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Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

GROUP – A

(Short Questions)

i) A random variable is determined by a large number of independent events that tends to

have a Gaussian probability distribution. This can be described using

a) Central limit theorem

b) Superposition

c) Convolution

d) Correlation.

ii) The spectral density of white noise is

a) Exponential
b) Uniform
c) Poisson
d) Gaussian.

iii) An ergodic random process is one which has the property that

a) ensemble average is constant


b) time average varies with time
c) ensemble average constant but time average varies
with time
d) ensemble average and time average are equal.
iv) Spectral density expresses

a) average voltage
b) average current
c) average power in a waveform as a function of
frequency
d) none of these.

v) Eye pattern is used to study

a) ISI
b) Quantization noise
c) Error rate
d) None of these.

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vi) The compander in a digital communication system serves to
Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

a) equalize the SNR for both weak and strong PAM


signals
b) increase amplification of the signals

c) improve A/D conversion

d) improve multiplexing.

vii) The spectral density of white noise is

a) Exponential
b) Uniform
c) Poisson
d) Gaussian.

viii) The channel capacity under the Gaussian noise environment for a discrete memoryless

channel with a bandwidth of 4 MHz and SNR of 31 is

a) 20 mbps
b) 4 mbps
c) 8 mbps
d) 4 kbps.
ix) Eye pattern is used to study
a) Bit Error Rate
b) Error Vector Magnitude
c) Quantization Noise
d) Inter Symbol Interference

x) PAM signal can be demodulated by using

a) a lowpass filter
b) a bandpass filter
c) a high pass filters
d) none of these.

xi) In a PCM system, the number of quantization levels are 16 and the maximum signal
frequency is 4 kHz, the bit transmission rate is
a) 64 bps
b) 16 kbps
c) 32 kbps
d) 32 mbps.
xii) PCM generation requires low-pass filter at the beginning to

a) eliminate aliasing effect


b) eliminate quantization noise
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c) eliminate decoding noise
Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

d) none of these.
xiii) The output SNR in a DM system for a 1 kHz sinusoid, sampled at 32 kHz, without slope
overload and followed by a 4 kHz post reconstruction filter is

a) 2·45 dB
b) 2·5 dB
c) 2·6 dB
d) 2·7 dB.

xiv) The Nyquist rate of the composite signal

f (x) = 5 cos(1000t) cos (3000t) is


a) 3000 Hz
b) 1000 Hz
c) 4000 Hz
d) 2000 Hz.
xv) Adaptive delta modulation is preferred over delta modulation as
a) it gives better noise performance
b) it uses lesser bits for encoding the signal
c) it does not suffer from slope overload and threshold effects
d) it has simpler circuitry.

xvi) What is effective to reduce cumulative error?


e) PCM
f) DPCM
g) Delta sigma modulation
h) ADM.

xvii) To avoid aliasing, what is the Nyquist rate of the signal

x ( t ) = 8 cos 200 t ?

a) 50 Hz
b) 100 Hz
c) 200 Hz
d) 400 Hz .
xviii) For a voice grade signal, the signal to noise ratio of DPCM is

a) worse than standard PCM


b) better than standard PCM
c) same as standard PCM
d) none of these.

xix) AMI is another name of which process?


a) Polar
b) Bipolar

c) On-off
d) None of these.
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Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

xx) If no. of quantization levels is 256, then no. of bits for per sample required is

a) 8
b) 10
c) 5
d) none of these.

xxi) For a given Eb / N0 which digital modulation scheme has smaller error probability ?

a) Coherent QPSK
b) Coherent FSK
c) Coherent PSK
d) DPSK.

xxii) A rectangular pulse of duration T is applied to matched filter. The output of the filter is a
a) Rectangular pulse of duration T
b) Rectangular pulse of duration 2T
c) Triangular pulse
d) Sinc function.
xxiii) The Nyquist sampling rate for the signals(t) = 10 cos (50t) cos2 (150 t) when t is in
seconds is
a) 150 samples/second
b) 200 samples/second
c) 300 samples/second
d) 350 samples/second.

xxiv) Equalizer is used to


a) increase the signal to noise ratio at the receiver
b) equalize the distortion introduced by channel
c) decrease the error probability of signal detection
d) none of these.

xxv) The use of non-uniform quantization leads to

a) reduction of transmission bandwidth


b) increase in maximum SNR
c) increase in SNR for low bend signal
d) simplification of quantization process.

xxvi) If the number of bits per sample in a PCM system is increased from n to n + 1, the
improvement in signal-to- quantization noise ratio will be

a. 3 dB
b. 6 dB
c. 2n dB
d. n dB.

xxvii)A5202
PAM signal can be detected by using 4 [ Turn over
Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

a. an ADC.
b. an integrator.
c. a bandpass filter.
d. a high pass filters.

xxviii) Sampling theorem finds application in


a) Amplitude modulation
b) Frequency modulation
c) PCM
d) none of these.
xxix) The main advantage of PCM system is
a) possibility of TDM
b) less channel bandwidth
c) less transmission powers
d) better noise performance
xxx) To avoid aliasing, what is the Nyquist rate of the signal x (t) = 8 cos (200 t)?
a) 50 Hz
b) 100 Hz
c) 200 Hz
d) 400 Hz.
xxxi) The use of non-uniform quantization leads to
a) reduction to transmission BW
b) increase in maximum SNR
c) increase in SNR for low level signals
d) simplification of quantization process.

xxxii) Regenerative repeaters can be used in


a) analog communication system only
b) digital communication system only
c) analog & digital communication systems
d) none of these.
xxxiii) Adaptive d e l t a m o d u l a t i o n is preferred over delta modulation as

a) it gives better noise performance


b) it uses lesser bits for encoding the signal
c) it does not suffer from slope
overload and threshold effect
d) it has simpler circuitry.
xxxiv) The bit rate of a digital communication system using QPSK modulation is 30 Mbps. The
baud rate of the system will be
a) 60 Mbps
b) 15 Mbps
c) 30 Mbps
d) 7·5 Mbps

xxxv) The number of bits required to represent a 256-level quantization in PCM is


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Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

b) 8
c) 5
d) 6.
xxxvi)In PCM, the amplitude levels are transmitted in a 7-unit channel code. The sampling is
done at the rate of 1 0 Hz. The bandwidth preferred minimum should be
a) 5 kHz
b) 35 kHz
c) 70 kHz
d) 85 kHz.
xxxvii) Adaptive delta modulation is preferred over delta modulation as
a) it gives better noise performance
b) it uses lesser bits for encoding the signal
c) it does not suffer f r o m slope overload and
threshold effects
d) It has simpler circuitry.

xxxviii) Alternate Mark Inversion ( AMI ) signaling is known as

a) Bipolar signaling
b) Polar signaling
c) Machester signaling
d) Unipolar signaling.

xxxix) Regenerative repeaters can be used in

a) Analog communication system only


b) Digital communication system only
c) Both analog and digital communication systems
d) Wireless communication only.

xl) For encoding the binary data, the Differential encoding uses
a) signal transitions
b) signal frequency
c) signal amplitude
d) signal phase.
xli) Spread spectrum technique is used to increase
a) Power efficiency
b) Processing gain
c) Spectral efficiency
d) Transmission gain.
xlii) If the maximum instantaneous phase transition of a digital modulation technique is 90˚, the
modulation will be recognised as

a) DPSK
b) QPSK
c) OQPSK
d) BPSK.
xliii) The
5202type of modulation used with direct
6 sequence spread spectrum is
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Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

a) PSK
b) ASK
c) FSK
d) DPSK.

xliv) The bit rate of a digital communication system is 34 Mpbs. The modulation scheme is
QPSK. The baud rate of the system is
a) 68 Mbps
b) 34 Mbps
c) 17 Mbps
d) 85 Mbps.
xlv) For generation of FSK the data pattern must be given in
a) RZ format
b) NRZ format
c) Split phase Manchester
d) none of these.
xlvi) Which of the digital modulation techniques is used for high speed telephone modems?

a) QAM
b) GMSK
c) QPSK
d) GFSK.

xlvii) The bit rate of a digital communication system is 34 Mb/s. The modulation scheme is
QPSK. The baud rate is
a) 68 Mbps
b) 34 Mbps
c) 17 Mbps
d) 8·5 Mbps.
xlviii) For a given E b / N0 which digital modulation scheme has smaller error probability?

a) Coherent QPSK
b) Coherent FSK
c) Coherent PSK
d) DPSK.

xlix) Coherent demodulation of FSK signal can be affected using

a. correlation receiver
b. bandpass filters and envelope detector
c. matched filter
d. discriminator detection.
l) PN sequence is used to generate

a. DSSS
b. GMSK
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d. None of these.
Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

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Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

GROUP – B

(Short Answer Type Questions )

1
1. State the reason of importance of Gaussian random variable. What is error function? 5
2. A binary channel is shown in the figure.

i) Find the matrix of the channel.

ii) Find P (y1) and P (y2) when P (x1) = P (x2) = 0  5. 5

3. If fX(x) = 3(1-x)2 for 0<x<1 then find mean and variance.


4. How is orthogonality of two signals defined? Explain the term 'norm of the signal’? What is physical
significance?
5. Draw an "Eye diagram" and mention the significance of its different parts.
6. Write down sampling theorem. Discuss different methods of sampling. 2 + 3
7. What is quantization error? How does it depend upon the step size? Suggest some methods to
overcome the difficulties encountered when the modulating signal amplitude swing is very large.
1+2+ 2
1 1
8. Draw the line codes corresponding to the binary data "1101001" for the following:1 2 + 1 2 + 2

a) Unipolar Nonreturn to zero

b) Polar Nonreturn to zero

c) Manchester coding.

9. State sampling theorem and explain its importance. What is Nyquist rate of sampling?
10. To transmit a bit sequence 10011011, draw the resulting waveform using
a. unipolar RZ

b. Polar NRZ

c. Bipolar/AMI RZ

d. Split phase Manchester coding.


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11. Explain the implication of Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) in digital communication. What is Nyquist
Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

criterion for zero ISI? What is Aliasing?


12. What is the function of anti-aliasing filter for the generation of PAM signal?
13. Explain with a suitable block diagram how an analog signal is converted into a digital signal using
PCM.
14. What is companding? Why is companding needed in digital communication?
15. What are the desirable properties of line codes? Explain the operation of early-late gate bit
synchronizer. 2 + 3
16. For the data bit 10110001, draw t h e waveforms for ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK. 2+ 2 + 1
17. Draw the block diagram of a QPSK modulator and explain its principle of operation
18. What is coherent detectiontechnique? Describe ASK demodulation through coherent detection. 2 +
3
19. Why is DPSK scheme of carrier modulation used? Compare the bandwidths of QPSK and BPSK. 2 +
3
20. Explain the principle of operation of QPSK modulator with suitable block diagram.

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Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

GROUP – C
(Long Answer Type Questions)

1
1. What is conditional probability?

a) Differentiate between random variable and random process with suitable example.

b) State Central limit theorem.

c) Prove the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure.

d) Discuss the property of auto-correlation functions.

2+3+2+5+3

2. a) State Nyquist's criterion for zero Inter Symbol Interference (I S I ). 4

b) Mention the limitations of the above criterion. 3

c) How can the above problems be solved by using a Raised cosine function? 4

d) A communication channel of bandwidth 50 KHz is required to transmit binary data at the rate
of 500 Kbps using Raised cosine pulse. Determine the corresponding roll-off factor. 4

3. a) What do you mean by an optimum filter? When is it called matched filter? 3+ 3

b) Find the probability of error of the matched filter. 9


4. What is matched filter?

b) Derive an expression for probability of error of a matched filter.

c) State and explain Nyquist criterion for zero ISI.

d) What is the roll of an equalizer? 3+5+4+3


5. Deduce the transfer function of a matched filter. 5
a) Show that the SNR at the output of an optimum filter optimized for error performance is

8E s / where, E s = signal energy & /2 = G n (f) is the PSD of AWGN. 5

b) Consider a rectangular pulse s (t) of amplitude A & duration T sec, given by

s ( t ) =5202
A, 0 < t < T 11 [ Turn over
Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

= 0, otherwise and given that AT = 1 5

i) Find the spectrum of the output signal of the matched filter.


ii) Determine the output SNR of the matched filter. 5
6. a) What is intersymbol interference (ISI)? What is Nyquist criterion for zero ISI ? 3+2

b) What are the limitations of Nyquist pulse? How is it solved using Raised Cosine Pulse? 6

c) A communication channel of bandwidth 75 kHz is required to transmit binary data at a rate of

0·1 Mbps using raised cosine pulses. Determine the roll-off factor. 4
7. a) What is Nyquist criterion for Inter-symbol interference?
b) What are the limitations of ideal solution and how it can be solved with the help of Raised

Cosine Function?

c) Write a short note on zero forcing equalizer. 5+5+ 5

8. a) With neat block diagram, explain the generation & reception of Delta Modulation (DM).

b) What are the limitations of DM? How these can be solved?


c) For a sinusoidal signal (A cos t), find the condition for no slope overload, if step size is &
sampling period is Ts. 6 + (3 + 2) + 4
9. Write short notes on any three of the following: 3X5

a) Matched filter

b) Adaptive delta modulator

c) Pulse time modulation

d) Regenerative repeater

e) Eye pattern.
10. Write short notes on any three of the following: 3  5

a) Adaptive delta modulation


b) Tapped delay equalizer
c) Companding
d) Differential encoding.
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11. Show that for a full-scale sinusoidal modulating signal with amplitude A in a PCM system, the
Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

output signal to quantizing ratio in dB is given by 1 76 + 6.02n, where n is the number of bits
in encoder.
A compact disc (CD) recording system samples each of the two stereo signals with a 16-bit
analog to digital converter at 44·1 kHz. Determine the output signal to quantization noise ratio
for full-scale sinusoid. The bit stream of digitized data is augmented by the addition of error
correcting bits, clock extraction bits, and display and control bit fields. These additional bits
represent 100% overhead. Determine the output bit rate of the CD recording system. If the CD
can record an hours’ worth of music determine the No. of bits record on a CD. 8 + 7
12. With neat block diagram, explain the generation & reception of Delta Modulation (DM).
6
What are the limitations of DM? How these can be solved? 3 + 2
For a sinusoidal signal (A cos t), find the condition for no slope overload, if step size is ∆ &
sampling period is Ts. 4
13. Draw the block diagram of a QPSK transmitter and receiver and explain the generation of QPSK
signal. Show its State Space Representation.
Compare the bandwidth and probability of error of 16 MPSK with QASK.
List the advantages and disadvantages of DPSK Modulation technique. 2+5+2+3+3
14. Compare the bandwidth efficiency of a BPSK system and a QPSK system. Compare QPSK and
OQPSK systems with respect to the following factors: 3+3  4 = 15
i) Timing diagram
ii) I - Q diagram
iii) Non-linearity handling capability

15. a) Draw ASK, FSK, PSK signals to transmit data stream 1111000111.
b) With the help of block diagram and waveforms, explain QPSK scheme and derive an
expression for probability of error Pe for this scheme. 7 + 8

16. With neat block diagram. Explain the generation & detection of the BFSK
signal.6
Define line coding. Write the properties of line coding. 1 + 4
A BPSK modulator has the carrier frequency 70 MHz and input bit rate is 10
Mbps. Determine the maximum and minimum frequencies of the modulated
signal. 4
17. a) List the advantages and disadvantages of DPSK technique. 2 + 2
With suitable block diagram, explain the working principle of QPSK
transmitter and receiver. Sketch its state space diagram. 4 + 4 + 1
What are the drawbacks of MSK technique? 2
18. Draw & explain the working of QPSK modulator and demodulator. 5
What are the advantages and disadvantages of DPSK modulation? 5
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Compare the performance of QPSK and DPSK modulation schemes. 5
Question Bank for DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (EC501)

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