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OPERATION AND

MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS

SiccaDania
EXTERNAL FLUID BED

Original Instructions

SDO 07-02 ENG


Version: 03
Date: 23 February 2018

SiccaDania A/S Info@siccadania.com


Pilehøj 18 P: +45 8882 6620
DK-3460 Birkerød www.siccadania.com
Denmark VAT No. 36058536
SDO 07-02 ENG VER: 03 DATE: 23 FEBRUARY 2018

CONTENTS

1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 7
1.1 Signal words and symbols ...................................................................................................... 7
1.2 SiccaDania contact information .............................................................................................. 8

2 Safety ................................................................................................................... 9
2.1 Personal protective equipment ............................................................................................... 9
2.2 Safety at installation ............................................................................................................... 9
2.3 Safety at decommissioning ..................................................................................................... 9

3 The SiccaDania external fluid bed ................................................................... 11


3.1 Directives and standards ...................................................................................................... 11
3.2 Nameplate ............................................................................................................................ 12
3.3 Technical data ...................................................................................................................... 12
3.4 Intended use ......................................................................................................................... 12
3.5 Limitations of use .................................................................................................................. 12
3.6 General process description ................................................................................................. 13
3.7 Parts ..................................................................................................................................... 14
3.7.1 Mechanical parts ................................................................................................... 14

4 Installation ......................................................................................................... 15
4.1 Unpacking ............................................................................................................................. 15
4.2 Lifting/Transporting ............................................................................................................... 15
4.3 Storage ................................................................................................................................. 15
4.4 Installation instructions ......................................................................................................... 15
4.5 Start-up after installation ....................................................................................................... 16

5 Operation ........................................................................................................... 19
5.1 Before start-up ...................................................................................................................... 19
5.2 Start-up ................................................................................................................................. 19
5.3 Operation .............................................................................................................................. 19
5.4 Stop ...................................................................................................................................... 20
5.4.1 Manual emptying of the external fluid bed ............................................................ 20
5.5 CIP cleaning ......................................................................................................................... 21

6 Maintenance ...................................................................................................... 23
6.1 Maintenance schedule .......................................................................................................... 23
6.2 Maintenance tasks ................................................................................................................ 23
6.2.1 Check the vibration of the external fluid bed ......................................................... 23
6.2.2 Check the condition of the flexible connections .................................................... 23
6.2.3 Check the condition of the manholes .................................................................... 24
6.2.4 Check the condition of the perforated plate and that no holes are blocked .......... 24
6.2.5 Check the functioning of the weirs including bushings and O-rings ..................... 24
6.2.6 Check the calibration of the instruments ............................................................... 25

7 Troubleshooting ................................................................................................ 27

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8 Spare parts ........................................................................................................ 29

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Nameplate .............................................................................................................................. 12
Figure 2: Spare parts for weir ................................................................................................................ 24

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1 INTRODUCTION

These operation and maintenance instructions contain information about the installation,
operation and maintenance of the SiccaDania external fluid bed (also referred to as EFB).

The instructions are intended for use by professional personnel and must be read and
understood by all personnel installing, operating and working on the SiccaDania external fluid
bed before installation and commissioning. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that these
instructions have been read and understood by all relevant personnel.

When reading these instructions, pay special attention to


NOTICE: chapter 2 “Safety” and to the individual safety instructions stated
in the various sections.

All personnel operating and working on the EFB should have


NOTICE: taken part in a training performed by SiccaDania A/S or a similar
training.

Training can be ordered from SiccaDania A/S. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that all
personnel operating and working on the EFB have received the appropriate training.

The operation and maintenance instructions are considered an integral part of the
SiccaDania external fluid bed and must be kept during the entire life of the fluid bed.
Furthermore, they must be easily available when needed by the operator or the
technical personnel.

The information contained in these instructions must neither be


NOTICE: reproduced nor passed on to a third party without the permission
of SiccaDania A/S.

1.1 Signal words and symbols

In these instructions, the following signal words and symbols are used to enhance information
to which special attention must be paid:

NOTICE: Indicates important information.

Indicates that special procedures must be followed in order to avoid


CAUTION:
damage to the unit or equipment.

Indicates that special procedures must be followed in order to avoid


WARNING:
personal injury.

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1.2 SiccaDania contact information

SiccaDania A/S
Pilehøj 18
DK-3460 Birkerød
Denmark
P: +45 8882 6620
info@siccadania.com
www.siccadania.com

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2 SAFETY

2.1 Personal protective equipment

It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the operators and the technical personnel have
been instructed in the use of the required personal protective equipment. Furthermore, it is the
user’s responsibility to ensure that the required personal protective equipment is at the
disposal of the operators and the technical personnel.

It is the user’s responsibility to instruct the operators and the technical personnel in possible
health hazards in connection with physical contact with the product being treated in the EFB.

2.2 Safety at installation

Electrical installation and repairs must be performed by a


licensed electrician. Furthermore, any electrical work on the
WARNING:
SiccaDania external fluid bed must be performed in accordance
with local standards and regulations.

If the EFB is equipped with explosion protection devices, these


WARNING: must be installed strictly in accordance with the instructions of
the supplier.

The EFB must be lifted as described in section 4.2 “Lifting/


NOTICE:
Transporting”.

If the EFB is of the vibrating type, it can be equipped with


NOTICE: transport brackets. These brackets must be dismounted after
the final installation and prior to starting the vibration motors.

2.3 Safety at decommissioning

Decommissioning of the SiccaDania external fluid bed must only be performed by qualified
personnel who will conduct the decommissioning in a safe manner and in accordance with
national regulations on occupational health and safety requirements.

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The disposal of the EFB must be conducted in accordance with the local environmental rules
and regulations. The external fluid bed mainly consists of stainless steel and insulation
materials. The stainless steel can be recycled while the insulation materials must be disposed
of in an environmentally safe manner in accordance with national rules and regulations for
waste disposal.

If the EFB is equipped with explosion protection devices, these


WARNING: must be decommissioned and disposed of by authorised
personnel only.

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3 THE SICCADANIA EXTERNAL FLUID BED

3.1 Directives and standards

The SiccaDania external fluid bed is partly completed machinery. The fluid bed is thus intended
to be incorporated into or assembled with other machinery or other partly completed machinery
or equipment in order to form machinery to which the Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC applies.

Besides the Machinery Directive, the SiccaDania external fluid bed complies with the
following EC directives, standards and regulations:

EN ISO 12100 Safety of machinery – General principles for design


– Risk assessment and risk reduction

EN 60204-1 Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines


– Part 1: General requirements

(EC) 1935/2004 Materials and articles intended to come into contact with food

The above references to EC directives, standards and regulations refer to the editions in effect
as of the year stated of the nameplate of the EFB (see section 3.2 “Nameplate”).

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3.2 Nameplate

The following nameplate is placed on the body of the SiccaDania external fluid bed:

Figure 1: Nameplate
The numbers in Figure 1 refer to: 1: Project number, 2: Year of manufacture and 3: Unit type.

The information stated on the nameplate of this specific external fluid bed appears from the
enclosed technical data sheet.

3.3 Technical data

Please see the enclosed technical data sheet for the external fluid bed.

3.4 Intended use

The SiccaDania external fluid bed must only be used for treatment of the products and the
capacity of the products stated in the “General Plant Information” found in book one of the
Operation and Maintenance Manual. The fluid bed is designed to operate at the process air
conditions stated in the “General Plant Information”. Furthermore, the fluid bed is designed to
operate at normal room conditions.

If the EFB is to be used for treatment of other products or other capacities of the products than
those described in the “General Plant Information” or at other air conditions than those for
which the fluid bed is originally commissioned, this must be approved by SiccaDania A/S in
advance.

3.5 Limitations of use

The design of the SiccaDania external fluid bed complies with the recognised technical safety
regulations. As regards functionality and operational reliability, the EFB has been designed
and optimised for the specific process.

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Safety devices may never be deactivated, dismantled or


WARNING:
modified.

The EFB may only be put into operation when it is in a technically perfect state. In general,
malfunctions which could constitute safety hazards must be remedied immediately.

Furthermore, the following limitations of use of the EFB must be observed:


• The chloride content of all liquids coming into contact with the stainless steel surfaces must
not exceed 50 ppm. Free chlorine must not be measurable
• If powder leaks out of e.g. manholes, cleaning doors or flexible connections, it must be
removed immediately

If you have any questions concerning the limitations of use of the SiccaDania external fluid
bed, please do not hesitate to contact SiccaDania A/S.

3.6 General process description

The design of the SiccaDania external fluid bed is based on more than 70 years of experience.
The fluid bed is made of stainless steel which has been treated to meet the GMP (Good
Manufacturing Practice) requirements regarding hygiene and sanitation.

The EFB can be an integrated part of a spray drying plant or it can be a stand-alone unit.

The intended purpose of the EFB is to:


• Further dry the product to the desired final powder moisture
• Dedust the powder by removing small fine particles from the product
• Cool the powder to the desired final powder temperature
• Transport the powder from the drying process to the sifting/powder handling
process

Optionally, the EFB can be used for:


• Agglomeration of the product by spraying e.g. lecithin or water onto the powder layer
• Colouring of the powder by spraying colour onto the powder layer
• Mixing different powders or adding ingredients to the product

The EFB is divided into a number of sections, typically 1-4 sections. Each section consists of
an air plenum and a product area divided by a perforated plate. Each section is divided by a
weir in order to ensure a well-defined holding time of the product in each section and thus
achieving the desired powder properties. The process air, at the required conditions with
regards to temperature and humidity, is led into the fluid bed from the bottom, thus
achieving a well-defined velocity in the air plenum and ensuring a good air distribution across
the perforated plate. The air passes through the directional oriented holes in the perforated
plate and enters the product area where fluidisation of the powder is achieved. Subsequently,
the air enters the upper part of the fluid bed, which is specially designed to allow only small

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particles to leave the fluid bed along with the spent air. The air and the small particles leave
the fluid bed through the air exhaust duct(s) situated at the top of the fluid bed.

The powder enters the fluid bed through the powder inlet chute placed at the front part of the
product area. Due to the evenly distributed process air, the powder is equally distributed across
the perforated plate area of the section in question and a fluidised powder layer is gradually
built up as more powder is introduced into the fluid bed. Once the powder layer reaches the
top of the weir, powder enters into the next section in which a powder layer is then gradually
established. When the powder reaches the end of the fluid bed, it falls over the last weir and
leaves the fluid bed through the powder exit chute.

The EFB can be equipped with the parts described in section 3.7 “Parts”

3.7 Parts

3.7.1 Mechanical parts

The EFB can be equipped with the following mechanical parts:


• Exchangeable weirs, either manually or automatically operated (optional)
• CIP spray nozzles built into the air plenum and the product area
• Fines return connections at the inlet and/or the outlet of the fluid bed

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4 INSTALLATION

4.1 Unpacking

Upon delivery, the shipment should be checked for damages and it should be checked that the
contents correspond to the contents stated on the packing list(s). In case of
transportation damages, a complaint should immediately be made to the forwarder in question.
In case of missing contents, contact SiccaDania A/S.

If SiccaDania A/S is in charge of the installation, it is


NOTICE: recommended that the shipment is not unpacked before the
SiccaDania personnel arrive.

4.2 Lifting/Transporting

The external fluid bed must be lifted in the transport brackets. It is important that the fluid bed
is well balanced before any lifting is carried out in order to prevent the fluid bed from slipping
or tipping. If straps are used, these must be suitable for the specific lifting purpose and for
lifting the entire load of the fluid bed including any pre-fitted components.

A sketch showing the main dimensions of the EFB with indication of the gravity point is issued
together with these instructions.

4.3 Storage

The equipment must be stored in accordance with the instructions on the packing.

Furthermore, the EFB must be stored under safe conditions so that it, or parts of it, cannot be
damaged by severe sunlight, frost or the like.

4.4 Installation instructions

The EFB must be installed as illustrated in the hole and load drawing provided by
SiccaDania A/S.

If the fluid bed is of the vibrating type, it must not be installed


CAUTION:
closer than 50 mm to other equipment or building parts.

The fluid bed must be levelled horizontally.

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The fluid bed and associated components must be installed as illustrated in the P&I diagram
and the layout drawings provided by SiccaDania A/S. If the fluid bed is equipped with CIP
nozzles, fire extinguishing nozzles and/or explosion protection devices, these must be installed
as advised by the supplier/SiccaDania A/S.

If the fluid bed is of the vibrating type, all electrical cables for the
motors, instruments etc. must be flexible and able to withstand
severe shaking.
CAUTION:

All connections must be earthed in order to avoid build-up of


static electricity.

4.5 Start-up after installation

Before the EFB is started up after installation it must be checked that:


• The installation has been performed in accordance with the P&I diagram, layout etc.
• The EFB has been fixed to the foundation
• The transport brackets have been removed (for vibrating fluid beds only)
• All components, instruments, CIP spray nozzles etc. have been fitted mechanically and
electrically as specified
• All flexible connections, gaskets etc. have been duly earthed in order to avoid static
electricity
• The perforated plate is undamaged and even. The holes are not blocked
• The EFB has been cleaned and all installation materials, plastic etc. have been removed
• All CIP piping has been made with the appropriate slope so that the CIP liquids can be
drained from the fluid bed or led into the fluid bed
• The fluid bed can vibrate without touching other equipment and the building (for vibrating
fluid beds only)

The EFB must be completely cleaned and all foreign matters must
be removed before process air is introduced to the
equipment. The initial test run must be carried out with the
manholes opened so that it can be checked that the air flows
CAUTION: freely through the perforated plate.

For vibrating fluid beds, the two vibration motors must rotate in
opposite direction of each other. It is not important whether the
motor direction is clockwise or anticlockwise.

During start and stop of the vibration motors, the fluid bed will shake severely for a few seconds
until the motors reach the desired frequency or stops.

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The EFB must not be operated when the lids of the vibrating
motors are dismounted.

WARNING:
Any fire extinguishing system and explosion protection systems
supplied with the fluid bed must be duly tested before product
is introduced into the fluid bed.

In general, the EFB must be deemed safe to start up.

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5 OPERATION

5.1 Before start-up

Before the external fluid bed is started up prior to production it must be checked that:
• The fluid bed is clean and dry
• The fluid bed equipment is in good condition (motors, flexible connections, manholes etc.)
• All manholes are securely closed
• The weirs are lowered onto the perforated plate
• The air supply system is in good condition and ready for start-up
• No alarms are present in the SCADA system related to the EFB
• No alarms appear in the fire extinguishing system and in the explosion protection system

The operation instructions for the entire plant must be followed


NOTICE:
with regard to manual interaction, monitoring and control.

5.2 Start-up

The air supply fans are started as described in the Functional Description and air is gradually
introduced into the EFB at the required temperature and humidity.

If a pressure control devise is installed, the controller is released and the regulating valve in
the air exhaust duct from the fluid bed maintains the desired pressure in the fluid bed. The fluid
bed is operated at a slight negative pressure. If the fluid bed is part of a spray drying plant, the
negative pressure in the fluid bed should be slightly lower than the negative pressure in the
drying chamber.

If the fluid bed is of the vibrating type, the vibration of the fluid bed is now started from the PLC.

The drying process is started and after a while, powder enters the fluid bed and a fluidised
powder layer (bed) is built up. Depending on the fluid bed size, it typically takes 10-30 minutes
from start of production, until fully fluidised beds are established in the fluid bed. It is typically
necessary to adjust the airflow slightly in order to ensure that the optimal fluidisation is
achieved without either blowing too much powder off or blocking the perforated plate.

5.3 Operation

Once the process is running smoothly and fluidised beds have been established in the fluid
bed, it is normally not necessary to interact. The process must be monitored from the PLC and
if the plant procedures allow, the fluidisation in the fluid bed can be inspected through the
openings installed in the product area of each section.

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Powder can be seen entering the fluid bed at the powder inlet chute and leaving the fluid bed
at the powder outlet chute through the transparent flexible connections.

The guidelines in chapter 7 “Troubleshooting” of these


NOTICE:
instructions must be followed.

5.4 Stop

At the end of production, the fluid bed must be emptied. This can be done either
manually, if the weirs are manually operated, or as part of the PLC program, if the weirs are
automatically operated. Emptying of the fluid bed takes place while the plant is running stable
on water, heating or running cold run as per the specific plant procedures.

Automatic emptying of the EFB will be set by the SiccaDania commissioning


engineer during start-up and will be part of the automatic PLC program.

5.4.1 Manual emptying of the external fluid bed

The external fluid bed is emptied manually as follows:

1. Gradually open the weir for the last section slightly for a few seconds in order to allow the
powder to enter into the fluid bed outlet

Make sure that the powder handling system downstream of the


CAUTION: EFB (e.g. the sifter) is not overloaded, as this is
typically not designed for a large increase in throughput.

2. Open the weir slightly several times gradually extending the duration until almost all powder
is removed from the last section

3. Open the weir fully

4. Repeat the operation for the next weir until the fluid bed is completely empty

Any remaining powder can be removed by blowing compressed air onto the perforated plate
in direction of the outlet.

If the fluid bed is of the vibrating type, the vibrations can be stopped when the EFB is empty.
When the fluid bed is completely stopped, the air supply system can be turned off.

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5.5 CIP cleaning

If the fluid bed is designed for treatment of dairy or food products, it will have an integrated CIP
(Cleaning In Place) function. In this case, a number of CIP spray nozzles are installed in both
the air plenum and the product area to provide a full CIP cleaning of all external fluid bed
surfaces.

The CIP cleaning of the EFB is an integrated part of the overall plant CIP system.

Before the CIP cleaning is started, the operator must prepare the fluid bed for CIP cleaning.
This is typically done as follows:

1. Disconnect the outlet chute from the downstream sifter/powder handling


system, as this is not part of the CIP system.

2. Connect the outlet chute to the specially supplied CIP return bowl from which the CIP liquid
returns to the CIP station

3. If the valves in the air supply system are manually operated, closed these valves in order
to ensure that no CIP liquid or vapour enters into the air supply system

4. If any powder lumps are present on the perforated plate, these must be removed manually,
as these might not be dissolved completely by the initial water rinse

5. Open the weirs approximately 50% and lock them so that both sides of the weirs can be
cleaned as well as the perforated plate below the weirs

6. Close all manholes securely

7. Check that all flexible connections are tight

8. If the EFB is equipped with an explosion suppression system, disarm this system as
described in the instructions from the supplier

The fluid bed is now ready for CIP cleaning.

During the CIP cleaning, all weirs must be operated in order to clean all surfaces.

The chloride content of all liquids coming into contact with the
CAUTION: stainless steel surfaces must not exceed 50 ppm. Free chlorine
must not be measurable.

After the CIP cleaning is completed, it must be checked that the EFB is entirely free from any
product residues. For practical reasons, the fluid bed can be checked after the water rinse has
been performed i.e. before chemicals are introduced.

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6 MAINTENANCE

6.1 Maintenance schedule

1 month

6 months

1 year
Maintenance task Comment

For vibrating
Check the vibration of the external fluid bed X
fluid beds only
For vibrating
Check the condition of the flexible connections X
fluid beds only
Check the condition of the manholes X
Check the condition of the perforated plate and that no And after each
X
holes are blocked CIP cleaning
Check the functioning of the weirs including bushings
X
and O-rings
Check the calibration of the instruments X

6.2 Maintenance tasks

Only original spare parts may be used. The use of non-original


NOTICE:
spare parts excludes all liability on the part of SiccaDania A/S.

6.2.1 Check the vibration of the external fluid bed

If the external fluid bed is of the vibrating type, it must be checked once a month that the fluid
bed vibrates as intended.

This is done as follows:

1. Check that the EFB vibrates evenly and consistently

2. Check that the powder is distributed evenly and that the process runs undisturbed

3. Check that there are no abnormal sounds from the fluid bed

6.2.2 Check the condition of the flexible connections

Once a month it must be checked visually, that all flexible connections are in good condition.

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6.2.3 Check the condition of the manholes

Once a month it must be checked visually, that the manholes are in good condition. Check that
the manholes close tightly to the frame. Furthermore, it must be checked that the gaskets are
clean and not damaged.

6.2.4 Check the condition of the perforated plate and that no holes are blocked

Once a month it must be checked that the perforated plate is in good condition. Furthermore,
it must be checked that no holes are blocked. This can be done by shining a torch through the
holes in the perforated plate from the air plenum side. A visual inspection of the perforated
plate should also be performed after each CIP cleaning.

6.2.5 Check the functioning of the weirs including bushings and O-rings

Figure 2: Spare parts for weir


The numbers in Figure 2 refer to: 1: O-ring Ø29.82 x 2.62 – VITON, 2: O-ring Ø24.99 x 3.53 – VITON,
3: Wear bushing – STD-07.03.00.021 and 4: Weir.

Once every 6 months it must be checked that the weirs (4 in Figure 2) can be operated freely.
Furthermore, it must be checked that the wear bushings (3 in Figure 2) are clean and that the
O-rings (1 and 2 in Figure 2) are not worn.

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6.2.6 Check the calibration of the instruments

Once a year it must be checked that the instruments of the external fluid bed are calibrated
correctly. These checks must be performed in accordance with the instructions from the
instrument suppliers.

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7 TROUBLESHOOTING

Problem: The powder does not fluidise but lies dead on the perforated plate.
Cause: Too little airflow prevents the powder from fluidising. This is either due to
too high powder stream or due to restrictions in the air supply e.g. caused
by blocked holes in the perforated plate. Sometimes small lumps are
formed in the fluid bed.
Remedy: Increase the airflow until the powder starts to fluidise. Once normal
operation is achieved, decrease the airflow to normal state. If small lumps
have been formed, open the weir(s) for a few seconds to remove these
lumps. Subsequently investigate the root cause. If this is not
possible, the production must be halted and it must be checked whether
restrictions in the air supply system and the air plenum prevent the air
from mixing with the powder. Check that no holes in the perforated plate
are blocked.

Problem: It is not possible to build up a fluidised layer, the powder blows away.
Cause: Too much airflow prevents the powder from remaining on the perforated
plate. This can also happen if the powder for some reason is lighter than
normal.
Remedy: Decrease the airflow until the powder starts to fluidise. Once normal
conditions have been established, investigate the root cause.

Problem: It is not possible to achieve the desired powder temperature.


Cause: The powder is warmer than intended or the cooling air temperature is too
high.
Remedy: Decrease the cooling air temperature until the desired powder
temperature has been reached. If this is not possible, check the drying
process and check the air supply cooling system. Check that the
temperature sensor is calibrated correctly.

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Problem: It is not possible to achieve the desired residual moisture level of the
powder.
Cause: Insufficient drying takes place either during the main drying process or in
the fluid bed.
Remedy: Increase the drying air temperature in the fluid bed until the desired
moisture content has been reached. Subsequently investigate the root
cause.

Problem: It is not possible to maintain a slight negative pressure in the fluid bed
despite the fact that the control valve is 100% open.
Cause: The fluidisation process is too severe and too much process air is
introduced into the fluid bed.
Remedy: Check the fluid bed process for any abnormal conditions and reduce the
airflows until normal conditions have been achieved. Investigate the root
cause and check that the control valve works as intended.

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8 SPARE PARTS

The original spare parts for the SiccaDania external fluid bed are stated in the spare parts
quotation situated in book one of the Operation and Maintenance Manual.

Only original spare parts may be used. The use of non-original


NOTICE:
spare parts excludes all liability on the part of SiccaDania A/S.

Spare parts can always be ordered from SiccaDania’s head office at the following address:

SiccaDania A/S
Pilehøj 18
DK-3460 Birkerød
Denmark
P: +45 8882 6620
info@siccadania.com
www.siccadania.com

Contact information on local SiccaDania representatives can be found on the website:


www.siccadania.com.

When ordering spare parts, please inform of the information stated about the part(s) in
question in the spare parts quotation.

If you need any assistance concerning ordering of spare parts, please do not hesitate to
contact SiccaDania A/S.

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SiccaDania A/S Info@siccadania.com
Pilehøj 18 P: +45 8882 6620
DK-3460 Birkerød www.siccadania.com
Denmark VAT No. 36058536