
in the City but after few years the City Mayor of Cagayan de Oro gave signal to use a solar
power in one of the public markets on Cagayan de Oro that public market is the Cogon
Market.
Plans are underway to activate the 1-megawatt solar power project to be installed
on the roof of a public market in Cagayan de Oro City.
The entire solar project will be spearheaded by the City Economic Enterprises
Department (CEED), which will cover a roof area of 1.2 hectares and potentially generate
around 1 megawatt of solar powered electricity installed at the Cogon Public Market here
in Cagayan de Oro City. And when this finally becomes operational, it will be the first such
project on top of a public market in the Philippines,” said Ian Mark Nacaya, city council
member and chair of the CEED.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
23
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

X. MUNNTINLUPA PUBLIC MARKET

THE PROJECT
Wastewater treatment facility in the Muntinlupa Public Market, Philippines
Public markets pose a challenge for waste management in cities and towns. Local
government of Muntinlupa (Metro Manila), with the assistance of USAID, installed a low-
cost waste-water treatment plant in the public market. The investment is recovered through
a small surcharge in the rental fee that vendors pay for their stall. The practice helped lessen
water pollution, saves money by recycling water and maintaining clean standards in the
market.

Wastewater treatment facility in the Muntinlupa Public Market, Philippines


The wastewater treatment facility was constructed by Public Market Cooperative, part
of the local government, in coordination with the United States Agency for International
Development (USAID) and a specialized firm that provided technical assistance. The
facility was part of a broader programmed to improve sanitation conditions in Muntinlupa
financed by USAID which included an important public awareness campaign on sanitation
issues.
A hybrid technology was selected as the most suitable for the circumstances. The
collected wastewater from the market enters first the anaerobic baffled reactor where it
undergoes several steps where the waste is screened and partially clarified until the BOD
level is reduced. Afterwards, the water proceeds through a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)
that aerates and settles the wastewater under sluggish conditions, then passes to a settling
tank with inclined plates to reduce suspended solids. The water is then filtered through a
cocopeat filtration system for the final phase of the process. The treated water is used in
the market for cleaning and flushing.
Other technology options were considered as well: sewage lagoons and constructed
wetlands were rejected because of lack of space; activated sludge, a technology commonly
used for high strength wastewater treatment, was rejected because of its high operating
cost.

Outcomes
The system helped to maintain clean standards in the market which prevented its
closure.
Due to the availability of recycled water, the market was able to save nearly P25, 000 a
month in pumping costs. The project has raised public awareness on proper waste disposal,
wastewater management, water and sanitation The facility is able to treat 210 cubic meters

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
24
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

of water every day at an approximate cost of P4.28 per cubic meter. The figures show its
efficiency and cost-effectiveness.
As a result of this innovative project, Muntinlupa City has received praise from local
organizations, local government units in the Philippines and other countries in Asia that
have included study visits to the treatment plant and technical trainings

Anaerobic Treatment Process (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor)


Sustainability and replication
The wastewater treatment facility is an excellent financial investment. With current
user fees of P5 per day/per stall it is estimated that the investment will be recovered in 3-4
years only. The facility is expected to remain in operation for at least last 25 years;
however, the electro-mechanical equipment life span will vary from 1 to 5 years which
includes blowers, motors, & pumps. The City of Muntinlupa should ensure there are
sufficient funds in hand for emergency situations or breakdowns.
Intergovernmental partnerships with neighboring cities could help to encourage other
communities to set up their own treatment facilities, then share costs for construction and
operations.
The Muntinlupa Wastewater Treatment Facility has set standards for other
communities to replicate the project as long as they are constructed for small scale usage,
since it is relatively small and can only effectively accommodate up to 3,285 cubic meters
of water per day. If the facility were be scaled up for larger communities, the equipment
might not be able to handle the workload or reach its maximum lifespan of 25 years.
Further, setting it up for larger areas will entail bigger construction cost and maintenance
expenses.
At present, Muntinlupa City is working with Calbayog City in replicating the wastewater
treatment facility, with plans to replicate the treatment facility in Barangay Bayanan which
has the second largest public market in the city.
C. THEORITICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
25
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

D. METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH

a. System of Inquiry

The data and studies were accumulated chiefly through the use of the internet, such
that the case studies and literature reviews of various existing proposals serve as references
for the development. Through the published articles and documents collected from the
internet, we the researchers, were able to organize and conceptualize our design vision.
Site ocular inspections, personal interviews, and surveys were administered through the
assistance offered by the Santiago City Municipality employees specifically that of their
City Planning and Development Office and City Engineering Office.

b. Research Designs

The paper employed descriptive research methods to address the objectives of this
proposal of a redevelopment of the Santiago city public market complex. Descriptive
research method is a fact-finding study with accurate and adequate interpretations of the
findings. Data collection, processing and analysis are directly related to the objectives of
the research.

c. Research Tactics

The first step in the process of our data gathering is having to travel on the
municipality itself. Dated February 09, 2019, an approved letter was submitted to the office
of the City Planning and Development Coordinator signed by our adviser in Research
Methods requesting for the CLUP and other supporting data about the project. On April
15, 2019, another letter was submitted requesting for more detailed information about the
site. Furthermore, Dated May 12, 2019, an ocular visit was conducted, followed by
interviews, and various personal observations.
Agency Visits and Interviews – pertinent data and information will be gathered from:
o City Planning and Development Office, Santiago City - for the CLUP, project
descriptions, lot descriptions, and budget of the proposal
All primary data were acquired through literature reviews of existing data documented
in books, journals, articles, published and unpublished papers and the internet. In which,
this primary source helped the researcher in the formulation of the design, concept and
planning strategies for the development of the study. Secondary data were collected by
means of various data gathering which include survey questionnaires, interviews and data
collection from the office of the Santiago City Planning and Development Coordinator.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
26
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

E. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Yip, Jeffrey., Obispo, C, Williams, B. (2010-2011). Second course, URBAN PUBLIC


MARKETecture(pp. 27). Retrieved from: https://issuu.com/jeffreyyip/docs/thesisbook
Sayed, Shaista(2017). Literature Review, Redevelopment of Kapadia Market at Matheran
(pp. 18-25). Retrieved from:
https://www.aiktcdspace.org/:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/2640/1/Redevelopment_of
_Kapadia_Market_at_Matheran.pdf
Dasari, Siddharth (2009), Redevelopment of Poorna Market Visakhapatnam (pp. 27-34).
Retrieved from: https://www.siddharthdasari.com/works/poorna-market-redevelopment/
Querido, Michael T. (2012) Public Market (pp. 10-11). Retrieved from:
https://www.scribd.com/document/231884956/Design-Market
Wanohi Maina Eric (2010) Redevelopment of Muthurwa Market (pp. 05)
Jewell, N. (2011, November 17). Barcelona’s Santa Caterina Market., from Buidepedia

Pabicko, A. (2002, July). Death of Palengke,


from The Investigative Reporting Magazine:
http://pcij.org/imag/Society/palengke.html
Zaretsky, A. (2012). What is a Public Market? Retrieved January 12, 2019,
from Public Market Development:
http://publicmarketdevelopment.com/what-is-a-public-market-2/
What is a Public Market? (2014). Retrieved January 17, 2019, from Public
Markets: http://publicmarkets.com/learn-more/what-is-a-public-market/
Dela Cruz, Nicole. Rehabilitation and Expansion of Puerto Princesa Public Market.
Retrieved from: https://www.scribd.com/presentation/242656428/Green-Public-Market
Lanie Mae F. Villareal. “Calinan Public Market Complex” Undergraduate Thesis.
University of Mindanao Davao City
Jill Suttie, Psy.D. “WHY TREES CAN MAKE YOU HAPPIER” Greater Good
Magazine. — Published on April 29, 2019
Amany Ragheb , Hisham El-Shimy, Ghada Ragheb “Green Architecture: A Concept of
Sustainability” https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042815062552
C. CAZACU Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov CIBv 2015 • Vol. 8 (57)
Special Issue No. 1 - 2015 “STUDY ON ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY
CONSTRUCTION”

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
27
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

CHAPTER 2
PRESENTATION OF
DATA

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
28
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

A. DATA MANAGEMENT

 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA

a. Present Conditions

Population Density
The City of Santiago is the most densely populated city in Isabela with 485
residents per sq km. Currently, 19 barangays are classified urban with population density
of 1,033 residents per sq km and 18 rural barangays with 230 residents per sq. km.
Population Count Trend

Based on 2010 Census, the total population of City of Santiago is 132,804 while
the total household population is 132,608. Of this total, 50.5% are male and 49.5% are
female or 97 females for every 100 males. The population growth rate is 1.70% per annum.
It is expected that the population shall double after 41 years. The number of households
stands at 30,823 with an average household size of 4.31.

Historical Growth of Population


Increase or
Year Population Growth Rate
Decrease
1939 34154 28558 9
1948 22550 -11604 -4.51
1960 39440 16890 4.77
1970 49688 10248 2.34
1975 59247 9559 3.58
1980 69877 10630 3.36
1990 90787 20910 2.65
1995 98542 7755 1.65
2000 110531 11989 2.32
2007 126244 15713 1.92
2010 132804 6560 1.7

Source: National Statistics Office

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
29
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Age – Sex Structure

City of Santiago population is relatively young. More than half of the population
(52%) comprise the children and youth (those aged 25 and below). Of these 41% is of
school age (those aged 3-21), with 26.6% preschoolers, 29.5% elementary, 19.4%
secondary and 24.4% tertiary. While male make-up 61.3% of the total school-going age
population in lower years. The trend slowly equalizes from elementary to tertiary level of
which female population covers 49.5%.

MALE FEMALE SEX


BOTH
BARANGAY RATIO
SEXES
No. % No. % (M/F)
School population (K-12) 50,940 260,443 51.12% 24897% 48.88% 1/1
Pre-school (3-5) 8,596 4,432 51.56% 4164% 48.44% 1/1
Grades 1-6 (6-11) 16,138 8,267 51.23% 7,871 48.77% 1/1
Junior HS (12-15) 10,522 5,405 51.37% 5,117 48.63% 1/1
Senior HS (16-17) 5,236 2,704 51.64% 2,532 48.36% 1/1
Tertiary (18-21) 10,448 5,235 50.11% 5,213 49.89% 1/1
Children (0-17) 49,586 25,590 51.61% 23,996 28.39% 1/1
Youth (15-24) 25,531 12,496 50.71% 12,585 49.29% 1/1
Reproductive Age (15-49) 71,697 36,375 50.75% 35,304 49.25% 1/1
Senior Citizen (60-over) 8,467 3,714 43.86% 4,753 56.14% 7/9
18-59 Years Old 74,073 37,490 50.61% 36,583 49.39% 1/1
18-over 83,022 41,427 49.90% 41,595 50.10% 1/1

Source: 2010 Census of Population and Housing, National Statistics Office

Urban-Rural Population Distribution


The City of Santiago is the most densely populated city in Isabela with 485
residents per sq. km. Currently, 19 barangays are classified urban with population density
of 1,033 residents per sq. km and 18 rural barangays with 230 residents per sq. km.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
30
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

POPULATION DENSITY

18%

82%

Urban Settlers Rural Settlers

Mother Tongue and Religious Affiliation

There are about 70 mother tongues in Santiago City. 60% of the population speaks
Ilocano. However, both English and Filipino languages are used as medium of instruction
and communication in schools and business transactions in the city. Roman Catholic is the
dominant religion with 79% of the population belonging in it.
In the 2011 CBMS data, results showed that 65.42% of the city residents were born
in Santiago City and the rest from Luzon provinces (22.8% from Isabela, 1.8% from Nueva
Ecija and 1.2% from Manila) and 8.8% from different provinces in the Philippines. Their
average length of stay in Santiago City is 12 years.
In the 2010 Census, trends showed that the migration pace of 117,736 household
population of ages 5 years old and over who have stayed and reside in the city 5 years ago
is 97.34%, while 0.98% came from other municipalities/cities in Isabela, 1.46% came from
other provinces and 0.22% came from abroad. Based on 2010 NSO data, there are about 2,
879 Overseas Filipino Workers from Santiago City. Approximately, it is 3% of the total
working age population of 85,708.

Labor Force

Based on 2010 census, the total working age population is 85,708 or equivalent to
64.6%. Again, working-age males outnumbered females, 50.6% to 49.4% respectively. In
2007 NSO Labor Force Survey, the total labor force is 83,631 about 55.97% (around
46,808) are having gainful work. Among the major occupation groups, laborers and
unskilled workers constituted the largest group making up 27.3%. The plant and machine
operators are the second largest group with 14.46%. The farmers, forestry workers and
fishermen are the third largest group comprising 13.66% of the total employed.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
31
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

 PHYSICAL DATA

MACRO SITE DATA


Political Boundaries
The absolute geographic location of Santiago City is situated between 160-35’00’’
to 160-47’30’’ North Latitude and 121-25’00’’ to 121-37’00’’ East latitude. It is about 79
kms. South of Isabela Province, City of Ilagan and about 328 kms. from Metro Manila.

PHILIPPINES N. LUZON REGION II

SANTIAGO CITY ISABELA

BARANGAY CENTRO EAST THE SITE

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
32
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Location and Land Area

 Located at the southwestern portion of the province, the city sits on a vast area of
fertile flat lands in the Cagayan Valley which is surrounded by mountain systems
that include the Caraballo Mountains on the south, the Great Sierra Madre on the
east and the Cordillera Mountain Range on the west.

 In terms of absolute geographic location, the city lies between 16°35‘00’’ to


16°47‘3’' north latitude and 121°25‘00’’ to 121°37‘00’’ east longitude.
 The City of Santiago is composed of 37 barangays, the largest of which is barangay
Bannawag Norte that has a total land area of 1,884 hectares.

 Population density for the entire city is placed at 3.86 persons/hectare with the
urban area having a higher density of almost 20 persons/hectare. Of the 37
barangays, Victory Norte has the highest density at 178 persons/hectare while
Bannawag Norte has the least number of populations per unit area.

 The City of Santiago is composed of 37 barangays, the largest of which is barangay


Bannawag Norte that has a total land area of 1,884 hectares. Barangay Victory Sur
is considered as the smallest having a total land area of only 12 hectares (see Table
2). Population density for the entire city is placed at 3.86 persons/hectare with the
urban area having a higher density of almost 20 persons/hectare. Of the 37
barangays, Victory Norte has the highest density at 178 persons/hectare while
Bannawag Norte has the least number of populations per unit area.

 According to the Provincial Physical Framework Plan, Santiago City accounts for
a total of 27,406 hectares (274.06 sq. km.)

Terrain Characteristics

 A generally flat terrain dominates Santiago City. Flat lands with slopes ranging
from 0%-3% cover 80 percent of the land area.

 Areas with slopes ranging from 3%-8% or those characterized with gently sloping
to undulating terrain takes about 17 percent of the city ‘s total land area.

 There are three sites where this particular slope category predominates: in the
south-southwest portion of the city proper, specifically in Barangays Patul, portion
of Plaridel and Rosario; in the southern section of the city close to its border with
Quirino Province; and in Barangay Naggasican.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
33
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

 Occupying the central plains of the Cagayan Valley, about 95 percent of the total
land area of the city have elevation of 100 meters below the mean sea level.

 The extensive flatlands in the area which makes rice cultivation appropriate does
not exhibit erosion problems. Except for some areas that exhibit rolling terrain, the
erosion potential of Santiago ‘s agricultural areas remain low.

Geological Features

 The extensive plains that typify most part of the city can be explained by the fact
that the alluvium type of rock formation underlies it. Alluvium is geologic
formation derived from the depositional activities of streams, rivers, and creeks

 Based on information provided by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and


Seismology (PHILVOLCS), there are no fault lines that traverse the central part of
Isabela. However, there is one such geologic feature along the eastern coast of the
province, the Casiguran Fault. This fault line, which stretches southward traversing
the province of Quezon and Aurora, poses minimal threat to the City of Santiago
as it is located several hundreds of kilometers east of the city.

 Aside from fault lines, there are areas within the region, which are volcanic in
origin. For instance, it has been established that the northern, northeastern, and
eastern part of the region are found to be lined with some dormant volcanoes based
on an analysis of the character of rocks in the area.

Soil Categories

 In a general survey made by the Bureau of Soils and Waters Management (BSWM)
of the Department of Agriculture (DA), it was found that there are seven series of
soils (with a total of 13 soils types) that cover the entire area of Santiago

 The Bago series, which is one of the two most extensive soil series in the study
area, covers the north and northeastern part of the city. In addition, pockets of lands
in the western part particularly along the Capuntuan Creek are also of this variety.
There are two soil types under this particular soil series: Bago clay loam, and Bago
sandy clay loam.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
34
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Climate Regime

 Type III covers most of the western half of the province including the City of
Santiago. This type of climate is described as having no pronounced wet or dry
seasons. But often, areas under such category have considerably dry climate
with rainfall values comparatively less those found in the eastern part of the
province.

Max, Min and Average Temperature

Rainfall and Rain Days

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
35
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Surface and Groundwater Resource

 An extensive network of rivers, streams and creeks traverses the City of


Santiago. On the eastern portion of the City is found the Ganano River, one of
the major tributaries of the great Cagayan River.

 Aside from its agricultural importance, surface waters are also being used for
other purposes such as for laundry and other domestic uses

 But the most important use of these rivers is in the provision of a natural
drainage system for excess surface and run-off water especially during rainy
seasons.

 The other major source of water in the city is its groundwater. The groundwater
of the city represents a major recourse as it provides the potable water supply
of the local people. The Santiago City Water District, for instance, gets its
source from numerous deep wells located within the city and distribute these to
its customers who are mostly found in the Población. Shallow well areas are
characterized by wells with depths within 20 meters and corresponding static
water level of six meter below ground surface (mbgs). The deep well areas are
those table depths greater than 20 meters and with static water level that exceeds
six mbgs. Difficult areas, on the other hand, are those with varying water table
depths (usually greater than 20 meters) which yield non- productive boreholes
in 25 percent of actual test sites.

 As far as the City of Santiago is concerned, majority of its area is suitable for
deep well construction. It has been estimated that about 90 percent of the city
are identified as deep well area with an average depth of 42.61 meters and a
static water level of 8.04 mbgs.

 The rest of the city particularly those areas lying in the southeastern quadrant
have been found to be difficult areas. Such areas are characterized by rolling
and undulating terrain
Access
 Santiago City is the gateway to the plains of Cagayan Valley. It connects several
provinces with the following major roads: Pan Philippine Highway, Santiago-
Tuguegarao Road, Santiago-Saguday Road, SantiagoDiffun/Patul Road,
Santiago Bypass Road, Santiago City Road, and Alvarez Boulevard.

 Serving as a bridge to the region’s provincial network, numerous bus terminals


are present in the city. These include, Victory Liner, Nelbusco, Florida, Baliwag
Transit, North Star Bus, Dagupan Bus, REM Liner, and Auto Bus among others.
The city can also be accessed through public utility vans, jeepneys and tricycle

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
36
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

MICRO-SITE DATA
Boundaries
 The site is located at barangay Centro East, Maharlika Highway, Santiago City

Area
 Old Public Market = 36,743.55 sq.m
 New Public Market = 28,652.54 sq.m
 Total = 65,396.10 sq.m
Land Use
 The proposed site classified as commercial zoned area under the zoning ordinance
of Santiago City, Isabela
Topography/Land Form
 All points referred to are indicated on the plan and are marked on the ground. The
site slope is relatively flat.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
37
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Orientation in Relation to solar paths and wind paths

N NORTH EAST MONSOON


SUN PATH
DIAGRAM

W E

S
SOUTH WEST MONSOON

Vegetation
 The site is currently having no vegetation due to presence of many infrastructures.

Visual Resources
 The site is surrounded by Commercial Buildings and Transportation Terminals
 It is adjacent to the National Road the Maharlika Highway.
Existing Structures
 The existing structures are the old buildings that are currently operating in the Old
Public Market such as the stalls in the wet market and some drugs store and some
commercial buildings in the New Public Market.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
38
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
39
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

 SECTORAL DATA
Social Sector
EDUCATION
City of Santiago schools continue to provide quality education from preschool
education to higher education. It is the home of 145 educational institutions offering
various education programs. One hundred eleven (111) of these are public in which 68 are
city government-run Child Development Centers and Supervised Neighborhood
Playgroups (SNP), 32 are public elementary schools and 9 are public secondary schools.
Twenty-one are private schools in which 6 are offering early childhood education and K to
12 Program. The City is also home to 13 higher education institutions that include 1 state
university, 1 public technical/vocational/post- secondary school, 1 university, 3 colleges
and 7 computer schools.
The City Government provides early childhood care and development programs
through its Child Development Centers managed by 54 competent and trained child
development workers. In school year 2015-2016 of the 6,296 3-4 years old preschool
children, 88.3% or 5,558 are enrolled in public and private schools. In same school year,
32 public elementary schools offered kindergarten program to five years old complemented
to the 136% participation rate or 4,180 enrollments of 5 years old children. These data,
however, includes the enrollment of non-city residents.
Elementary Education offered in 52 schools (32 public and 21 private) caters the
demand of 17,585 (6-11 years old) school-going age population. In SY 2015-2016, the
participation rate is 113% or equivalent to 19,902 which includes enrollees from
neighboring towns.
Secondary Education is provided by 16 schools (9 public and 7 private) catering
the demand of 11,466 12-15 years old schoolchildren. Of these, 10,722 are enrolled or
93.5% participation rate was recorded in SY 2015-2016. The increasing drop- out rate
recorded in high school level is being addressed by the DepEd Drop-out Reduction
Program and the Alternative Learning System.

HEALTH
The City of Santiago has 7 hospitals, one of which is government-owned and 6 are
privately-owned. The City Government health services complemented with the operation
of the government-owned Southern Isabela General Hospital (SIGH) and six (6) private
hospitals which are strategically located in the Metro población area.
The SIGH, a Level 2 Referral Facility accredited by DOH has 200 bed-capacity,
while Santiago City Birthing Center is Primary- Phil health accredited RHU for maternal
and child care has 6 bed-capacity. The 6 private hospitals have accreditations ranging from
Level I to III. The 7 hospitals have the combined total bed capacity of 455. This translates
to a bed-to-population ratio of 1:317, surpasses the standard ratio of 1: 2,000.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
40
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Innovative service delivery marked positive impacts on maternal and child health.
Based on 2015 results, using the WHO CGS OPT result of the 23,092 weighed children,
CHO has recorded decreased prevalence of underweight preschool children from .87%
(206) in 2012 to .39% (92) in 2015. The OPT results also recorded decreased in the
malnutrition rates among school children.
The City Health Office as a preventive, promotive and curative arm of the
Department of Health is tasked to respond to the increasing health problems and needs of
Santiagueños. The City Health Office is a Sentrong Sigla Phase I Level II Certified, PHIC
accredited for TB DOTS, OPB, Maternal and Child Package (MCP) and newborn
screening. The city government has 37 barangay health centers, 4 birthing centers and a
City Birthing Complex. These health facilities are managed by 52 CHO personnel
composed of 4 doctors, 2 dentists, 3 medical technologists, 1 pharmacist, 5 nurse, 22
midwives, 3 sanitary inspectors, 1 medical laboratory technician, 3 nursing attendants, 3
dental aides, 3 drivers, 1 DEMO and 1 utility worker.
The City Health Office ensures that accessible, affordable and subsidized quality
health care services and social health insurance coverage are delivered to every
Santiagueño. Aside of medical practitioners, other health service providers are trained and
involved. The CHO is supervising 37 barangays health centers being managed by 22
midwives with 326 barangays health workers and 37 barangays nutrition scholars.

HOUSING
Based on 2010 Census data, the city has a total of 30,076 housing units. 26,924 of
which are single house type, 1,674 are duplex type, 1,312 are multi-unit residences, 13 are
institutional living quarters, 138 are commercial, industrial and agricultural buildings being
used for dwelling. 15 units are not reported.
The status of tenure of housing units in the city has varied classifications. 67% or
20,653 of the housing units were owned, 9.96 % or 3,071 are renting, 21% or 6,420 are
occupying rent free with consent of owner, 1.1% or 336 are occupying rent-free without
consent of the owner and 1.1% or 343 are unclassified and not reported.
As of June 2015, the city has 30 subdivisions developed with a combined land area
of 173.26 has. Based on 2013 CPDO-DILG data on Inventory of Lands for Socialized
Housing, the city has 24.1586 hectares of land inhabited by 1,092 families who are informal
settlers and poor families displaced due to natural and human-made disasters. The lands
for socialized housing sponsored by the City Government are located at barangays Calao
East and Sinili. The City Government co-sponsored 6 housing projects namely, the Habitat
for Humanity (3 sites located at barangays Naggasican and Balintocatoc), the Gawad
Kalinga (2 sites located at barangays Rizal and Bannawag Norte) and the DSWD Core
Shelter Assistance Project (1 site located at Bannawag Norte).

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
41
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

PEACE AND SECURITY FORCES


The Santiago City Police Office is composed of 367 police force. It operates 2
substations and 5 police outposts (located at barangays Dubinan East, Patul, Abra, Batal
and Baluarte) to effectively monitor peace and order situation and to quickly respond to
emergency incidences within its respective jurisdiction. This translates to a police-to-
population ratio of 1:393, higher than the ideal police-population ratio of 1:500.
The peace and security force are being supplemented by 45 DPOS personnel. 9
DPOS are in-charge of the traffic management in major thoroughfares of the city. The
Crime Investigation Division Group (CIDG) that operates in the city provides essential
support to the police force.
To further enhance the Santiago City public safety and maintenance of peace and
order, the Public Safety and Command Center was established in 2012. The PSCC is a 24/7
surveillance facility equipped with the state-of-the-art area monitoring equipment
supervised by the Santiago City Police Office.

SOCIAL WELFARE AND PROTECTION SERVICES


The City Social Welfare and Development Office leads in sustaining a holistic
helping intervention to victim-survivors and Children in Conflict with the Law (CICL) by
way of protective services, social action and policy intervention. The CSWD supervises
the daily operation of the Half-Way Home and Balay Namnama which provide protective
care for the victim-survivors and CICL respectively. It has eight social workers focused on
specific concerns of children and youth, families in need of special protection, older
persons and persons with disabilities, women in especially difficult circumstances,
community-based programs and center-based programs.
The protective services of the city are supplemented with the presence of functional
PNP Children and Women’s Desk and the citizen’s active role in Tanggol Bata at
Kababaihan and the Barangay Council for the Protection of Children at 37 barangays.
There are five active NGOs (Helga Mosey Children’s Home, World Vision, Pamana and
ULS Pananagutan Center) providing welfare and protective services to families in need of
special protection.

FIRE PROTECTION
The Santiago City fire protection service is delivered by the main local branch of
the Bureau of Fire Protection under the supervision of the Regional BFP. It is equipped
with 6 serviceable firetrucks. The station lacks substation sites to entirely cover the city’s
fire protection response and demand. The BFP has 30 personnel that translate to 1:4,736
firefighter-to-population ratio. The city has been maximizing the generous assistance of
the Santiago Sports Athletic Association Fire Volunteers operated by Filipino-Chinese Fire
volunteers equipped with two advanced fire- truck and well-trained firefighters.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
42
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

JAIL MANAGEMENT AND PENOLOGY


The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology located at Batal, Santiago City
accommodates inmates of the MTC and RTC and detainees/ prisoners of the fourth district
of the province of Isabela. As of 2015, 625 inmates are imprisoned at the BJMP Batal,
which 67 of these are female. Of the 313 cases filed in court, 60 await trial, 245 on- trial,
1 awaits sentence and 7 were convicted. Since 1997, 152 were transferred to the National
Penitentiary in Muntinlupa. Apprehended minors or children in conflict with the law were
housed at Balay Namnama and at Regional Rehabilitation Center for the Youth in Enrile,
Cagayan.

Physical Infrastructure
ROADS AND BRIDGES

Three major roads basically comprise the core of Santiago City’s road network: (1)
Daang Maharlika, 10.467 kms national road that horizontally traverses the area from the
west to east (Sinsayon-Divisoria), strategically cutting through the center of the city, (2)
Santiago City - Ramon Highway (Mabini-Rizal), 5.499 km, is another national road that
stretches from Maharlika and extends to the city’s northern boundary; and (3) Santiago
City - Saguday Road, 9.476 km, a National Road (formerly a Provincial Road) which
begins from Camacam Road in Centro East and Quirino Province to the South.
As of September 2016, Santiago City road network has expanded to 542.946
kilometers road length, 53.399 km more than the recorded 471.541 in 2013. Of this total,
27.441 kilometers are National built roads (this includes Segment 1 of Circumferential
road) and Daang Maharlika, 25.45 kilometers of which are city roads, 387.95 km. are
barangay roads and streets, and 82.63 kilometers are NIA access roads.
In terms of road type, 203.88 km (42% of the total) are concreted, 23.46 kms.
(4.83%) are asphalted; and 260.13 kms (53.6%) are gravel surfaced.
The City of Santiago has 24 bridges spanning 1,083.05 meters wherein 7 are
national bridges with a total length of 324 meters, and 17 city bridges with a total length
of 759.05 meters. These bridges connect all clustered regions close to the metropolis and
relatively bringing the people closer to the government.

WATERWORKS

Santiago Water District (SANWAD) serves the water needs of City of Santiago
with its eleven pumping stations. There are 510 cubic meters/hour (1,870 gallons/min.) of
water being generated by the 11 pumping stations servicing at least 10,309 consumers. The
average monthly water consumption of residential consumers (9,183 connections) sum up

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
43
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

to 160,059 cubic meters per month, while commercial establishments (1,104 connections)
consume 34,941 cubic meters per month and government institutions (22 connections)
consumes 4,148.1 cubic meters per month. The number of consumers increased from 4,965
in 1999 to 10,309 or48%in 2012. The eleven pumping stations are capable of generating
the above demand for supply of water for the 18 Barangays with serviced connections.
Treatment facilities are also provided to ensure safety of every consumer through
its Hydro chlorinator and Drip Method. Of the 19 barangays not covered by the services of
SANWAD, the residents installed jetmatic pumps and/or cylinder pumps as potable water
source which were financed privately and others assisted by the city government for
indigents as communal use.

POWER

Power supply in the city is presently sourced from the Isabela Electric Cooperative,
Inc. (ISELCO I), a power franchise holder based in the Municipality of Alicia, Isabela.
Based on records, Santiago City is the number one consumer in terms of electric
consumptions. ISELCO I source its power from the Magat River Hydroelectric Plant of the
National Power Corporation through the Rizal, Santiago City sub-station of Transmission
Corporation.
In support to rapid industrial development in the area, the Magat River
Hydroelectric Plant provides 360 MW Hydroelectric Power which exceeds the energy
requirement of the region. The excess power is diverted to the Luzon Grid, a transmission
line of Transmission Corporation, to meet additional energy demands of Central Luzon and
Metro Manila Area. The operation of Magat Hydroelectric Plant resulted to annual savings
of about 2.06 M Barrel of imported oil.
Santiago City’s 37 barangays have already been energized. About 95.25 percent of
the total households of about 27,543 have access to the system. Residential consumers used
up a monthly average of 2,848,732 kwh. Data gathered from ISELCO states that the retail
rate schedule as of January 2012 for residential consumers is P 6.5417 and P 80.0419 for
commercial and industrial use.

b. Primary Data

TACTICS INTERACTIVE INFO. OBTAINED


Interview Engr. Panganiban Details of the site location,
and the nature of the original
CLUP proposal.
Observation Visiting the Public Market and Issues and concern on the
observing its current situation current situation of Santiago
and environment. City Public Market

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
44
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

B. CASE STUDIES

a. Scope and Delimitations

The scope of the study will focus on the principles and elements to be incorporated
in the development of the proposal and aims to identify the different strategies and
technologies that resonates to the modern needs of the Public Market. The study of systems
relating to human habitation and comfort defined by the internal and external surroundings.
The used of green and sustainable design system aim to provide solution to purposely
minimize energy consumption. The case studies to be discussed will mainly focus on the
project development ‘s sustainable design, planning concepts and considerations, elements,
and strategies.

b. Case Studies

1. GREEN ARCHITECTURE: A CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY


by: Amany Ragheba, Hisham El-Shimyb, Ghada Raghebs

Sustainability is comprehensive therefore a complex subject. It is of vital


importance to all because it deals with the survival of human species and almost every
living creature on the planet. Sustainable and eco-friendly architecture is one of the main
aims that humans for creating a better life have made as the ultimate model for all their
activities. For this reason, moving towards a greener architecture is well-thought-out the
main goal of the present architecture of our time (Mahdavinejad, 2014) At the rate the
development needs of this world is using the scarce and limited resources found on the
earth, it is becoming obvious that unless there are major changes to Man's thinking and
behavior, the future of civilization as known today is dubious. This complex subject has no
straight forward solution, especially considering that sustainability is a goal for all to reach
as they continually strive to reach towards it. Green architecture produces environmental,
social and economic benefits. Environmentally, green architecture helps reduce pollution,
conserve natural resources and prevent environmental degradation. Economically, it
reduces the amount of money that the building's operators have to spend on water and
energy and improves the productivity of those using the facility (Thomas, 2009) And,
socially, green buildings are meant to be beautiful and cause only minimal strain on the
local infrastructure. The buildings in which we live, work, and play protect us from nature’s
extremes, yet they also affect our health and environment in countless ways. As the
environmental impact of buildings becomes more apparent, a new field called "green
building" is gaining momentum. Green, or sustainable, building is the practice of creating
and using healthier and more resource-efficient models of construction, renovation,
operation, maintenance and demolition (Roy,2008).

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
45
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Green Architecture
Green architecture, or green design, is an approach to building that minimizes
harmful effects on human health and the environment. The "green" architect or designer
attempts to safeguard air, water, and earth by choosing eco-friendly building materials and
construction practices (Roy,2008).
Green Architecture and Green Design
Green architecture defines an understanding of environment-friendly architecture
under all classifications, and contains some universal consent (Burcu, 2015), It may have
many of these characteristics:
 Ventilation systems designed for efficient heating and cooling
 Energy-efficient lighting and appliances
 Water-saving plumbing fixtures
 Landscapes planned to maximize passive solar energy
 Minimal harm to the natural habitat
 Alternate power sources such as solar power or wind powernap-synthetic
 Non-toxic materials
 Locally-obtained woods and stone
 Responsibly-harvested woods
 Use of recycled materials
 Efficient use of space
While most green buildings do not have all of these features, the highest goal of
green architecture is to be fully sustainable. Also Known as: Sustainable development,
eco-design, eco-friendly architecture, earth-friendly architecture, environmental
architecture, natural architecture (USGBC, 2002).

2. STUDY ON ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CONSTRUCTION


by: C. CAZACU
Building Material. Friendly Materials for Constructions
We can say that in general how buildings look reflects how they are made. The
traditional architectures derived much of their form, from the limits of local materials to
the vagaries of local climate. A modern environmental architecture will have to respond to
the modern context, which is far more complicated than the one within which traditional
builders worked. Design decisions today contribute not only to local environmental
problems, but to regional and global ones, and to health problems as well.
A very important decision, for a construction designer is to choose the materials for
the future construction. The choices can be difficult, ranging from the traditional (sun-dried
mud bricks), to the modern like vinyl. For example, there are many variations of materials
from which a designer can choose:

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
46
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

 natural materials, those obtained from compounds found in nature (organic and
inorganic);
 environmental materials, which have a low environmental impact in the production, use
or recycling (whose processing requires low power consumption and are biodegradable);
 healthy materials, that does not harm the health of the individual (which can be natural
or synthetic, organic or not).
Keeping this in mind each designer will use the available material in according to
a large set of criteria like: in addition to being easy to work with, they should be resistant
to both compression and tension, have high resistance to heat, high humidity but also to
biodegradation, to present a pleasant aspect and not cost too much. From ecological view,
designers have many aspects that must be consider. Behind every material is a
manufacturing history often quite long and with environmental impact. Each step taken to
move or make the material carries an environmental or health cost. For almost every
material used in industrial countries, the price is high, and apparent alternatives are few.
The building industry can use materials much more sustainably than it does.
The guidelines for doing this are well known:
 look for substances that entail a minimum of transportation and processing;
 use local, natural materials and avoid as much as possible materials that emit toxins;
 use materials efficiently and ones that are renewable, recyclable, or both.
NOTE: Even with advantages like smaller tonnages involved, using metals and plastics
has far more environmental impact than using quarried materials because it entails either
purification from low-grade ores or heavy chemical processing. For example, of the copper
employed in U.S. buildings (nearly half of the total used in the country), some is recycled
material, but 80 percent is extracted from irreplaceable virgin ores and purified through a
process that is one of the largest sources of air pollution in the country. Polyvinyl chloride,
better known as vinyl or PVC--a chlorinated plastic that is widely used in piping, siding,
and windows. It is difficult to recycle, and its production and incineration generate
carcinogenic dioxins, vinyl chloride monomers, and other pollutants.
Protect the Environment and Ensure a Greater Comfort Using Friendly Materials
Humanity is currently looking for building materials that are environmentally
friendly, both in terms of production process and in use. Environmental problems and
natural resources crisis, led to an increased interest in finding solutions to remedy the
damage done so far, but also to avoid further degradation of nature. This is how the concept
of sustainable development, as it was defined in the '80s by the World Commission on
Environment and Development in report called "Our Common Future" as "development
that follows the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs ". In this regard, worldwide experts recommend to use
more fully organic materials, because their production does not affect any nature, are fully
recyclable, but that does not mean you have to compromise to comfort, the contrary, these
materials will keep a pleasant house atmosphere.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
47
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Modern buildings, like other artifacts of industrial civilization, represent an


extraordinary achievement with a hidden cost. They make life easier for many today, but
their construction and operation inflict grievous harm upon the environment, threatening
to degrade the future habitability of the planet. Quality is one of the keys to ecological
design. Environmentally sustainable buildings need to excel in many ways, from indoor air
quality and energy efficiency to durability and flexibility.

3. TREES CAN MAKE YOU HAPPIER


Research suggests that being around trees is good for our mental and social well-being.
By: Jill Suttie, Psy.D. at Greater Good Science

Trees help us feel less stressed and more restored


Probably the most well-researched benefit of nature exposure is that it seems to
help decrease our stress, rumination, and anxiety. And much of that research has been
conducted in forests.
In one recent study, 585 young adult Japanese participants reported on their moods
after walking for 15 minutes, either in an urban setting or in a forest. The forests and urban
centers were in 52 different locations around the country, and about a dozen participants
walked in each area. In all cases, the participants walking in a forest experienced less
anxiety, hostility, fatigue, confusion, and depressive symptoms, and more vigor, compared
to walking in an urban setting. The results were even stronger for people who were more
anxious to begin with.
“The psychological benefits of walking through forests are very significant, and
forest environments are expected to have very important roles in promoting mental health
in the future,” the authors write. Indeed, various other studies suggest that the practice of
“forest bathing”—deliberately spending time among the woods—can help us deal with the
stresses and strains of urban living.
In another recent study, Polish participants spent 15 minutes gazing at either a
wintertime urban forest or an unforested urban landscape. The trees in the forest had
straight trunks and no leaves (because of winter), and there was no other shrubbery below
the trees—in other words, no green; the urban landscape consisted of buildings and roads.
Before and after, the participants filled out questionnaires related to their moods and
emotions. Those who gazed at a winter forest reported significantly better moods, more
positive emotions, more vigor, and a greater sense of personal restoration afterwards than
those who gazed at the urban scene.
It may be that some of these benefits have to do with how forests affect our
brains. One study found that people living in proximity to trees had better “amygdala
integrity”—meaning, a brain structure better able to handle stressors. These findings and
many others—including an earlier review of the research show how even short amounts of
time in a forest can give us a break from our frenzied lifestyles.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
48
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Trees improve our health


Besides helping us breathe, being around trees may improve our health in other
ways, too.
Studies have shown that spending short amounts of time in forests seems to benefit
our immune systems. Specifically, one study found that elderly patients suffering from
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experienced decreases in perforin and granzyme B
expressions, as well as decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines—all related to better
immune function after they visited forests rather than urban areas. Though it’s not clear
exactly why this would be, a prior study suggests that trees may immunity thanks to certain
aromatic compounds they release.
Trees also seem to help our heart health. In one study, participants walked in a
forest one day and an urban environment another day, and researchers measured how the
two walks impacted their bodies. In comparison to the urban environment, walking in trees
lowered people’s blood pressure, cortisol levels, pulse rates, and sympathetic nervous
system activity (related to stress), while increasing their parasympathetic nervous system
activity (related to relaxation). All of these physiological markers are tied to better heart
health, suggesting that walking in the woods improves cardiovascular function.

Trees in neighborhoods lead to less crime


While some prior research has shown that green spaces reduce crime in urban
settings, it may be that trees are even more effective.
In one recent study, researchers looked at crime data for the city of Chicago,
computing a score for each census tract. Then, they compared that to the percentage of tree
canopy cover and park space enclosed in each tract. They found that for every 10 percent
increase in tree canopy cover, crime rates went down in several categories 11.3 percent for
assaults, narcotics crimes, and robbery, and 10.3 percent for battery.
These findings held after controlling for factors that might skew the results like the
socioeconomic status, poverty, unemployment, and education of the residents. Also, while
burglary rates went down 6.3 percent for every 10 percent increase in park space, other
types of crimes were unaffected by having a park nearby. In other words, trees were more
predictive of crime reduction than parks.
“Understanding the relationship between green space and crime can inform urban planning
to improve human safety and well-being,” conclude the authors.
Vegetation around houses helps reduce people’s fear, incivility, and aggression
potential precursors to crime. And trees may also draw people out of their homes, creating
an atmosphere of more “eyes on the street,” which aids in reducing crime. Whatever the
case, planting some trees may be an effective way to help communities stay safer.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
49
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

4. WATER PURIFICATION USING ULTRAVIOLET FILTRATION AND


CERAMIC FILTRATION
Case study on water purification explored the opportunities and challenges inherent in
investment in a new enterprise that would capitalize on two distinct technologies: one to
be sold for use by the family in the home and the other to be franchised or sold to water
providers at the village or community level. At present, no company in Nigeria is engaged
in these activities, although some companies are selling bottled spring water in the Nigerian
market.
Ultraviolet Filtration
Figure B-1 is a schematic diagram of the UVW unit, which was invented by Ashok Gadgil
of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California and licensed to WHI.
In the UVW system, the UV source is suspended above the water being treated
rather than submerged in the water. Water passing through the system is irradiated at high
intensity amplified by reflection. This configuration improves performance in challenging
environments and overcomes operating barriers, such as corrosion, associated with
conventional UV treatment technologies. The lower maintenance requirements enable the
UVW system to be operated in areas where labor pools may lack technical knowledge or
specialized education.
Bottom of Form

FIGURE B-1 UV Waterworks water filtration unit.


SOURCE: WaterHealth International, http://www.waterhealth.com.
The community water system can provide safe potable water for 3,000 people. WHI
claims third-party laboratories have validated that the UVW technology, operating at a
flow rate of four gallons per minute, eliminates at least 99.9999 percent of the bacteria and
viruses that cause water-borne disease. WHI applies the technology to a wide spectrum of
uses, from homes, schools, and hospitals in developing countries to residences that rely on
well water. Very little maintenance is required—the lamps must be changed once a year,
and the filters must be periodically backwashed and replaced. UVW technology is also
designed to be fail-safe.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
50
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Ceramic Filtration
Figure B-2 is a schematic drawing of the colloidal silver-enhanced earthenware
ceramic water filter first developed in 1981 by Fernando Mazariegos of the Central
American Institute for Research and Industrial Technology (ICAITI) in Guatemala. The
goal was to develop a low-cost filter, producible at the community level, that would both
clarify turbid water and make the water safe from bacterial contamination. The technology
is now promoted worldwide by Potters for Peace, which offers technical assistance to small
companies that wish to produce and market these filters. There is no license fee.
filter is primarily intended for household use, ideally as part of a water delivery
network that provides intensive educational efforts aimed at improving water hygiene
overall. The most economical model consists of a porous clay filter unit perched inside a
lidded 5-gallon, spigoted receptacle of plastic or clay.

FIGURE B-2 Colloidal silver-enhanced


earthenware ceramic water filter.
SOURCE: Drawing provided by SANITEC,
Cuba.
The clay for the filter is mixed with an
equal volume of sieved sawdust, rice husks, or
peanut husks, mixed with water, and then
pressed into an aluminum mold with a truck
jack and fired in a kiln. The sawdust burns out,
leaving 0.06–0.2 micron pores that will
eliminate all bacteria and parasites. The filter is
then painted inside and outside with colloidal
silver, similar to that used in the newer
refrigerators, which oxidizes the bacteria and
inhibits regrowth, thereby acting as a
germicide. The unit must be brushed
periodically on a clean surface to remove
particles of turbidity. Users of this equipment
must be trained in hygienic practices to avoid recontamination of the water.
The unit has a flow rate of about 2 liters of water per hour, which will provide
drinking water for a family of five to six persons. Another model processes 6 liters per
hour. Potters for Peace claims the filter has been successfully laboratory tested in over 10
countries on four continents, and it has been proven effective in eliminating coliform
bacteria, parasites, amoebae, and Vibrio cholera from water.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
51
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

5. GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE FOR CITIES


Dr. Andy Coutts CRC for Water Sensitive Cities School of Earth, Atmosphere &
Environment Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
What is green infrastructure?

“Urban green infrastructure (UGI) can be defined as the network of planned and
unplanned green spaces, spanning both the public and private realms, and managed as an
integrated system to provide a range of benefits” (Norton et al. 2014)
Includes:
 Green open space (GOS) (parks, etc)
 Street trees
 Green roofs
 Green walls
 Vegetated water sensitive design
 Urban agriculture

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
52
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
53
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

6. KICKSTARTER COMMERCIAL HEADQUARTERS


(A BIOPHILIC DESIGN APPROACH)

CONNECTION W/ NATURAL SYSTEMS


Throughout the design process, Ole Sondresen and his team worked to connect the
building and its occupants to the natural environment. The design highlights natural
processes, especially seasonal and temporal changes characteristic of a functional
ecosystem, which reinforces occupants’ cultural appreciation of the environment and
positively affects their health.
In the same way the building is responding to its local ecosystem, the ecosystems
of the courtyard, terrace, and rooftop were chosen to respond to the specific solar
orientations. Species at the base of the low light courtyard include river birches, ferns and
other shade and water–loving species, while the rooftop plants are native, sun-loving
varieties. The mid-level terrace has tall deciduous bushes which provide shading for the
office interiors in the summer. The landscape design further encourages seasonal
interactions with an edible garden that helps keep occupants connected to where food
comes from.
The tiered courtyard and rooftop gardens were designed to mimic lost habitats that
were once so plentiful throughout Brooklyn. The lowest court is actually a shady rain
garden where the building captures water from the rooftop to create periodic flooding. By
capturing the roughly 4” inches of rain that the building receives monthly, the courtyard
recreates the wetland habitat once common to the region. Leveraging this temporal event
is a practical and effective application of the Connection with Natural Systems pattern.
Using the unique form of the courtyard as a rain reservoir lets occupants witness site-
specific natural processes and cycles, while supporting natural habitat and biodiversity.
With operable windows and doors on each floor of the building, occupants have both visual
and physical access to these natural systems.
While these landscapes are manmade, their function mimics that of a natural
ecosystem, offering lower maintenance and bringing greater awareness of seasonality and
dynamism of natural systems.

NON-RHYTHMIC SENSORY STIMULI


A benefit of supporting local ecosystems on every floor is connecting occupants to
the dynamic characteristics of these systems. The use of native, site-specific vegetation
provides habitat for local and migratory species, including birds and insects. The stochastic
and ephemeral movements of the flora and fauna add complexity and intrigue to the
experience of the environment. Moving grasses, falling leaves, fluttering butterflies, and
the occasional birdsong create brief distractions for building occupants providing periodic
for the eyes and mind. Floor to ceiling curtain walls allow occupants to experience this
changing landscape from their desks and common spaces. Every space, except the black

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
54
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

box theater, is designed to have either a direct or oblique relationship with at least one of
the courtyards or the rooftop.
MATERIAL CONNECTION W/ NATURE
Natural materials play an important role in the structural elements and design
finishes of the building. Innovative reuse of materials from the existing site provided
opportunities for incorporating materials that, through minimal processing, reflect the local
ecology and geology, creating a distinct sense of place. Reclaimed wood from the previous
building had been local in origin. “Barns in this area were constructed of a medley of woods
as the settlers would clear the land for the fields and use the different species of trees for
what they served best. For instance, hardwoods like oak were used for the structure, rot
resistant woods like hickory and cedar were used for the siding, and so on.” Where wood
was required to be dimensionally stable (doors, window frames, etc.), Sondresen and his
team specified locally sourced salvaged heart pine (old beams tossed away to make way
for steel c-joists). Exposed nested fractals within the heart pine doors reinforce a material
connection.
PROSPECT & REFUGE
Understanding that Kickstarter needed an office with an assortment of spatial
conditions to respond to office and occupant needs, the designers distributed a mix of open
office floor plans and small, sheltered work and study spaces throughout the three floors.
The building geometry supports a hierarchy to the prospect condition, with a variety of
unimpeded views over a distance for surveillance and planning. The open floor plan on the
main floor provides views out over the interior work environment, and to the courtyard in
the center of the building. On the second floor, there are views into the main work areas,
the balcony terrace, and across the central courtyard. Finally, the rooftop has extended
prospect with sightlines down into the courtyard and work space, as well as out to the
surrounding buildings and skyline to connect occupants to the larger neighborhood.
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
Kickstarter’s mission is to bring creative projects to life. By investing in a space
that supports the health and wellbeing of their employees, Kickstarter enables its
employees to work as well as possible to bring the mission to life. Elements such as the
regionally appropriate green spaces, reclaimed wood and natural finishes, and diversity of
prospect and refuge conditions throughout the building are fantastic examples of Biophilic
patterns that have the potential to reduce stress, improve cognition, and create comfort.
With this unique space, Kickstarter has joined the many leading corporations that recognize
how good workplace design can help their employees be more productive and innovative.
For a company that relies on the creativity and hard work of its employees, having a
healthful Biophilic office gives Kickstarter a key advantage.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
55
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

c. Summary and Recommendations

Case Study 1: GREEN ARCHITECTURE: A CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY


Summary:
Green architecture, or green design, is an approach to building that minimizes
harmful effects on human health and the environment. The "green" architect or designer
attempts to safeguard air, water, and earth by choosing eco-friendly building materials and
construction practices
Recommendations:
 Ventilation systems designed for efficient heating and cooling
 Energy-efficient lighting and appliances
 Water-saving plumbing fixtures
 Landscapes planned to maximize passive solar energy
 Minimal harm to the natural habitat
 Alternate power sources such as solar power or wind powernap-synthetic
 Non-toxic materials
 Locally-obtained woods and stone
 Responsibly-harvested woods
 Use of recycled materials
 Efficient use of space

Case Study 2: STUDY ON ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CONSTRUCTION


Summary:
Building Material. Friendly Materials for Constructions
 natural materials, those obtained from compounds found in nature (organic and
inorganic);
 environmental materials, which have a low environmental impact in the
production, use or recycling (whose processing requires low power consumption
and are biodegradable);
 healthy materials, that does not harm the health of the individual (which can be
natural or synthetic, organic or not).
And it also Protect the Environment and Ensure a Greater Comfort Using Friendly
Materials
Recommendations:
Experts recommend to use more fully organic materials, because their
production does not affect any nature, are fully recyclable, but that does not mean you have
to compromise to comfort, the contrary, these materials will keep a pleasant house
atmosphere.

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
56
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

Case Study 3: TREES CAN MAKE YOU HAPPIER


Summary:
Nature exposure is that it seems to help decrease our stress, rumination, and anxiety.
Trees also seem to help our heart health, walking in trees lowered people’s blood pressure,
cortisol levels, pulse rates, and sympathetic nervous system activity (related to stress),
while increasing their parasympathetic nervous system activity (related to relaxation).
“Understanding the relationship between green space and crime can inform urban
planning to improve human safety and well-being,”
Recommendations:
Vegetation around houses (buildings) helps reduce people’s fear, incivility, and
aggression potential precursors to crime and improves mental health. And trees may also
draw people out of their homes, creating an atmosphere of more “eyes on the street,” which
aids in reducing crime. Whatever the case, planting some trees may be an effective way to
help communities stay safer.

Case Study 4: WATER PURIFICATION USING ULTRAVIOLET FILTRATION


AND CERAMIC FILTRATION
Summary:
Case study on water purification explored the opportunities and challenges inherent
in investment in a new enterprise that would capitalize on two distinct technologies: one to
be sold for use by the family in the home and the other to be franchised or sold to water
providers at the village or community level.
Recommendation:
Provide potable water and associated services affordable to everyone, specifically
including those in rural areas and the urban poor. The water would be provided by direct
sales, through ultraviolet filtration, or indirectly, through sales and service of home ceramic
filters.

Case Study 5: GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE FOR CITIES


Summary:
“Urban green infrastructure (UGI) can be defined as the network of planned and
unplanned green spaces, spanning both the public and private realms, and managed as an
integrated system to provide a range of benefits” (Norton et al. 2014)
Trees are particularly beneficial for improving urban micro-climate and how trees
respond to the surrounding environment influences the mechanisms that provide cooling

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
57
PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT OF SANTIAGO CITY
PUBLIC MARKET COMPLEX
University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao 2019-2020

however Green infrastructure cannot be implemented successfully without consideration


of supporting water sources.
Recommendation:
Designing green infrastructure for
cooling
To maximize cooling benefits, design To maximize tree thermal comfort,
should consider: support trees by:
 Building height  Water Sensitive Urban Design
o Pedestrian at street level  Irrigation (recycled water,
o Higher roof area to potable)
building area ration  Clumping trees together – not
 Deep, light colored substrate isolated
 Plants with high LAI  Match trees to location
 Avoid succulents o Shade/light tolerant
 Irrigate o Drought tolerant (IF
 Maintain necessary)
 Minimize pruning
 A mix of species
o Builds resilience
o Avoid monocultures
 Mesic rather than Xeric
landscapes

Case Study 6: KICKSTARTER COMMERCIAL HEADQUARTERS


(A BIOPHILIC DESIGN APPROACH)
Summary and Recommendations:
Kickstarter is a global crowd funding platform whose mission is to help bring
creative projects to life. When looking for a new building that captures the heart of the
company’s culture, Kickstarter chose a former pencil factory in Brooklyn, NY. Designed
by local architect Ole Sondresen, the commercial office fills out the entire 29,000 ft2 space,
including a large green roof. “The existing building was deep, dark and partially below
grade, which meant it had very little daylight or potential for fresh air.” Ole Sondresen
noted, “The solution was to carve out a courtyard, a very ‘renaissance palazzo’ idea, as this
building is surrounded by industrial buildings. It was in need of a sense of interior relief
for the user to connect to the outside.”

DURIAN, LEONARDO
BS Architecture 5 / École des Beaux
58