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Code : PHY442

Course : Introductory Physics Lab

STUDENT LAB GUIDES

WEEK HOURS CONTENTS


1 3 Explaining the relevance and execution of past observational,
testing, and application experiments in the development of physics
knowledge in areas of mechanics, thermodynamics, electricity,
magnetism and optics

3 Group activities and presentations:

a) [Group 1]
How do we know the speed of light is finite and its value in
vacuum is 2.99792458  108 m/s?
 Describe and explain the development of experiments
that led to this important knowledge in physics.

b) [Group 2]
How do we know that the “average” acceleration due to the
gravity of the earth is 9.80665 m/s2?
 Describe and explain the development of experiments
that led to the above value of g.
 Explain the variation of g with respect of the latitude and
altitude of the location as well as the meaning of the
word “average” to the value of g.

c) [Group 3]
How do we know the following thermal properties of water?
Specific heat of water at 15C = 4186 J/kg-C
Latent heat of fusion = 3.33  105 J/kg
Latent heat of vaporization = 2.26  106 J/kg
 Describe and explain the experiments that led to the
above accepted values for water.

d) [Group 4]
How do we know that the charge of an electron is
1.602176487  10-19 C and its mass is 9.10938291  1031
kg?
 Explain the origin of the two types of electrical charges
& their basic interaction.
 Describe and explain the development of experiments
that led to the latest values of significant figures for the

1
charge and mass of an electron.

e) [Group 5]
How do we know that the intensity of the earth magnetic field is
between 25,000 and 65,000 nT (0.25 – 0.65 G)?
 Describe and explain the variation of the earth magnetic
field.
 Describe and explain the experiments that led to the
current accepted values of the earth magnetic field.

f) [Group 6]
How do we know that light is a form of electromagnetic
radiation?
 Describe and explain Hertz experiments that verified
the prediction of Maxwell that light waves are a form of
electromagnetic radiation.
 Explain Hertz’s experiment for generating and detecting
electromagnetic waves.
 Explain Hertz’s discovery that the wave is travelling
close to 3  108 m/s.

2 3 1.0 Introduction to Physical Measurement and Data Analysis

Discussion and exercises:


 Uncertainty, precision, accuracy and significant figures.
 Graphs - data representation, linearization, and information
extraction.
Phet Simulations: Equation Grapher, Curve Fitting, Calculus
Grapher.

Test: Test of Understanding Graphs – Kinematics [TUG-K]

3  Principles, handling, and data of measuring instruments.

Length – metre rule, vernier caliper, micrometer


Mass – triple beam balance, electronic balance
Time – stop watch
Electric current – ammeter, multimeter (digital and analog)
Voltage – voltmeter, multimeter, (digital and analog),
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO)

3 3 Group Presentations of Assignments in week 1


(a), (b), (c)

3 (d), (e), (f)

2
4 3 Expt 1: Density of substances

Determine the density of a given solid and liquid.


 Carry out the experiment by using the measuring
instruments available in the lab.
 Perform the experiment, tabulate and analyse the data with
the uncertainty analysis, and write the conclusion.
 Hand in the written report at the end of the lab period.

The solid could be a glass block, a metal block, a piece of wire, or


any solids available in the lab. The liquid could be water, glycerine,
or other reasonable liquids in the lab.

Note: The schematic diagram of the experiment, apparatus,


procedures, data tabulation and analysis should be recorded in the
Lab Notebook/Logbook/Journal.

[Refer to PHY430 - Lab 1 available on the web or other resources]

3 Expt 2:(a) Uniformly accelerated motion

Perform an experiment to determine the acceleration due to gravity


by using linear air tract apparatus in the lab.

[Refer to PHY430 - Lab 2 available on the web or other resources]

5 3 Expt 2 (b) Simple pendulum

Determine the relationship between the period (T) of a simple


pendulum to

(i) the mass of the pendulum bob (m).


(ii) the angle of the oscillation of the pendulum ().
(iii) the length of the pendulum (L).

Determine the acceleration due to gravity (g) from the equation that
relates T and L.
[Refer to PHY430 - Lab 4 available on the web or other resources]

The above experiment can be done by using the physical

3
apparatus available in the lab or the PhET simulations on
Pendulum available in the web.

By taking data from PhET simulations on Pendulum, show that the


acceleration due to the gravity of the moon is one-sixth of the value
1
of the earth, 𝑔𝑚𝑜𝑜𝑛 = 6 𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ .

3 Expt 3: (a) The Force Table


(b) The Atwood Machine

PhET Simulations: Forces in 1 Dimension; Forces and Motion; The


Ramp; Ramp: Forces and Motion; Gravity Force Lab.

[Either experiment, part (a) or (b) can be done physically depending


on the availability of apparatus and time constraints or perform
simulation experiments]

Youtube resources are available for Force Table and The Atwood’s
Machine experiments.

6 3 Expt 4: Conservation of Linear Momentum

PhET Simulations: Collision Lab.

[This experiment could be done by using linear air tract or by


simulations]

3 Expt 5: (a) Archimedes’ Principle

Carry out an experiment that provides a direct proof of Archimedes’


Principle.

(b) Bernoulli Equation

Carry out an experiment that verify Bernoulli’s Equation.

PhET Simulations: Density; Under Pressure; Fluid


Pressure and Flow; Balloons and Buoyancy; Buoyancy

[Suggestion: some groups carry out Expt 5(a) while the rest
perform 5(b) if there is a time constraint]

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7 Expt 6: (a) Mechanical equivalent of heat
(b) Specific Heat
(c) Latent Heat

Perform an experiment
3 (a) to show the mechanical equivalent of heat.
3 (b) to determine the specific heat of a given metal and liquid.
(c) to determine the latent heat of fusion of ice and latent heat of
vaporization of water.

PhET Simulations: Gas Properties; States of Matter: Basics; States


of Matter.

8 3 Expt 7: (a) Batteries, Bulbs, and Wires

Light up a given bulb by using a battery and a piece of wire.

Explain
(i) the arrangement of the battery, wire, and bulb that light
up the bulb.
(ii) the mechanisms that light up the bulb in terms of the
energy, electric potential difference, electrons, electric
current, and electric field.
(iii) the transformations of energy that take place when the
bulb lights up.

3 (b) DC Series and Parallel Circuits

PhET Simulations: Circuit Construction Kit (AC & DC) Virtual


Lab; Battery-Resistor Circuit; Battery Voltage; Conductivity;
Capacitor Lab; Ohm’s Law.

9 3 CRO – basic operating principle


3 - parts & functions
- basic experiments – charging & discharging of
capacitor
Youtube resources.

5
10 3 Expt 7: (c) Capacitors and RC Circuits

(d) AC Currents and Voltages


3
(e) LRC Circuits

Youtube resources.
Phet Simulations.

11 3 Expt 8: (a) Force between Two Parallel Current-Carrying


Wires

3 (b) Earth Magnetic Field

PhET Simulations: Magnets and Compass; Magnets and


Electromagnetism

Youtube resources.

12 3 Expt 9: (a) Geometrical Optics – Lenses & Mirror

3 (b) Diffraction & Diffraction Grating

PhET Simulations: Bending Light; Geometrical Optics.

Youtube resources.

13 3 Presentation of Expt 1, 2, 3,4,5

3 Presentation of Expt 6, 7, 8, 9
14 3 Interview / Test
3 Interview / Test