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CHEMICAL PRACTICUM REPORT

COURSES : GENERAL CHEMISTRY PRACTICUM


THE TITLE OF THE PRACTICUM : MATERIAL AND CHANGES

ARRANGED BY :

NAME : FILDZAH NUR KHALISHAH


NIM : 4193210004
MAJORS : CHEMISTRY
PROGRAM : S1 KIMIA NON KEPENDIDIKAN
Title Of The Experiment :
Material and Changes

Purpose Of The Experiment :

1. Know the understanding of the material.


2. Know the difference between physical changes and chemical changes.
3. Know examples of changes in physics and chemical changes.
4. Know examples of heterogeneous and homogeneous solutions.
5. Know the characteristics of physical changes and chemical changes.

Theoretical Review :

Matter is any object or material that requires space whose amount is measured by a property
called mass. The mass is just one of the many properties or peculiarities of matter that can be
recognized and distinguished from the others. The properties and hardness are some physical
properties that can be used to explain the appearance of an object. An example of the process of
changing the physical appearance of an object with an unchanging basic identity is called
physical change. Examples of physical changes are melting ice and boiling water. Changes in
paper, iron corrosion and wood decay are changes that include not only physical conditions but
also their basic identity. In chemical changes an example of matter is completely transformed
into a different material. The type of chemical changes experienced by a material is determined
by its chemical properties. Material is in many different forms so it is necessary to categorize it.
Each sample material is a substance or mixture. If it is a sample substance this is an element or
compound, if it is a mixture of examples it is homogeneous or heterogeneous. Changes between
elements and compounds involve changes in chemical changes while changes between
substances and mixtures involve physical changes (Petrucci, R, H, 1997).

Matter is part of the universe and matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.
Material can be in one of three forms, solid, liquid and gas. At the microscopic level that is the
level that we can observe directly with our senses. Solids have a certain shape and occupy a
certain space as well. Unlike solids, liquids do not have a certain shape but have a certain volume
as in solids. Gas does not have a certain shape and volume. In gas these particles are further apart
than when they are solids or liquids and the free moving particles are not interdependent.
Because of the distance between the particles and the movement of each of these particles, the
gas expands to fill the entire space it occupies (so that the gas is out of shape). In the solid state
the particles are close together and have little ability to move because these particles can form
structures arranged with certain repetition patterns called crystal structures. The particles inside
the crystal structure can still move even though they are very rare and this movement is more
likely to be a weak vibration. Depending on the particle the shape of this crystal can take many
forms (Moore, J, T, 2007).

In everyday life you always see events of material change both naturally and and
intentionally. Natural material change events such as food spoilage or iron rusting. Deliberate
material events such as burnt paper or burned candles. Chemical changes can occur due to
burning, rusting, and decay events. Combustion is the chemical reaction between burning
material and oxygen (Hari, B, S, 2019).

Chemistry is the study of matter and its changes. While Brady (1999) defines chemistry as
one branch of natural science that studies the composition of matter, changes in the composition
of matter, and energy that accompanies any changes in the composition of matter. In chemical
materials are presented in three levels, namely macroscopic, submicroscopic and symbolic
levels. There are many phenomena in everyday life that are related to material changes. Iron
bars, making tape, and burning paper are all examples of chemical changes. While boiling water,
freezing ice, and vaporizing perfume are examples of changes in physics (Sigit, D., dkk, 2016).

The deep drawing process is one of the most important processes of sheet metal formation,
due to it is low-cost, fast, and does not require high skill. The deep drawing is very important in
automobile industries, because many parts are produced in this process. For this reason, it is
necessary to study all parameters that may affect on the process, including heat treatments, in
this work the mechanical properties such as: tensile strength, yield stress, maximum elongation,
and strain hardening index for SAE1006 was tested by tensile test which gives a good indication
to the extent of the drawability of the metal. Grain size was also measured. All of these tests
were conducted in three direction with respect to rolling direction (0ͦ, 45ͦ, 90ͦ) with and without
heat treatments. This investigation was done in order to find the effect of recrystallization and
stress relief heat treatments on the draw ability of the metal, and the strain hardening index. This
work has shown that these heat treatments have a bad effect on mechanical properties required to
conduct a deep drawing process because they have increased strength and reduced the ductility.
The rupture and wrinkling defects are be in zones defects for the relationship between blank
holder force and punch travel distance (Muhammad, A, K & Mahdi, S, M, 2019).

Tools and Ingredients :

Tools :

No. Tool's Name Size Amount


1. Tube clamp - 1
2. Measuring pipette 5ml 1
3. Drop pipette - 3
4. Spiritus lamp - 1
5. Asbestos gauze - 1
6. Beaker glass 100ml, 250ml, 500ml 1, 1, 1
7. Test tube Medium 7
8. Tube rack - 1
9. Watch glass - -

Ingredients :

No. Material name Chemical Concentration Form Color Amount


formula
1. Iodine I - Solid Black 6 items
2. Copper (II) CuSO4 - Solid Blue 4 items
sulfate
3. Magnesium Mg - Solid Dark 6 items
Grey
4. Hydrochloric HCl 0,1 M Fluid Clear 2 ml
acid
5. Carbon CCl4 - Fluid Clear 2,5 ml
tetrachloride
6. Potassium KI 0,1 M Fluid Clear 2 ml
iodide
7. Candle - - Solid Pink Sufficiently
8. Water H2O - Fluid Clear 5 ml

Working Procedure :

1. Provide 2 clean and dry glass beakers, then at the bottom of the beaker 1 put 3 iodine
crystals and cover. In beaker 2 insert about 10 grams of wax (the size of a guli) then
cover with a watch glass.
2. heat the two beakers in 10 minutes, then cool.
3. pay attention to the changes that occur in each beaker when heated and after being cooled
observe the beaker wall.
4. Provide 3 clean and dry tubes, in each tube insert 2 iodine crystal grains.
5. In tubes I, 2, and 3 insert 2 mL in a row with KI0.1 M. CC S solution and water, then stir
slowly land for 5 minutes.
6. Pay attention and record the changes that occur.
7. Provide 3 test tubes that are clean and dry and heat resistant, then, put in a little
magnesium (about 1 grain of rice).
8. The tube heat up slowly until it changes. Tube 2 is added slowly (not poured) HCI 0.1
M, 2 mL of tube 3, 2 mL of water added, then heated.
9. Note the whole process.
10. Provide 2 heat-resistant test tubes, then each put 3 items CUSO4 crystal, then heat the
two tubes until a white crystal occurs.
11. Into the tube 1 drop 2 drops of water and in tube 2 drop 2 drops CCl note what happens.
12. Reheat the two tubes back until there is a change do not inhale it.
Experimental Results :

the results of this observation there are two changes that occur namely changes in physics and
chemical changes

there are physical changes that occur can be seen from the nature of substances that are owned
before and after the change that is the same and the results of physical changes can be returned to
its original form

The results of the physics changes obtained from this experiment are :

heated iodine.

heated wax .

iodine mixed with water .

heated magnesium

for chemical changes that occur can be seen from the results of substances that are not able to
return to its original form

chemical changes are changes in matter that produce different material or new material from the
original substance

The results of chemical changes that can be seen from this experiment are :

iodine crystal with a solution of potassium iodide, a new mixture is formed.

iodine is mixed with carbon tetrachloride and produces a new mixture.

Magnesium is mixed with hydrochloric acid and a new mixture is formed.

Physical changes only occur in the form and do not change the substances in it, but in chemical
changes will occur the formation of new substances with properties that are different from the
properties of its constituent
Conclusion :

1. Matter is any object or material that requires space whose amount is measured by a
property called mass.
2. Physical changes are changes in matter that are not accompanied by the formation of new
types of substances, whereas chemical changes are changes in matter that produce
different or new types and properties of matter from the original substance.
3. An example of a physical change is mixing sugar into water that forms a sugar solution,
whereas an example of chemical change is wood burning, if wood is burned it will
produce wood charcoal.
4. Homogeneous solution is a forest that has a uniform composition and properties such as
air and homogeneous gas mixture while heterogeneous solution is a solution consisting of
two or more materials that have different phases, for example sand that is put into water.
5. The characteristics of physical change are not producing new substances, changes occur
in their form alone, able to return to their original form, the properties of particles remain
the same, can occur due to the process of heating and changing the shape of the
substance. While the characteristics of chemical changes are molecular changes, the
formation of new substances and the properties of substances that are different from the
properties of its constituents, and cannot return to its original form.