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COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIALS

Sector:
ELECTRONICS
Qualification:
COMPUTER SYSTEMS SERVICING NC II
Unit of Competency:
TEST ELCTRONIC COMPONENTS
Module Title:
TESTING ELCTRONIC COMPONENTS
HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL (CBLM)

Welcome to the competency-based learning material for the module: Test


Electronic Components. This module contains training materials and activities
for you to accomplish.
The unit of competency “Test Electronic Components”, contains the
knowledge, skills and attitudes required for Computer Hardware Servicing NC
Level II.
You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to
complete each learning outcomes of the module. In each learning outcome, there
are reference materials or instructional sheets for further reading to help you
better understand the required activities. Follow the activities at your own pace
and answer the self-check at the end of each learning outcome. If you have
questions, please feel free to ask for the assistance of your trainer/facilitator.

RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING (RPL)

You may have some or most of the knowledge and skills included in this
learner’s guide because you have:
Been working in the same industry for some time.
Already completed training in this area.
If you can demonstrate to your trainer that you are competent in a
particular skill, you don’t have to do the same training again.
If you feel that you have some skills, talk to your trainer about having them
formally recognized. If you have a qualification or certificate of competence from
previous trainings, show them to your trainer. If the skills you acquired are still
current and relevant to the unit of competency, they may become part of the
evidence you can present for RPL. If you are not sure about the currency of your
skills, discuss this with your trainer.
A Trainee Record Book (TRB) is given to you to record important dates, jobs
undertaken and other workplace events that will assist you in providing further
details to your trainer/assessor. A Record of Achievement/Progress Chart is also
provided to your trainer to complete/accomplish once you have completed the
module. This will show your own progress.
DIRECTION FOR USE OF THE CBLM

This module was prepared to help you achieve the required competency:
Test Electronic Components. This will be the source of information for you to
acquire the knowledge and skills in this particular module with minimum
supervision or help from your trainer. With the aid of this material, you will
acquire the competency independently and at your own pace.
Talk to your trainer and agree on how you will both organize the training of
this unit. Read through the module carefully. It is divided into sections which
covers all the skills and knowledge you need to successfully complete in this
module.
Work through all the information and complete the activities in each section.
Do what is asked in the INSTRUCTIONAL SHEET ( TASK SHEET, OPERATION
SHEET, JOB SHEET ) and complete the SELF-CHECK. Suggested references are
included to supplement the materials provided in this module.
Most probably, your trainer will also be your supervisor or manager. He is
there to support you and show you the correct way to do things. Ask for help.
Your trainer will tell you about the important things you need to consider
when you are completing activities and it is important that you listen and take
notes.
You will be given plenty of opportunities to ask questions and practice on
the job. Make sure you practice your new skills during regular work shifts. This
way, you will improve both your speed and memory and also your confidence.
Talk to more experienced workmates and ask for their guidance.
Use the self-check questions at the end of each section to test your own
progress.
When you are ready, ask your trainer to watch you perform the activities
outlined in the module.
As you work through the activities, ask for written feedback on your
progress. Your trainer gives feedback/pre-assessment reports for this reason.
When you have successfully completed each element or learning outcome, ask
your trainer to mark on the reports that you are ready for assessment.
When you have completed this module (several modules) and feel confident
that you have had sufficient practice, your trainer will arrange an appointment to
qualified trainer to assess/evaluate you. The result of your
assessment/evaluation will be recorded in your COMPETENCY ACHIEVEMENT
RECORD.
SUMMARY OF COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIALS

No. Unit of Competency Module Title Code

Apply quality standards Applying quality


1. ICT315202
standards

Perform computer operations Performing computer


2. ICT311201
operations

Perform mensuration and Performing mensuration


3. ELC311201
calculation and calculation

Prepare and interpret technical Preparing and interpret


4. ELC311202
drawing technical drawing

5. Use hand tools Using hand tools ELC724201

Terminating and
Terminate and connect electrical connecting electrical
6. ELC724202
wiring and electronic circuits wiring and electronic
circuits

Test Electronic
7. Test Electronic Components ELC724205
Components
MODULE CONTENT

QUALIFICATION COMPUTER SYSTEMS SERVICING NC II

UNIT OF
Test Electronic Components
COMPETENCY

MODULE TITLE Testing Electronic Components

INTRODUCTION:
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to test electronic
components. It includes competencies in determining the criteria for testing electronics
components, planning an approach for component testing, testing the components and
evaluating the testing process.
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
1. Determine criteria for testing electronics
2. Plan an approach for component testing
3. Test components
4. Evaluate the testing process
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
1. Work instructions are obtained and clarified based on job order or client
Requirements
2. Responsible person is consulted for effective and proper work coordination
3. Data sheets/Application notes are obtained and interpreted based on
manufacturer’s specifications
4. Testing criteria are defined to ensure that components meet technical and
quality requirements.
5. Document and communicate testing criteria to relevant personnel

PREREQUISITE: NONE
LEARNING OUTCOME SUMMARY

LEARNING
Determine criteria for testing electronics components
OUTCOME #1

CONTENTS:
 Conversion of Units
 Knowledge in 5s application and observation of required timeframe
 Knowledge of proper handling and disposal of chemicals
 Identifying sources of electricity
 Work efficiently & systematically
 Skills in testing electronic components
 Observing waveform using oscilloscope.
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
1. Work instruction obtained and work carried out in accordance with standard
operating procedures.
2. Received materials checked against workplace standards and specifications.
3. Faulty materials related to work are identified and isolated
4. Faults and any identified causes recorded and or reported to the supervisor
concerned in accordance with workplace procedures
5. Faulty materials are replaced in accordance with workplace procedures
CONDITION:
The students/trainees must be provided with the following:
 Manuals
 Tools and equipment (see range of variables)
 Working area/bench
 Electronics components
 Testing instruments and equipment
 Assessment rating sheet
 Reporting forms.
EVALUATION METHOD:
 Hands-on
 Direct observation
 Practical demonstration
Learning Experiences

1. Learning Outcome 1: Determine criteria for testing electronics

Learning Activities Special Instructions


1. Read Information Sheet If you have doubt/verifications regarding the
7.1-1 Conversion of data on the information sheet 7.1-1, you
Units may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
done with this activity.
2. Answer Self-Check for Compare answers with the answer key 7.1-
7.1-1 1. You are required to get all answers
correct. If not, read the information sheet
7.1-1 again to answer all questions
correctly.
3. Read Information Sheet If you have doubt/verifications regarding the
7.1-2 Knowledge in 5S data on the information sheet 7.1-2, you
application and may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
observation of required done with this activity
timeframe
4. Answer Self-Check for Compare answers with the answer key 7.1-
7.1-2 2. You are required to get all answers
correct. If not, read the information sheet
1.1-2 again to answer all questions
correctly.
5. Read Information Sheet If you have doubt/verifications regarding the
7.1-3 Knowledge of data on the information sheet 7.1-3, you
proper handling and may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
disposal of chemicals done with this activity
6. Answer Self-Check for Compare answers with the answer key 7.1-
7.1-3 3. You are required to get all answers
correct. If not, read the information sheet
7.1-3 again to answer all questions
correctly.
7. Read Information Sheet If you have doubt/verifications regarding the
7.1-4 Identifying source data on the information sheet 7.1-4, you
of electricity may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
done with this activity

8. Answer Self-Check for If you have doubt/verifications regarding the


7.1-4 data on the information sheet 7.1-4, you
4may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
done with this activity
9. Read Information Sheet If you have doubt/verifications regarding the
7.1.5 Work efficiently & data on the information sheet 7.1-5, you
systematically may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
done with this activity
8. Answer Self-Check 7.1-5 Compare answers with the answer key 7.1-
5. You are required to get all answers
correct. If not, read the information sheet
7.1-5 again to answer all questions
correctly.
9. Read Information Sheet
If you have doubt/verifications regarding the
7.1-6 Skills in Testing data on the information sheet 7.1-6, you
electronic components may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
done with this activity
10. Answer Self-Check Compare answers with the answer key 7.1-
7.1-6 6. You are required to get all answers
correct. If not, read the information sheet
7.1-6 again to answer all questions
correctly.
11. Read Information If you have doubt/verifications regarding the
Sheet 7.1-7 Observing data on the information sheet 7.1-7, you
waveform using
may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
osciloscope done with this activity
12. Answer Self-Check Compare answers with the answer key 7.1-
7.1-7 7. You are required to get all answers
correct. If not, read the information sheet
7.1-7 again to answer all questions
correctly.

After doing all activities of this LO, you


are ready to proceed to the next LO.
INFORMATION SHEET 7.1-1

READING SKILLS REQUIRED TO CONVERSION OF UNITS

Learning Objectives: After reading this information you must be able to


1. understand the conversion units
2. compute the units
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-2
WORKPLACE STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS

What is a standard?
"Standards and specifications are documents that stipulate or recommend
1) minimum levels of performance and quality of goods and services, and 2)
optimal conditions and procedures for operations in science, industry, and
commerce, including production, evaluation, distribution, and utilization of
materials, products, and services.
Types of standards:
 Category, type, dimension, structure, equipment, quality, grade,
component, performance, durability, or safety
 Methods of manufacturing, methods of designing, methods of drawing,
methods of using, or methods of operation of safety condition of
production
 Methods of testing, analyzing, appraising, verifying, or measuring
 Terms, abbreviations, symbols, marks, preferred numbers, or units
 Design, methods of execution, or safety conditions

What are some points to remember when using standards?


 Some standards are government-mandated, and others are voluntary.
There may be various penalties associated with not adhering to the
standard.
 Standards are updated frequently to keep pace with changing
technology -- check to see if the standard you are using is the latest
version.
 Older, superseded versions of standards may be useful in many cases,
such as legal disputes concerning the performance of a product that
was manufactured when the older standard was in force. The
Engineering Library DOES NOT maintain historical or superseded
standards.
What is a specification?
Specifications are concise statements of requirements for materials,
products or services that are to be purchased by an industry or government
agency. Specifications are limited to a specific project or government agency.
Standards are specifications that are recognized as the most practical and
appropriate current solution, that is agreed upon by a recognized authority, for a
recurring problem.

Employer or Employer Representative at the Workplace

The employer (in an industrial establishment) or the constructor (on a


construction project), has very important responsibilities for the workplace. This
responsibility cannot be delegated or conferred to another party by a similar
process. In the case of students who are not paid, ideally the employer should:
 be aware that the student will be in the workplace and know what
type of work they will be undertaking
 ensure that the student is protected by job-appropriate safeguards
 ensure that appropriate personal protective equipment is identified
and used In small workplaces, the employer may also be the
supervisor and will have to be present for the placement assessment.
In larger workplaces, the employer may ask another company
representative or the supervisor towork with you through this process.

INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-3


PROCEDURES IN OBTAINING AND CARRYING OUT WORK
INSTRUCTIONS
FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS
Follow instructions. This sounds easy enough. It isn't. For some people, it's
the key to most of their academic problems. They read or hear one set of
instructions, but their teacher has given different instructions.
Some students deliberately ignore instructions. They "wing it." They think
they can scrape by, doing any old thing they choose. They're wrong. But they
refuse to change.
It doesn't matter how good a job you do if you do the wrong job. You're going
to get a bad grade.
Doing a job well begins with understanding exactly what the job is.
Start paying attention to instructions. That's where to begin your program of
self-improvement.

SETTING UP OR INSTALLING A PRINTER IN MICROSOFT WINDOWS.


ISSUE

Setting up or installing a printer in Microsoft Windows.

Solution

There are two different methods a user can install a printer in Microsoft
Windows. Below is additional information about each of these methods
listed in the order we believe a user should try installing their printer in
Microsoft Windows.
Before being able to install your printer you must have the software that was
included with the printer. If you've lost the software for your printer you can
download the drivers for your printer and use the drivers to install your
printer. A listing of printer manufacturers and links to their associated
drivers pages can be found on our printer drivers page.

Setup a printer using printer software

Every printer should come with the software used to install a printer in
Windows. Although not all installations are the same the steps for installing
this software should be similar to the below steps.

1. Connect the printer to the computer and a power outlet and make sure
it's on.
2. Insert the CD that was included with the printer. If the CD does not
automatically start the install program open My Computer, double-click
on the CD drive, and then the Setup or Install file.
3. Follow the installation wizard and your printer and its associated
software should be installed successfully.

Installing a printer only using the drivers

In addition to the above steps a users can install a printer in Windows only
using the printer drivers. This is recommended if you only want the printer
to be installed but not the additional printer software programs that are
often included with the installation and you've download drivers.
A listing of printer drivers and software downloads can be found through
our printer drivers page.

Note: if you've installed the printer doing the above steps these steps should
not be necessary unless you encountered errors.

1. Connect the printer to the computer and a power outlet and make sure
it's on.
2. Click Start, Settings, and Control Panel.
3. In the control panel double-click the Printers or Printers and Fax icon.
4. In the Printers window click the Add a printer icon.
5. After completing the above steps the Windows Printer Wizard will appear.
Click Next, to start the wizard.
6. Windows will prompt you if you're installing a Local or Network printer. If
the printer is connected to your computer choose Local printer attached
to this computer and click Next.
7. When prompted for the location of the drivers for the printer. Browse the
computer to the directory of your drivers or point it to the CD that was
included with your printer.

How to add new printer (Video)

Printer does not have power indicator

First, make sure that the printer is on. When a printer is on it should have
some light (usually green) indicating it's receiving power and is on.
If you do not have any indicator light make sure the printer is connected to
a working power outlet by verifying each end of the power cable. Next, press
the printer power button.
If after following the above steps your printer still cannot get a power status
indicator it's likely you're encountering a serious printer issue and we
suggest contacting the printer manufacturer for additional steps and
instructions on repair or replacement.

Cables not connected properly

1. Your printer should have two cables connected to it. The power cable
and the data cable, the power cable should have already been verified as
being connected if your printer has a power indicator light as mentioned
above. Make sure the data cable (parallel cable or USB cable) is also
connected from the printer to the computer.
Information Sheet 1.1.4
Quality Checking Procedures
Effective management checks are an important means of providing
assurance of the integrity and security of the benefit processes. They are also
useful in identifying training needs; indicating possible weaknesses in procedure
and ensuring the section meets its accuracy target set for Best Value Performance
Indicators purposes.

Methodology

The teacher will be the assessor. Students will be randomly assigned that
will: 1.) act as Quality Checker; 2.) responsible for monitoring and coordinating the
checking arrangements and; 3.) must generate reports when receiving the
equipments.

The Quality checker will record the date of receipt, name of the materials
purchased, quantity, official receipt number, signature of the person who bought
the materials and signed his name afterwards. The Quality checker will identify if
the materials are in good condition or damage and /or needing for replacements.
This will also be recorded on his report.

Feedback

Once the Quality checker has completed all the reports, the assessor will
check if the Quality Checker provides all the data needed in the report.

Example of Log Report (to be completed by the Quality checker)

Date Item Quality


O.R. # Quantity Signature
Received Name Checker

Example of Assessment of Materials Received (to be completed by the Quality checker)

Quality Checker: Date:


Total no. in Total no.
Item Name Comments
Good Condition of Errors

Procedure for testing and checking products


INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-5

FAULT IDENTIFICATION AND REPORTING


These are the things to be considered when:

A. Receiving Materials:

1. Match the packing slip to the items received and ensures that the
materials are destined on tour department.
2. That you are receiving the materials indicated on the purchase order with
regard to quantity and discount.
3. That the materials are in acceptable condition.
4. That terms regarding installation and/or set-up of equipment are met.

B. Receiving Reports

Whenever goods are received:

1. The person receiving the goods must document, using the


administrative software, that all goods were received for
each requisition before any payment can be made to the
vendor.

2. Any exceptions must be noted so that partial payments can


be processed or defective goods can be returned.

C. Return of Merchandise

When merchandise is received which is incomplete or defective, the supervisor will


return the materials to the supplier or to the store where it was bought and make
arrangements with the vendor for replacement.

D. Make an Inventory Report of the Materials

All materials received must be listed and be reported to monitor how many materials are
already on hand, purchased or damaged.
Information Sheet 1.1-6
Carry out work in accordance with policies and procedures

Carry out basic repairs to computer equipment by replacement of


modules/sub-assemblies
Unit Descriptor

This unit deals with the repair of computer equipment by replacement of


slot/plug connected modules/sub-assemblies. It encompasses safe working
practices, following written and oral instruction and procedures, basic testing
techniques, dismantling and assembling apparatus and disconnecting and
reconnecting components.

RANGE STATEMENT

This relates to the unit as a whole providing the range of contexts and
conditions to which the performance criteria apply. It allows for different work
environments and situations that will affect performance. This unit shall be
demonstrated in relation to carrying out repairs to personal computers and
servers. The repairs shall be limited to:
 Replacement of at least three slot/plug connected modules/sub-
assemblies having different functions and in which the fault has been
previously established, and
 Repair to broken wires/ribbon cable to industry standards, that may
include, minor soldering
Note:
1. Examples of Modules include self contained hardware components
such as motherboards, memory cards storage devices
2. Examples of Sub-assemblies include collections of integrated
components that may form part of a module that are designed to be
replaceable for servicing, such as the component part of a hard drive
module or motherboard.

Using Software

As stated earlier software is anything created and/or stored on a computer or


computer storage device (like a disk). The work that is produced using an
application or program is also software and is usually referred to as a file or a
document.

Files & Documents

Once you have typed or created a new document or file on your computer, you will
have to decide what to do with it. You could print it right away using a Print
command and then Exit or Quit your program without saving it, but most of the
time you will want to Save your document for future use.
The computer saves its information on a disk, most often the hard disk, and the
users determines where and when the file or document is saved.

Folders & Directories

On the disk are directories or collection of folders. These


directories or folders could be compared to a filing cabinet. All
files are stored in a directory. Most hard disks have many
directories or folders and files can be stored in any of them.

Directories can have sub-directories and sub-sub-directories


many levels down. The directory immediately below the current directory is called
the child directory. The directory immediately above the current one is called the
parent directory. The top of the directory structure is called the root directory.

When a user adds or installs a new program on the computer the installation
process will usually create a new directory or folder to store the application's files.

Users can create and delete directories or folders as the need arises. Older
operating systems require that the directory be emptied of files before it can be
deleted. When removing a directory always check before deleting it to make sure
that it doesn't contain files you need.

You can easily move files from one folder or directory to another using menu
commands, drag & drop using the mouse or a file utility. It is important to
understand your computer's directory structure as a file can be misplaced if it
is saved in the wrong directory.

One of the main problems new users have is creating a filing system. Modern
operating systems address the 'filing problem' by automatically creating a (My)
Documents folder. By saving files or documents in this folder you will always
know where

Printing

The promise of a paperless office has not happened though conservation is


catching on and it is possible to reduce paper consumption by using your
computer more effectively. Having said that many computers are attached to
printers and there are many reasons to print out documents that you create on
your computer. Most software programs and applications allow the user to print
the information that is created in the program.

When choosing a printer consider the peripheral equipment that you will need as
well as the actual printer. Peripherals include paper, ribbons or ink cartridges,
toner and occasionally print heads.

You may have to adjust some of the settings for the printer to get the output you
want. Density adjustments determine how much ink is placed on the paper or
how many dots per inch (DPI). Draft quality will printer quicker but creates a
fainter copy (less dense). Modern Software has a Preview option which show what
the page will look like when it is printed. Portrait prints the document up and
down. Landscape prints the document on it's side. Most software allows the user
to adjust the margin width or the blank space at the top, bottom, left and right
edge of the paper.
LEARNING OUTCOME SUMMARY

Assess Own Work


LEARNING
OUTCOME #2

CONTENTS:
 Communication skills needed to interpret and apply defined work procedures
 Identifying errors (deviation from customer and or organization requirements)

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
1. Documentation relative to quality within the company identified and used
2. Completed work checked against workplace standards and specifications
3. Errors are identified and isolated
4. Information on the quality and other indicators of production procedures recorded
in accordance with workplace procedures
5. In cases of deviation from specific quality standards, causes documented and
reported in accordance with the workplace’s standard operating procedures.

CONDITION:
The students/trainees must be provided with the following:
 Organization work procedures
 Manufacturer’s Instruction Manual
 Customer requirements
 Other forms

EVALUATION METHOD:
 Hands-on
 Direct observation
 Practical demonstration

Learning Experiences

Learning Outcome 2
ASSESS OWN WORK
Learning Activities Special Instructions
1. Read Information Sheet If you have doubt/verifications regarding the
1.2-1 Communication data on the information sheet 1.2-1, you
Skills Needed To may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
Interpret And Apply done with this activity.
Defined Work Procedures
2. Answer Self-Check for Compare answers with the answer key 1.2-
1.2-1 1. You are required to get all answers
correct. If not, read the information sheet
1.2-1 again to answer all questions
correctly.
3. Read Information Sheet If you have doubt/verifications regarding the
1.2-2 data on the information sheet 1.2-2, you
Indentifying Errors may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
(Deviation From Customer done with this activity.
And Or Organization
Requirements)

4. Answer Self-Check 1.2-2 Compare answers with the answer key 1.2-
2. You are required to get all answers
correct. If not, read the information sheet
1.2-2 again to answer all questions
correctly.

After doing all activities of this LO, you


are ready to proceed to the next LO.
Information Sheet 1.2-1
COMMUNICATION SKILLS NEEDED TO INTERPRET AND APPLY
DEFINED WORK PROCEDURES

Communication Skills in the Workplace


Employers Talk Back
By Nancy Martin-Young
Wake Technical Community College

Fifteen years ago, the typical college graduate looked forward to a 9 to


5 job with a detailed job description. That employee expected a long work
history with the same employer and a pension waiting upon retirement.
Today, business and industry are downsizing and reengineering. Businesses
are trying to increase productivity while decreasing costs, so many U. S.
companies are shrinking staffs. One worker now does the work of many.
Middle management is shrinking, as is the assembly line mentality, which
has been replaced by JIT (Just In Time product management). Job
descriptions today are flexible. And with the tremendous changes occurring
in technology, employees are constantly required to gain new skills to keep
up. Most companies have training programs; for example, Robin Suess, the
Human Resources Manager at IBM in Raleigh, reports that IBM spends over
$6 million on education by using local programs and universities in the
Triangle. Companies with limited time and finances for training turn to us,
the educators, to help train employees in the skills they need to obtain and
maintain employment.

In 1950, the majority of jobs (60%) were for unskilled workers—those


with a high school diploma or less. Skilled workers comprised another 20%
of the labor market demand, and the professional category made up the last
20%. By 1991, we can see a shift. The professional category remained
consistent at 20% of the workplace demand. But skilled workers, those
requiring less than a baccalaureate degree but more than a high school
degree, climbed to 45% of the labor market. Predictions for the year 2000
show this trend continuing: 65% of the labor market will be for skilled
workers. So all students, especially the 75% who will not go on to a 4-year
degree, need training.

Today business and industry leaders are looking for specific skills in
entry-level employees. The current workplace trend in education helps to
teach those skills, based on the competencies established for all workers by
the U.S. Department of Labor. In particular, today's workers need
communication skills: oral, written, and technological.
We can trace the current emphasis on education's responsibility to train
students for the workplace to the 1980's. Think back to that decade.
America was rebounding from an economic slump. Competition with other
countries was reflected in slogans like "buy American" and movies like Gung
Ho. A disturbing series of reports on weak workplace skills grabbed the
attention of educators and the government. One of the first reports of that
decade, as explained by a recent article by Donovan and Schneider in
Technology and Learning, was the 1983 publication of A Nation at Risk. In
1984, a report called The Unfinished Agenda was published by the National
Commission on Secondary Vocational Education. That report proposed
reform that involved both theory and application. It also called for an
assurance of workplace relevance in academic courses. Another book with a
big impact came out in 1985, when Parnell published The Neglected
Majority. This book spotlights the plight of the ignored majority of high
school students who are headed neither for college nor for vocational
training. In his book, Parnell proposes the "2 + 2" approach: 2 years of
specialized high school training and 2 years in a Tech Prep Associate's
degree program (TPAD). By the late 1980's 34 state representatives reported
establishing a TPAD system. But the 2 + 2 approach was not widely
implemented. In 1989, George Bush and the state governors agreed to
educational reform goals. In April 1991, Bush called for World Class
Standards in Education the America 2000 program, readying the American
workplace for the next century. The U.S. Department of Labor, through the
Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills, gathered data from
employers across the nation and published lists of competencies and basic
skills required of all workers (SCANS Report—fig. 1 & 2). Eventually,
legislatures passed laws to award grant money to schools so they could
implement the 2 + 2 approach.

Schools need input from the workplace in order to develop articulation


agreements with business and industry and to establish curricula designed
to create a skilled workforce. To insure the changes are carried out, school
administrators must also secure the cooperation of the instructors, as
pointed out in a recent article by Bragg and Layton in the Community
College Review: "No educational reform effort can succeed if it does not have
the backing of those who will implement it." Departmental personnel should
be the ones to generate and evaluate competencies and to keep control over
course content, using industry consultants as catalysts for change. If
instructors are given this responsibility, they need to be informed about
competency-based education, the article continues.
But what do business leaders have to say about necessary skills? I spent
summer and fall 1995 finding out. I interviewed twenty employers in the
Raleigh-Durham area, all representing one of the technical clusters we offer
at Wake Tech: business management, engineering technology,
environmental and life science, human and social services, industrial
technology, marketing, and medical/health. I spoke mostly with human
resource managers, but also with site managers, vice presidents, recruiters,
communications experts, department heads, and technicians to identify the
communication skills and technical skills entry-level workers need. The
results of these interviews also mirror national trends reported in business
and trade magazines.

THREE MAIN SKILLS

Employers highlighted three skills needed by all workers: teamwork,


flexibility, and communication. Since many workplaces are currently
organized according to a matrix system, an employee no longer has a
specific job. Instead, his or her skills—especially in graphics, computers, or
oral presentations—make the worker a valued member of a team. These
three skills are essential for the matrix worker, since he or she must work
well with others and be able to switch easily from team to team, depending
on the project. Several companies stressed another employment factor: good
attendance. Some companies I visited had very strict attendance policies.
Tipper Tie in Apex, NC, which makes the aluminum clips that seal bags of
poultry, states that any employee in a 30-day period who is absent three
days, tardy three days, or any combination, is fired. Absences require a
doctor's excuse. The Capital City Club, an upscale private restaurant, fires
any employee who fails to show for three shifts. Some employers stressed
repeatedly that weak attendance policies in school are not helping to train
workers for the reality of work policies. A final quality many stressed was a
positive attitude in the interview and on the job. Most would not hire an
applicant who lacked enthusiasm.

WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

Oral communication is the mode of choice in most workplaces today;


the paper memo is dead, replaced by voice mail, informal conversation, and
sometimes E-mail or fax-mail. But two writing tasks still loom before the
entry level worker: Writing reports and filling out forms. For example, many
companies these days are seeking certification in a variety of world class
standard programs, like ISO or QS 9000, an automotive quality certification.
These certifications require extensive documentation. Workers have to fill
out reports that ask them to describe exactly what they do and how they do
it.
The service industries also fill out countless reports, such as service orders,
patient care reports, and lab reports. Some entry-level employees, like
administrative assistants, may be responsible for compiling or even
composing some parts of a formal report. The smaller the company, the
more likely that an administrative assistant may be asked to do such tasks.
Some companies also like to "grow their own" managers by extending such
responsibilities to entry-level personnel, encouraging them to accept the
challenge. At Atcom, a business telephone company, the HR says that 98%
of her employees
are promoted.

More often, the manager or executive will write the formal reports on
finances and planning. We have to remember that when our students are in
our classes, they are not just learning the skills they need for their first job.
They are gaining skills for a career. A clear, concise technical writing style
will always be an asset.

ORAL COMMUNICATION

We can see that employees still need written communication skills.


Yet interpersonal oral communication skills are the ones most prized by
employers in the new informal workplace atmosphere. Some employers, like
Raychem, even test technicians in their ability to follow oral directions.
Employees who work with the public or closely with teams need skills in
empathy and feedback techniques, especially in fields such as customer
service, criminal justice, medical, and legal. Critical thinking and the ability
to function as part of a problem-solving group are also skills that employers
look for. At IBM, for instance, the team members have to sell their ideas to
management to receive funding. At Buehler Products, engineers,
technicians, and even hourly employees make formal presentations to high-
level executives. Today's worker must remain cool under pressure,
adaptable to new technology and to a fast pace.

Many employers talk about the importance of "fitting in"; in fact, Dr.
David Day, a Penn State psychologist, is quoted by Psychology Today as
saying that there are practical implications for fitting in: "If there are
mismatches, productivity suffers." If a team must deliver solutions, the
members must be able to function effectively, relying on interpersonal
communication skills to get the job done. Some companies even test
employees to see if they will fit in and work within policies. Capital City Club
uses the Interact Series to test applicants. Many companies use personality
tests with managers and supervisors. The Cary Police Department, for
example, uses the Myers-Briggs with supervisors. McLaurin Parking uses
the Reid test to check for leniency tendencies.

Simple conversational skills are also important in the workplace.


Some employers mention telephone etiquette as an important skill. The
same annoyances we suffer from poor voice mail messages are cited by
employers, who hate to waste time tracking down a telephone number to
return a message.

The ability to interview to get important information is also a


necessary skill. Service people must interview clients to write a work order.
Legal secretaries who work for small firms often must interview witnesses.
Police officers gather details of crime, medical office personnel collect
information on insurance, and incorrect information may lead to trouble or
even litigation later on.

Entry-level employees are likely to deliver at least some formal


presentations. The most typical is leading tours. Often this task of leading
around groups of Cub Scouts or teachers falls to those lower on the roster,
although executives will lead tours for visiting dignitaries. Even large group
presentations are required of some entry-level people. Rookie police officers
are assigned DARE and Community Watch presentations. They will also
have to testify in court. A legal secretary may have to ask for a continuance
in a courtroom if an attorney is detained across town. An administrative
assistant is likely to serve as a greeter and introduce speakers at formal
functions.

We also must remember that workers join civic and professional


organizations, like CEI, where they are asked more often to participate in
formal presentations. And once again, we must remember that we are not
just preparing our students for their first job. We need to give them the oral
presentation skills they need to rise to management, where they will make
formal presentations on finance, for instance, or regularly conduct meetings.
(The average executive spends 500 hours a year in meetings.)
Oral presentation skills lead to promotions. At Buehler Products, those
willing to present proposals or recommend strategies are those who are
positioned for advancement. The HR there tells of a junior engineer he hired.
In five years, that worker had risen to production engineering manager.
How? He floated to the top because he demonstrated effective
communication skills, he stayed cool under pressure, and he delivered
strong presentations. He earned an extra $25,000 a year because of his
communication skills. At a local bank, managers noticed that a particular
teller was exceptionally good at explaining policies to customers, who often
requested her. She was promoted to trainer and a position that provided an
extra $10,000 a year and her own office upstairs. Communication skills are
essential for promotion. At the Cary Police Department, officers who do not
develop communication skills remain officers instead of moving up.

TECHNOLOGY

Written and oral communication skills are very important in today's


high-powered workplace, but employees must also be able to use modern
technology to communicate. The technologies most often used for
communication are voice mail, E-mail, fax, and word processing. The
employers surveyed preferred the Microsoft 3-pack of Excel, Word, and
PowerPoint, a preference that seems to mirror national trends. Business use
of CD-ROM and Internet is more restricted; in many companies, only certain
workstations have access to the Internet. The assumption is that employees
may waste time surfing. Some industries, such as automotive, store
specifications on CD-ROM. The medical and legal field also retrieve data
from ROM, so students in these programs need to be comfortable with CD-
ROM technology.

References:

http://www.nccei.org/newsletter/comskills.html
Information Sheet 1.2-2

INDENTIFYING ERRORS (DEVIATION FROM CUSTOMER AND OR


ORGANIZATION REQUIREMENTS)

How to Deal with Difficult Customer

Hopefully you won't encounter any difficult customers, but if you do, the following
guidelines are suggested.

What to Do When Encountering Difficult Customers:

a) Stay calm and courteous at all times.


b) Listen with understanding.
c) Focus on the problem, not the person.
d) Identify and target the problem.
e) Agree on the problem -- make sure the customer and you agree on what
the problem is.
f) Determine actions necessary to resolve the problem.
g) Determine if you are the person to resolve the problem.

If you're not the right person, assist connecting the customer to the
appropriate person. Make sure the customer gets connected.

h) Take necessary action.


i) Kindly apologize for the inconvenience, error, mistake, delay, defect, or
problem.

Let's look at a few sample scenarios to see how a difficult customer might be
effectively handled!

Example Scenario #1: Employee is able to resolve the problem.

Customer: Waiter! This isn't what I ordered! I ordered a pastrami on rye! And
I hate sprouts! What kind of @!&#! place is this?

Waiter: Yes, I see, sir. You ordered a pastrami, not a roast beef sandwich.
I'll get your correct order without sprouts right away.

Customer: I'm in a hurry! Speed it up!

Waiter: I'll be right back with your pastrami sandwich. (Waiter hurries off
to the cook and returns with the pastrami sandwich). I apologize for
the error and inconvenience. Is this sandwich okay?

Customer: Yeah. (grumbles)

Waiter: Can I get you anything else?

Customer: Yeah - more coffee.


Waiter: Right away, sir.

In this scenario, notice how the waiter: 1) remains calm and courteous at
all times, 2) identifies and verifies the problem, 3) takes quick and immediate
action, and 4) apologizes for the error and inconvenience. The waiter focuses on
the problem, not the person.

Example Scenario #2: Employee is unable to resolve the problem.

Customer: I need to return this blouse.

Clerk: Do you have the receipt?

Customer: No, my dog chewed it up.

Clerk: I'm sorry, but I need the receipt to give a refund.

Customer: I just bought it here last week! What kind of operation is this,
anyway? Is this any way to treat customers? Just give me a
#!@#&! refund!

Clerk: I can understand your frustration, but the company doesn't allow
me to take back return items without a receipt.

(Interpretation: It's the company's decision, not mine).

Customer: I DEMAND A REFUND!!! I'M NOT LEAVING UNTIL I GET MY


MONEY!

Clerk: I'm unable to help you, but let me have you speak with the assistant
manager. I'll be right back. (Clerk hurries off and returns). I'm
sorry, the assistant manager is out momentarily. I'll contact the
manager for you. (Clerk calls the manager, and the manager
arrives
to assist).

In this scenario, notice how the clerk: 1) remains calm and courteous, 2)
identifies the problem, 3) emphasizes it's the company's policy (not the clerk's),
4) seeks assistance, and 5) connects the customer to the appropriate person.

Just remember... stay calm and courteous!


LEARNING OUTCOME SUMMARY
LEARNING Validate One’s Work for Quality Improvement
OUTCOME #3

CONTENTS:
 Relevant production processes, materials and products
 Safety and environmental aspects of production processes
 Critical thinking
 Quality improvement processes

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
1. Process improvement procedures participated in relative to workplace
assignment
2. Work carried out in accordance with process improvement procedures
3. Performance of operation or quality of product of service to ensure customer
satisfaction monitored

CONDITION:
The students/trainees must be provided with the following:
 Organization work procedures
 Manufacturer’s Instruction Manual
 Customer requirements
 Other forms
EVALUATION METHOD:
 Hands-on
 Direct observation
 Practical demonstration

LEARNING EXPERIENCES

Learning Outcome 3
Engage in Quality Improvement

Learning Activities Special Instructions


1. Read Information Sheet If you have doubt/verifications regarding the
1.3-1 Relevant data on the information sheet 1.3-1, you
Production Processes, may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
Materials And Products done with this activity.
2. Answer Self-Check for Compare answers with the answer key 1.3-
1.3-1 1. You are required to get all answers
correct. If not, read the information sheet
1.3-1 again to answer all questions
correctly.

3. Read Information Sheet If you have doubt/verifications regarding the


1.3-2 Safety And data on the information sheet 1.1-1, you
Environment Aspects Of may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
Production Processes done with this activity.
4. Answer Self-Check for Compare answers with the answer key 1.3-
1.3-2 2. You are required to get all answers
correct. If not, read the information sheet
1.2-2 again to answer all questions
correctly.
5. Read Information Sheet If you have doubt/verifications regarding the
1.3-3 Critical Thinking data on the information sheet 1.3-3, you
may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
done with this activity.
6. Answer Self-Check for
Compare answers with the answer key 1.3-
1.3-3 3. You are required to get all answers
correct. If not, read the information sheet
1.3-3 again to answer all questions
correctly.
7. Read Information Sheet 1.3-4
If you have doubt/verifications regarding the
Fault Identification and
data on the information sheet 1.3-4, you
Reporting
may ask the trainer or co-trainees who are
done with this activity.
1. Answer Self-Check Compare answers with the answer key 1.3-
for 1.3-4 4. You are required to get all answers
correct. If not, read the information sheet
1.3-4 again to answer all questions
correctly.
Information Sheet 1.3-1

RELEVANT PRODUCTION PROCESSES, MATERIALS AND


PRODUCTS
Production process

The production process is concerned


with transforming a range of inputs
into those outputs that are required by
the market.

This involves two main sets of


resources - the transforming
resources, and the transformed
resources.

The transforming resources include the buildings, machinery, computers,


and people that carry out the transforming processes. The transformed
resources are the raw materials and components that are transformed into
end products. Any production process involves a series of links in a
production chain. At each stage value is added in the course of production.
Adding value involves making a product more desirable to a consumer so
that they will pay more for it. Adding value therefore is not just about
manufacturing, but includes the marketing process including advertising,
promotion and distribution that make the final product more desirable.

It is very important for businesses to identify the processes that add value,
so that they can enhance these processes to the ongoing benefit of the
business.

There are three main types of process: job, batch and flow production.

Job production

Job or \'make complete\' production is the creation of single items by either


one operative or a team of operative\'s e.g the Humber Bridge or a frigate for
the navy.

It is possible for a number of identical units to be produced in parallel under


job production, e.g. several frigates of asimilar type. Smaller projects can
also be seen as a form of job production, e.g. hand knitting a sweater,
writing a book, rewiring a house, etc.

Job production is unique in the fact that the project is considered to be a


single operation, which requires the complete attention of the operative
before he or she passes on to the next job. A good example of job production
is the work carried out by Portakabin in creating modular buildings such as
offices, which it designs, assembles and maintains for clients. Examples
from the service industries include cutting hair, and processing a
customers\' order in a store like Argos.

The benefits of job production are:

1. The job is a unique product, which exactly matches the requirements of the
customer, often from as early as the design stage. It will therefore tend to be
specific to a customer\'s order and not in anticipation of a sale. For
example, someone doing a customised spray paint job on a motorcycle will
first discuss with a customer the sort of design he would like. A detailed
sketch would then be produced on a piece of paper. Once the sketch has
been approved the back of the sketch will be chalked over and traced on to
the relevant piece of the motorbike. The background work is then sprayed
on with an airbrush before the fine detail is painted on. The finished work is
then inspected by the customer who will pay for a unique product.
2. As the work is concentrated on a specific unit, supervision and inspection of
work are relatively simple.
3. Specifications for the job can change during the course of production
depending upon the customer\'s inspection to meet his or her changing
needs. For example, when a printing firm like Polestar is asked to produce a
catalogue for a grocery chain it is relatively simple to change the prices of
some of the goods listed in the catalogue.
4. Working on a single unit job, coping with a variety of tasks and being part of
a small team working towards the same aim would provide employees with a
greater level of satisfaction. For example, aircrews working for United
Airways would treat each flight as a specific job, with passengers requiring
individual attention to their specific needs - e.g. for vegetarian dishes,
wheelchair access to the flight, etc.

Batch production

The term batch refers to a specific group of components, which go through a


production process together. As one batch finishes, the next one starts.For
example on Monday, Machine A produces a type 1 engine part, on Tuesday
it produces a type 2 engine part, on Wednesday a type 3 and so on. All
engine parts will then go forward to the final assembly of different categories
of engine parts.

Batches are continually processed through each machine before moving on


to the next operation. This method is sometimes referred to as
\'intermittent\' production as different job types are held as work-in-
progress between the various stages of production.

The benefits of batch production are: *

 It is particularly suitable for a wide range of almost similar goods, which can
use the same machinery on different settings. For example batches of letters
can be sent out to customers of an insurance company.
 It economises upon the range of machinery needed and reduces the need for
a flexible workforce.
 Units can respond quickly to customer orders by moving buffer stocks of
work-in-progress or partly completed products through the final production
stages.
 It makes possible economies of scale in techniques of production, bulk
purchasing and areas of organisation.
 It makes costing easy and provides a better information service for
management.

Flow production

 Batch production is described as \'intermittent\' production and is


characterised by irregularity. If the rest period in batch production
disappeared it would then become flow production. Flow production is
therefore a continuous process of parts and sub-assemblies passing on from
one stage to another until completion.

 Units are worked upon in each operation and then passed straight on to the
next work stage without waiting for the batch to be completed. To make sure
that the production line can work smoothly each operation must be of
standard lengths and there should be no movements or leakages from the
line, i.e. hold-ups to work-in-progress.For flow production to be successful
there needs to be a continuity of demand. If demand varied, this could lead
to aconstant overstocking of finished goods.

 Although with modern robotics it is possible to create variations in products


being produced through continuous flow techniques, typically such
products will be relatively standardised. Achieving a smooth flow of
production requires considerable pre-production planning to make sure that
raw materials are purchased and delivered just-in-time, that sufficient
labour is employed and that there is continuous attention to quality
throughout the production process.

The benefits of flow production are:

 ease of using just-in-time techniques to eliminate waste and minimise costs


 labour and other production costs will be reduced through detailed planning
and the use of robotics and automation
 deviations in the line can be quickly spotted through ongoing quality control
techniques
 as there is no rest between operations, work-in-progress levels can be kept
low
 the need for storage space is minimal
 the physical handling of items is minimal
 investment in raw materials and parts are quickly converted into sales
control is easy.

Resources:
http://www.thetimes100.co.uk

Information Sheet 1.3-2

SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION


PROCESSES
Health and Safety

Health and Safety is crucial to the effective operation of a


computer. Stress is widely accepted as a common and
possibly the most dangerous aspect of using a computer.

It is possible to use a computer safely if a few simple rules are


maintained.

Musculoskelatal problems can occur when improper office equipment is used. Chairs should be
adjustable so that legs are at a right angle. The back should have good support for the spine and
lower back. The seat should swivel and be made from fabric that is porous.

Eye strain can be caused by staring at a fix object for extended periods of time (like a computer).
People who use glasses may have to get their prescriptions changed and people who use bifocals can
find that the line interferes with the screen and trifocals triple the problem. Regular users of
computers may develop focusing problems. Temporary colour distortion has also been reported.
A safe working environment is crucial. Ventilation is an integral part of the new technological
workplace. Though standards are set by the manufacturer of computer equipment the modern office
has many different pieces of equipment. All electronic equipment emit some level of
electromagnetic field which, on it's own, most likely isn't a concern but when combined with other
equipment can create hazardous working environments. Pregnant women should take extra care
when working around electromagnetic fields. Like any piece of equipment, computers should have
scheduled maintenance.

Stress is caused by many things including poor or inadequate training, monitoring, fear of new
technology, lack of control over work, physical problems, hardware problems causing delays, poor
layout of work space and the myriad of other problems that people experience that combine to create
stressful situations.

Time away from the computer during the work day is crucial! This gives the body a chance to
stretch and gives the eyes a chance to rest. Breaks should be scheduled and followed with great
discipline. Computers, even more so than television, have a mesmerizing effect on the user so that it
is easy to work right through breaks without noticing.

There are many other issues to be discussed around computer health and safety but it is important to
understand that there are problems and solutions to those problems that the user, administrator and
manager must address.Safety Precautions when Fixing or Assembling a Computer

There are lots of people out there who are


knowledgeable in handling computer hardware most
especially the inner workings of the tower. Aside from
knowing the parts and what they do, it is also just as
important to know how to install them correctly and
most importantly, safely. There are lots of ways to put
those parts in and out from your computer tower.
First and foremost, it is important to plan
ahead. What do you need to do? Are you installing
something or removing something? Usually, you will handle PCB (printed circuit
board) hardware such as the motherboard and graphics card. The first thing you
should do is to touch something metal (or something that conducts electricity
such as the case of the PC itself). Touching these circuit boards while you have
static electricity may damage those boards and may give you a little shock at that.
Now, every time you open up your PC tower and do some stuff inside, always
have ample lighting. You may hit something inside that could make your PC
inoperable or you may even get hurt so make sure you have enough light to see
everything inside. Ask someone to assist you if you can. Have them hold the
flashlight for you or something.
Before tinkering with the innards of your PC, make sure the power is off and
the power cord is unplugged. This may cause a short in your hardware especially
if you touch the parts with metals such as the screwdriver itself. This is to avoid
being electrocuted as well. Remember, power supplies are usually very powerful.

This is very common especially those who are doing it for the first time. The
next safety precaution is to use the right tools for the job. If you have a screw with
a cross head, use a Phillips screwdriver. Don't force the flat tip screwdriver. There
are possible dangers such as if you slip, your hand may hit the interior of the
tower and it may result to injuries. Plus, you'll be exerting unnecessary extra
effort.

Safety Precautions Before Building A PC


One should take precautions before building a PC. Before
you start building your desktop PC, there are a few safety
precautions you should consider.

You don't want to build your desktop PC and when it is time


to power it up for the first time it don't work as a result of a
burnt chip like your expensive CPU and RAM. So please
adhere to these PC building safety precautions.
Precautions To Take When Building Your Own PC

Static Electricity:

Your PC parts or peripherals are very


sensitive to static electricity. In your
toolkit there is an anti-static wrist strap you
should wear before handling any of your
desktop PC parts.
If you haven't got one I recommend you
purchase one here or at any of the
electronic stores in your town or city

As long as you building or repairing


your desktop computer you need to wear the anti-static strap and keep your self
grounded.

Making Connections:

Remember to completely turn off the power before connecting or disconnecting


cables and components in your PC. Apply gentle even pressure when connecting
cables and inserting cards onto the motherboard. Most connections are designed
to only be connected in one way, so if it doesn't fit take a look and make sure you
have it the right way round before you damage any parts.

Some devices have some tiny pins so try not bending or breaking them as they are
easily damaged. Read the installation manuals so you have a better overview
about how connections should be made.
Sharp Edges:

In your new desktop case you will come across some sharp edges. These sharp
edges can easily cut you like a razor if you are not careful. If you are not careful
when inserting your hands in some tight places you will certainly get cut or even
have a piece of flesh scrapped of your hands and cause bleeding. So be very
careful.
Electric Shocks:

Remember to always disconnect the power supply completely whenever you decide
to work inside your PC case. If you decide to replace a part or make any
connections inside your computer case, you need to disconnect completely from the mains
power or PSU (Power Supply Unit).

Never try to fix the Power Supply (PSU); they are not designed to be fixed by the user. Best
advice is to replace the PSU when it goes bad or don't work. You can purchase a PSU from
Newegg.com or any other online computer and electronic stores.

Antec Neo Power 500 500W Power Supply

Handling:

When handling your PC parts or devices be sure to be very careful as they are very
delicate items. Remember you paid for those parts, so handle them with due care.

Cleaning Your Computer Case:

At one point you will notice your case is getting dusty both inside and outside. The
outside can be wiped clean but the inside of the case, you need to be very careful.
Before you start cleaning the computer case make sure to turn off the PC and
unplug or disconnect the power unit completely. The best way to clean inside the
PC case is to use an Air Duster.

Memorex 32028026 12 oz. Canned Air Duster

Remove the case sides and use the Air Duster to blow out
the dust from inside the computer case. An Air Duster is
clean compressed air in a can. You can them from any of
the popular electronic stores or you can purchase an Air Duster by Clicking Here.

Warning: Never use a cloth or any liquids like detergents to clean any part of your
desktop PC.

Resources:
1. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1676152/safety_precautions_when_fixing_or_asse
mbling.html
2. http://www.squidoo.com/pc-building-precautions

Information Sheet 1.3-3

CRITICAL THINKING
What is Critical Thinking?
No one always acts purely objectively and rationally. We connive for selfish
interests. We gossip, boast, exaggerate, and equivocate. It is "only human" to wish
to validate our prior knowledge, to vindicate our prior decisions, or to sustain our
earlier beliefs. In the process of satisfying our ego, however, we can often deny
ourselves intellectual growth and opportunity. We may not always want to apply
critical thinking skills, but we should have those skills available to be employed
when needed.

Critical thinking includes a complex combination of skills. Among the main


characteristics are the following:

Rationality
We are thinking critically when we

 rely on reason rather than emotion,


 require evidence, ignore no known evidence, and follow evidence where it
leads, and
 are concerned more with finding the best explanation than being right
analyzing apparent confusion and asking questions.

Self-awareness
We are thinking critically when we

 weigh the influences of motives and bias, and


 recognize our own assumptions, prejudices, biases, or point of view.

Honesty
We are thinking critically when we recognize emotional impulses, selfish motives,
nefarious purposes, or other modes of self-deception.
Open-mindedness
We are thinking critically when we

 evaluate all reasonable inferences


 consider a variety of possible viewpoints or perspectives,
 remain open to alternative interpretations
 accept a new explanation, model, or paradigm because it explains the
evidence better, is simpler, or has fewer inconsistencies or covers more data
 accept new priorities in response to a reevaluation of the evidence or
reassessment of our real interests, and
 do not reject unpopular views out of hand.

Discipline
We are thinking critically when we

 are precise, meticulous, comprehensive, and exhaustive


 resist manipulation and irrational appeals, and
 avoid snap judgments.
Judgment
We are thinking critically when we

 recognize the relevance and/or merit of alternative assumptions and


perspectives
 recognize the extent and weight of evidence

In sum,

 Critical thinkers are by natureskeptical. They approach texts with the same
skepticism and suspicion as they approach spoken remarks.
 Critical thinkers areactive, not passive. They ask questions and analyze.
They consciously apply tactics and strategies to uncover meaning or assure
their understanding.
 Critical thinkers do not take an egotistical view of the world. They areopento
new ideas and perspectives. They are willing to challenge their beliefs and
investigate competing evidence.

Critical thinking enables us to recognize a wide range of subjective analyses of


otherwise objective data, and to evaluate how well each analysis might meet our
needs. Facts may be facts, but how we interpret them may vary.

By contrast, passive, non-critical thinkers take a simplistic view of the world.

 They see things in black and white, as either-or, rather than recognizing a
variety of possible understanding.
 They see questions as yes or no with no subtleties.
 They fail to see linkages and complexities.
 They fail to recognize related elements.

Non-critical thinkers take an egotistical view of the world

 They taketheirfacts as the only relevant ones.


 They taketheir ownperspective as the only sensible one.
 They taketheir goalas the only valid one.
INFORMATION SHEET 1.3-4

Fault Identification and Reporting

These are the things to be considered when:

A. Receiving Materials:

1. Match the packing slip to the items received and ensures that the materials are
destined on tour department.

2. That you are receiving the materials indicated on the purchase order with regard to
quantity and discount.

3. That the materials are in acceptable condition.

4. That terms regarding installation and/or set-up of equipment are met.

B. Receiving Reports

Whenever goods are received:

3. The person receiving the goods must document, using the


administrative software, that all goods were received for each
requisition before any payment can be made to the vendor.

4. Any exceptions must be noted so that partial payments can


be processed or defective goods can be returned.

C. Return of Merchandise

When merchandise is received which is incomplete or defective, the supervisor will


return the materials to the supplier or to the store where it was bought and make
arrangements with the vendor for replacement.

D. Make an Inventory Report of the Materials

All materials received must be listed and be reported to monitor how many
materials are already on hand, purchased or damaged.

Effective management checks are an important means of providing assurance of the


integrity and security of the benefit processes. They are also useful in identifying training
needs; indicating possible weaknesses in procedure and ensuring the section meets its
accuracy target set for Best Value Performance Indicators purposes.
Methodology
The teacher will be the assessor. Students will be randomly assigned that will: 1.)
act as Quality Checker; 2.) responsible for monitoring and coordinating the checking
arrangements and; 3.) must generate reports when receiving the equipments.

The Quality checker will record the date of receipt, name of the materials
purchased, quantity, official receipt number, signature of the person who bought the
materials and signed his name afterwards. The Quality checker will identify if the
materials are in good condition or damage and /or needing for replacements. This will
also be recorded on his report.

Feedback

Once the Quality checker has completed all the reports, the assessor will check if
the Quality Checker provides all the data needed in the report.

Example of Log Report (to be completed by the Quality checker)

Date Item Quality


O.R. # Quantity Signature
Received Name Checker

Example of Assessment of Materials Received (to be completed by the Quality checker)

Quality Checker: Date:

Total no. in Total no.


Item Name Comments
Good Condition of Errors