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A.

LITERAL INTERPRETATION

- GO VS. ANTI-CHINESE LEAGUE OF THE PHILIPPINES 84 PHIL 468


WON JOSE GO should naturalization should be granted. Held: YES. "It seems . . . that the law
makes it mandatory on the part of the court to grant Filipino citizenship if and when the
applicant succeeds in proving that he has all the qualifications and none of the disqualifications
required by law. This court believes that [the] law time has come when a more rigid policy
should be adopted in granting the Filipino citizenship. . . . This court would even go farther by
subscribing to a policy calculated to make it discretionary on the part of [the] courts to grant or
not grant Filipino citizenship even though the applicant shall have satisfactorily proven that he
has all the qualifications and none of the disqualification provided for by law. . . . . We cannot
subscribe to that proposition. It is the sworn duty of the judge to apply the law without fear or
favor, to follow its mandate—not to tamper The court cannot adopt a policy different from that
of the law. What the law grants, the court cannot deny..

B. DEPARTURE FROM LITERAL INTERPRETATION

- PEOPLE VS. ALMUETE GR NO 26551

WON Almuete is guilty with a violation of section 39 of the Agricultural Tenancy Law. Held: No
Agricultural Tenancy Act is repealed by the Agricultural Land Reform Code
· Agricultural Tenancy Act – punishes prereaping or prethreshing of palay on a date other than
that previously set without the mutual consent of the landlord and tenant o Share tenancy
relationship
· Agricultural Land Reform Code – abolished share tenancy relationship, thus does not punish
prereaping or prethreshing of palay on a date other than that previously set without the
mutual consent of the landlord and tenant anymore
o Leasehold system

- COMENDADOR VS. DE VILLA 200 SCRA 80


WON PD 39, which withdrew the right to peremptorily challenge members of a military
Tribunal, had been rendered inoperative by PD 2045 proclaiming the termination of a state of
martial law. Held: YES! The termination of the martial law and the dissolution of military
tribunals created thereunder, the reason for the existence of PD 39 ceased automatically and
the decree itself ceased

- LAMP VS. PHIPPS 22 PHIL 456


Our attention has been called to what appears to be a typographical error in the wording of
section 222 of Act No. 190.
In a statute which providesthat the remedy of mandamus may be availed of “if there is no other
plain, speedy of adequate remedy in the ordinary courts of law”, the work courts is obviously
an error for what the law intended, which the court should affectuate, is that it should read
“course” so that the phrase should ready ‘ordinary course of law”. Where a reference in one
section of a statute to another is manifestly a typo error, a courts courts in construing the
statute should correct the error to prevent nullification and give meaning.

From the Full text:


It is asserted that the phrase "courts of law" should read "course of law." Many of the
provisions of said Act No. 190 were copied verbatim from the Code of Civil Procedure of
California. Section 222 of Act No. 190 was taken from section 1085 of the California Code of
Civil Procedure. The section of the California Code reads "course of law," instead of "courts of
law." We believe that a mistake or error has been made in the printing of said section. We
believe that it was the intention of the legislative department of the government to follow
exactly the provision of the California Code and that they intended to use the phrase "course of
law" and not "courts of law." It will be noted in section 226, the section relating to the writ of
prohibition, the legislature used the phrase "course of law."

- US VS. PAGUIRIGAN 14 PHIL 450


WON: defendant should have been convicted and punished for a misdemeanor. Held YES.
Defendant should have been convicted under the third subdivision of article 589, instead of
article 494 of the Penal Code. Subdivision 3 of article 589 provides that "Those who shall threaten
another, by words and in the heat of anger, with an injury that would constitute a crime, and
who by their subsequent actions show that they persisted in the intention which they gave
utterance to in their threat; provided that, in view of the circumstances of the deed, it should not
be included in Book II of this code," shall be punished with the penalty of from one to five days
of arrest, or a fine of from 15 to 125 pesetas. The fact that the threat was made in the heat of
anger, and that the subsequent actions of the party show that he did not seriously intend to carry
the threat into execution, reduce the offense from a crime to a misdemeanor. It is true that the
code uses the words "and who by their subsequent actions showed that they persisted in the
intention which they gave utterance to in their threat," but a literal adherence to this language
would produce the absurd result of making persistence in an illegal purpose operate in mitigation
of the offense. The power of the court to supply or omit words from a statute in order to prevent
an absurd result which the legislature will not be supposed to have intended.

- AMATAN VS. AUJERO 64 SCAD 563, 248 SCRA 511

· Rodrigo Umpad was charged with homicide


· Pursuant to some provision in criminal procedure, he entered into a plea bargaining agreement,
which the judge approved of, downgrading the offense charge of homicide to attempted
homicide to which Umpad pleaded guilty thereto.
WON: respondent judge GUILTY of gross ignorance of the law
Held: YES; Section 2, Rule, 116 of the 1985 Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure, as amended,
allows the accused in criminal case to plead guilty "to lesser offense regardless of whether or not
it is necessarily included in the crime charged." The fact of death of the victim for which the
accused Rodrigo Umpad was criminally liable, cannot by simple logic and plain common sense be
reconciled with the plea of guilty to the lower offense of attempted homicide. The crime of
homicide as defined in Article 249 of the Revised Penal Code necessarily produces death;
attempted homicide does not.
Fiat justicia, ruat coelum – let the right be done, though the heavens fall
Stated differently, when a provision of the law is silent or ambiguougs, judges ought to invoke a
solution responsive to the vehement urge of conscience.

- SALVACION VS CENTRAL BANK 86 SCAD 142, 278 SCRA 27

· Greg Bartelli raped his alleged niece 10 times and detained her in his apartment for 4 days
· Court gave a favorable judgment of more than 1MPhp
· BSP rejected the writ of attachment alleging Sec 113 of the Central Bank Circular No. 960
(applicable to transient foreigners)
· Issue: whether the dollar bank deposit in a Philippine bank of a foreign tourist can be attached
to satisfy the moral damages awarded in favor of the latter’s 12-year-old rape victim
· BSP did not honor the writ of attachment pursuant to RA6426 Sec 8 – “foreign currency deposits
shall be exempt from attachment, garnishment, or any other order or process of any court,
legislative body, government agency or any administrative body whatsoever”
Held: YES!
o Court applied the principles of right and justice to prevail over the strict and literal words of the
statute
o The purpose of RA 6426 to exempt such assets from attachment: at the time the said law was
enacted, the country’s economy was in a shambles. No reason why such assets cannot be
attached especially if it would satisfy a judgment to award moral damages to a 12-year-old rape
victim!

- DEMAFILES VS COMELEC 21 SCRA 1462


Issue: whether a pre-proclamation election case has become moot because the proclaimed
winner had immediately taken his oath pursuant to Sec 2 RA 4870 which provides that the “first
mayor, vice-mayor and councilors of the municipality of Sebaste shall be elected in the next
general elections for local officials and shall have qualified”
· It was contended that “shall have qualified” begins immediately after their proclamation!
· Court held that this is wrong!
o The said phrase is a jargon and does not warrant the respondent’s reading that the term of
office of the first municipal officials of Sebaste begins immediately after their proclamation
o The King in ‘Alice in Wonderland’: if there is no meaning in it, that saves a world of trouble, you
know, as we need not try to find any
o Apply the general rule when such term begin – the term of municipal officials shall begin on the
1st day of January following their election

Topic: Surplusage and superfluity disregarded


· Where a word, phrase or clause in a statute is devoid of meaning in relation to the context or
intent of the statute, or where it suggests a meaning that nullifies the statute or renders it
without sense, the word, phrase or clause may be rejected as surplusage and entirely ignored
- PROVINCE OF CEBU VS INTERMEDIATE APELLATE COURT 147 SCRA 447
WON: ???? Sorry guys… nglibog ko ani…

Every rule is not without an exception, Ibi quid generaliter conceditur; inest haec exceptio, si
non aliquid sit contra jus fasque (Where anything is granted generally, this exception is
implied; that nothing shall be contrary to law and right). Indeed, equity, as well as the
exceptional situation facing us in the case at bar, require a departure from the established
rule.

- SANTILLON VS MIRANDA GR 19281


· When the context of a statute so indicates, words in plural include the singular, and vice
versa.
· A plural word in a statute may thus apply to a singular person or thing, just as a singular
word may embrace two or more persons or things
· Art. 996 CC – (law on succession) such article also applies to a situation where there is only
one child because “children” includes “child”
Full text:
One child Surviving. — If there is only one legitimate child surviving with the spouse, since
they share equally, one-half of the estate goes to the child and the other half goes to the
surviving spouse. Although the law refers to "children or descendants," the rule in statutory
construction that the plural can be understood to include the singular is applicable in this
case. (Tolentino, Civil Code of the Philippines, Vol. III, p. 436.)
The theory of those holding otherwise seems to be premised on these propositions: (a) Art.
996 speaks of "Children," therefore it does not apply when there is only one "child";
consequently Art. 892 (and Art. 888) should be applied, thru a process of judicial construction
and analogy; (b) Art. 996 is unjust or unfair because, whereas in testate succession, the widow
is assigned one-fourth only (Art. 892), she would get 1/2 in intestate.

Our conclusion (equal shares) seems a logical inference from the circumstance that whereas
Article 834 of the Spanish Civil Code, from which Art. 996 was taken, contained two
paragraphs governing two contingencies, the first, where the widow or widower survives with
legitimate children (general rule), and the second, where the widow or widower survives with
only one child (exception), Art. 996 omitted to provide for the second situation, thereby
indicating the legislator's desire to promulgate just one general rule applicable to both
situations.

Held: ½ each

C. IMPLICATIONS

Doctrine of necessary implication


· So-called gaps in the law develop as the law is enforced
· StatCon rule: to fill in the gap is the doctrine of necessary implication
· Doctrine states that what is implied in a statute is as much a part thereof as that which is
expressed
· Ex necessitate legis – from the necessity of the law
· Every statutory grant of power, right or privilege is deemed to include all incidental power, right
or privilege
· In eo quod plus sit, simper inest et minus – greater includes the lesser

· Necessity –
o includes such inferences as may be logically be drawn from the purpose or object of the statute,
from what the legislature must be presumed to have intended, and from the necessity of making
the statute effective and operative
o excludes what is merely plausible, beneficial, or desirable
· must be consistent with the Constitution or to existing laws
· an implication which is violative of the law is unjustified or unwarranted

- CHUA VS CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION 206 SCRA 65


· Issue: whether a coterminous employee, or one whose appointment is co-existent with the
duration of a government project, who has been employed as such for more than 2 years, is
entitled to early retirement benefits under Sec 2 RA 6683
· Court held that YES, Chua is entitled!
o A coterminous employee is no different from a casual or temporary employee, and by
necessary implication, the inclusion of the latter in the class of government employees entitled
to the benefits of the law necessarily implies that the former should also be entitled to such
benefits
o Wrong application of the maxim “expresio uniusest exclusion alterius” it should be doctrine of
necessary implication

- BATUNGBAKAL VS NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CO. 93 PHIL 182


Petitioner was suspended and removed from office which proved to be illegal and violative not
only of the Administrative Code but of the Constitution itself
· Court ruled that to remedy the evil and wrong committed, there should be reinstatement and
payment of backwages, among other things
· However, there was a legal problem as to his reinstatement, for when he was suspended and
eventually dismissed, somebody was appointed to his position
· Issue: whether remedy is denied petitioner
· Held: position was never “vacant”. Since there is no vacancy, the present incumbent cannot be
appointed permanently. The incumbent is only holding a temporary position. Moreover, the
incumbent’s being made to leave the post to give way to the employee’s superior right may be
considered as removal for cause

- PIMENTEL VS COMELEC GR 53581


WON comelec has jurisdiction
HELD: No, Comelec has no Jurisdiction. Respondents' contention that the Commission on
Elections has Jurisdiction over petitions for certiorari, prohibition or man mandamus involving
election cases cognizable by the Courts of First Instance and appealable to said Commission
cannot be sustained.
The aforequoted provision of Sec. 4, Rule 65 of the Rules of Court, cannot be construed as a grant
of jurisdiction to the Court of Appeals over petitions for certiorari, prohibition or mandamus
involving cases appealable to it. Much less can such provision be interpreted, by analogy, as a
grant to the Commission on Elections of jurisdiction over petitions for certiorari, prohibition or
mandamus involving election cases cognizable by the Court of First Instance and appealable to
said commission under Sec. 196 of the Revised Election Code.
Settled is the rule that jurisdiction is conferred only by the Constitution or the law. Thus, it cannot
be conferred by the Rules of Court which are neither constitutional provisions nor legislative
enactments but mere procedural rules promulgated by this Court in the exercise of its power to
prescribe "rules concerning pleading, practice and procedure in all courts" (Sec. 5 (5), Art. X, 1973
Constitution; Sec. 13, Art. VIII, 1935 Constitution).

Book: COMELEC has appellate jurisdiction over election cases filed with and decided by the RTC
involving municipal elective officials DOES NOT IMPLY the grant of authority upon the COMELEC
to issue writs of certiorari, prohibition or mandamus concerning said election cases.

- PHIL. AIR LINES EMPLOYEES’ ASSOCIATION VS OAL 120 PHIL 383

Issue: Whether or not the court has jurisdiction to hear and decide over the case.
Held: YES! It is well settled that:
"A grant of jurisdiction implies the necessary and usual incidental powers essential to effectuate
it, and every regular constituted court has power to do all things reasonably necessary for the
administration of justice within the scope of its jurisdiction, and for the enforcement of its
judgments and mandates, even though the court may thus be called upon to decide matters
which would not be within its cognizance as original causes of action.

"While a court may be expressly granted the incidental powers necessary to effectuate its
jurisdiction, a grant of jurisdiction in the absence of prohibitive legislation implies the necessary
and usual incidental powers essential to effectuate it (In re: Stinger’s Estate, 201 P. 693), and,
subject to existing laws and constitutional provisions, every regularly constituted court has the
power to do all things that are reasonably necessary for the administration of justice within the
scope of its jurisdiction, and for the enforcement of its judgments and mandates. So, demands,
matters or questions ancillary or incidental to, or growing out of, main action, and coming within
the above principles, may be taken cognizance of by the court and determined, since such
jurisdiction is in aid of its authority over the principal matter, even though the court may thus be
called on to consider and decide matters which, as original causes of action, would not be within
its cognizance (Bartholomew v. Shipe, 261 S.W. 1031)." (21 C. J. S., pp. 136-138.)
- LO CHAM VS OCAMPO 77 PHIL 635
Principle: Grant of power includes incidental power
· Where a general power is conferred or duty enjoined, every particular power necessary for the
exercise of one or the performance of the other is also conferred
· The incidental powers are those which are necessarily included in, and are therefore of lesser
degree than the power granted
Issue: WON the attorney detailed or appointed by the Secretary of Justice to assist the city fiscal
of Manila in the discharge of the latter’s duties, with the same authority therein as might be
exercised by the Attorney General or the Solicitor General, according to the provision of section
1686 of the Revised Administrative Code, has authority to sign information.
Held: Yes.

SEC. 1686. Additional counsel to assist fiscal. — The Secretary of Justice may appoint any lawyer,
being either a subordinate from his office or a competent person not in the public service,
temporarily to assist a fiscal or prosecuting attorney in the discharge of his duties, and with the
same authority therein as might be exercised by the Attorney General or Solicitor General.
It will be noted that the law uses general terms. It is a general rule of statutory interpretation
that provisions should not be given a restricted meaning where no restriction is indicated. Just as
the express enumeration of persons, objects, situations, etc., is construed to exclude those not
mentioned, according to a well-known maxim, so no distinction should be made where none
appears to be intended.
Book- Laws must receive sensible interpretation to promote the ends for which they were
enacted. The duties of a public office include all those which truly lie within its scope, those which
are essential to the accomplishment of the main purpose for which the office was created and
those which, although incidental and collateral, are germane to, and serve to promote the
accomplishment of the principal purposes.

- MACATANGAY VS CHAIRMAN OF THE COA GR 38728


Principle: Authority to charge against public funds may not be implied
· It is well-settled that unless a statute expressly so authorizes, no claim against public funds may
be allowed
o Statute grants leave privileges to APPOINTIVE officials, this cannot be construed to include
ELECTIVE officials

WON: petitioner as a former municipal mayor is entitled to leave privileges under existing
Laws
Held: NO. What was said in the Memorandum for Respondent 8 is relevant: "As a general
proposition, elective officials' entitlement to salary is not dependent upon actual attendance in
office. In fact, they are not even required to keep a record of their daily attendance such as by
accomplishing Civil Service Form No. 48 (Daily Time Record) or punching the bundy clock. Thus,
a provincial governor is entitled to collect salary even when absent on a personal business, it
being well-settled that an elected officer is entitled to emoluments so long as he is permitted to
retain the office, the right thereto being independent of services performed. (Op., Insular
Auditor, Dec. 23, 1919, cited in Araneta, the Adm. Code, Vol. IV, pp. 2720, 2721). Elective officials,
indeed, are deemed in the service of their constituents regardless of time and place. There can
be no occasion to consider them absent from work since their presence at such specified time
and place is not a pre-requisite to their collection of salary for services rendered. So, too, they
need not seek leave to be absent for there is no absence to speak of. "

- BOUGH VS CANTIVEROS 40 PHIL 210


Principle: Ex dolo malo non oritur actio
No man can be allowed to found a claim upon his own wrongdoing
Issue:
WON the Dead of Sale, hereby a fictitious document, is valid and has legal effects?

Ruling:
NO. As the maxim goes, “Ex dolo malo non oritur actio,” it is well settled that a party to an illegal
contract cannot come into a court of law and ask to have his illegal objects carried out. Where,
however, the parties to an illegal contract are not equally guilty, and where public policy is
considered as advanced by allowing the more excusable of the two to sue for relief against the
transaction, relief is given to him. Cases of this character are, where they conveyance was
wrongfully induced by the grantee through imposition or overreaching, or by false
representations, especially by one in a confidential relation. The Court, therefore, affirmed the
decision of the trial court against the petitioners.

- DE LOS SANTOS VS ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH 94 PHIL 405

· Homestead Law – to give and preserve in the homesteader and his family a piece of land for his
house and cultivation
· The law prohibits the alienation of a homestead within 5 years following the issuance of the
patent and provides that any contract of a conveyance in contravention thereof shall be null and
void
· The seller or his heirs, although in pari delicto, may recover the land subject of such illegal sale

Issue:
- Can appellants invoke the principle of pari delicto (in equal fault) in the present action?
Held:
- No. Although, The principle of pari delicto as invoked by the appellants is correct and
cannot be disputed, the case under consideration comes within the exception of this
principle. Here appellee desires to nullify a transaction which was done in violation of the
law. Ordinarily the principle of pari delicto would apply to her because her predeccessor-
in-interest has carried out the sale with the presumed knowledge of its illegality, but
because the subject of the transaction is a piece of public land, public policy requires that
she, as heir, be not prevented from re-acquiring it because it was given by law to her
family for her home and cultivation. This is the policy on which our homestead law is
predicated. This right cannot be waived. “It is not within the competence of any citizen to
barter away what public policy by law seeks to preserve”. Appellee can maintain the
present action it being in furtherance of this fundamental aim of our homestead law.
- Upon annulment of the sale, the purchaser’s claim is reduced to the purchase price and
interest. As against the vendor or his heir, the purchaser is no more entitled to keep the
land than any intruder.

- PEOPLE VS. CONCEPCION 44 PHIL 126


· Where a corporation is forbidden from doing an act, the prohibition extends to the board of
directors and to each director separately and individually
· Where the board of directors is prohibited from granting loans to its director, a loan to a
partnership of which the wife of a director is a partner falls within the prohibition

WON there is an “indirect loan”?


Cagayan CFI found PNB Pres. Concepcion guilty of violating Sec. 35 of Act No. 2747 which
reads: “The National Bank shall not, directly or indirectly, grant loans to any of the members
of the board of directors of the bank nor to agents of the branch banks.” Sec. 49 of same act
prescribes punishments. But these were later repealed by Act. No. 2938 on Jan. 1921, after
CFI decision.

Held: YES! looking at the legislative intent would clear things out. In the inclusion of this
phrase, the Legislature intended to prohibit temptation for bank director. Personal interest
and duty at times conflict and the provision saw this coming. In this case, it is apparent that
Concepcion is interested to see his wife succeed which overcame his duty to PNB. Therefore,
he is “indirectly” a participant.